- United States Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency EPA Environmental Protection Agency logo Agency overview Formed December 2, 1970 Employees 17,384 (2010) Annual budget $10.486 billion (2010) Agency executive Lisa P. Jackson, Administrator Website epa.gov
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The EPA was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon submitted a reorganization plan to Congress and it was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the president and approved by Congress. The current administrator is Lisa P. Jackson. The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The agency has approximately 18,000 full-time employees.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 EPA offices
- 4 Related legislation
- 5 Programs
- 6 Research vessel
- 7 Advance identification
- 8 Controversies
- 9 List of EPA administrators
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The EPA employs 17,000 people in headquarters program offices, 10 regional offices, and 27 laboratories across the country. More than half of its staff are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other groups include legal, public affairs, financial, and computer specialists.
The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and Native American tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures.
The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
On July 9, 1970, citing rising concerns over environmental protection and conservation, President Richard Nixon transmitted Reorganization Plan No. 3 to the United States Congress by executive order, creating the EPA as a single, independent agency from a number of smaller arms of different federal agencies. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not structured to comprehensively regulate environmental pollutants.
- Office of Administration and Resources
- Office of Air and Radiation
- Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
- Office of Environmental Information
- Office of Environmental Justice
- Office of the Chief Financial Officer
- Office of General Counsel
- Office of Inspector General
- Office of International Affairs
- Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances
- Office of Research and Development
- Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
- Office of Water
- Office of Chemical Safety & Pollution Prevention
Each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for implementing the Agency's programs, except those programs that have been specifically delegated to states.
- Region 1 - responsible within the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
- Region 2 - responsible within the states of New Jersey and New York. It is also responsible for the US territories of Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
- Region 3 - responsible within the states of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia.
- Region 4 - responsible within the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.
- Region 5 - responsible within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
- Region 6 - responsible within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.
- Region 7 - responsible within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska.
- Region 8 - responsible within the states of Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.
- Region 9 - responsible within the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and the territories of Guam and American Samoa.
- Region 10 - responsible within the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
Each regional office also implements programs on Indian Tribal lands, except those programs delegated to Tribal authorities.
- 1955 - Air Pollution Control Act PL 84-159
- 1963 - Clean Air Act PL 88-206
- 1965 - Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act PL 89-272
- 1966 - Clean Air Act Amendments PL 89-675
- 1967 - Air Quality Act PL 90-148
- 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190
- 1970 - Clean Air Act Extension PL 91-604
- 1976 - Toxic Substances Control Act PL 94-469
- 1977 - Clean Air Act Amendments PL 95-95
- 1990 - Clean Air Act Amendments PL 101-549
- 1948 - Water Pollution Control Act PL 80-845
- 1965 - Water Quality Act PL 89-234
- 1966 - Clean Waters Restoration Act PL 89-753
- 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190
- 1970 - Water Quality Improvement Act PL 91-224
- 1972 - Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 PL 92-500
- 1974 - Safe Drinking Water Act PL 93-523
- 1976 - Toxic Substances Control Act PL 94-469
- 1977 - Clean Water Act PL 95-217
- 1987 - Water Quality Act PL 100-4
- 1996 - Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 PL 104-182
- 1947 - Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
- 1964 - Wilderness Act PL 88-577
- 1968 - Scenic Rivers Preservation Act PL 90-542
- 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190
- 1970 - Wilderness Act PL 91-504
- 1977 - Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act PL 95-87
- 1978 - Wilderness Act PL 98-625
- 1980 - Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act PL 96-487
- 1994 - California Desert Protection Act PL 103-433
- 1996 - Food Quality Protection Act
- 2010 - California Desert Protection Act
- 1946 - Coordination Act PL 79-732
- 1966 - Endangered Species Preservation Act PL 89-669
- 1969 - Endangered Species Conservation Act PL 91-135
- 1972 - Marine Mammal Protection Act PL 92-522
- 1973 - Endangered Species Act PL 93-205
- 1965 - Solid Waste Disposal Act PL 89-272
- 1969 - National Environmental Policy Act PL 91-190
- 1970 - Resource Recovery Act PL 91-512
- 1976 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act PL 94-580
- 1980 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ("Superfund") PL 96-510
- 1982 - Nuclear Waste Repository Act PL 97-425
- 1984 - Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments Act PL 98-616
- 1986 - Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act PL 99-499
- 2002 - Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act ("Brownfields Law") PL 107-118
In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program, a voluntary program that fosters energy efficiency.
EPA administers the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (which is much older than the agency) and registers all pesticides legally sold in the United States.
Environmental Impact Statement Review
Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative
Through the Safer Detergents Stewardship Initiative (SDSI), EPA's Design for the Environment (DfE) recognizes environmental leaders who voluntarily commit to the use of safer surfactants. Safer surfactants are the ones that break down quickly to non-polluting compounds and help protect aquatic life in both fresh and salt water. Nonylphenol ethoxylates, commonly referred to as NPEs, are an example of a surfactant class that does not meet the definition of a safer surfactant.
The Design for the Environment has identified safer alternative surfactants through partnerships with industry and environmental advocates. These safer alternatives are comparable in cost and are readily available. CleanGredients is a source of safer surfactants.
Manufacturers selling automobiles in the USA are required to provide EPA fuel economy test results for their vehicles and the manufacturers are not allowed to provide results from alternate sources. The fuel economy is calculated using the emissions data collected during two of the vehicle's Clean Air Act certification tests by measuring the total volume of carbon captured from the exhaust during the tests.
The current testing system was originally developed in 1972 and used driving cycles designed to simulate driving during rush-hour in Los Angeles during that era. Prior to 1984 the EPA reported the exact fuel economy figures calculated from the test. In 1984, the EPA began adjusting city (aka Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule or UDDS) results downward by 10% and highway (aka HighWay Fuel Economy Test or HWFET) results by 22% to compensate for changes in driving conditions since 1972 and to better correlate the EPA test results with real-world driving. In 1996, the EPA proposed updating the Federal Testing Procedures to add a new higher speed test (US06) and an air-conditioner on test (SC03) to further improve the correlation of fuel economy and emission estimates with real-world reports. The updated testing methodology was finalized in December, 2006 for implementation with model year 2008 vehicles and set the precedent of a 12 year review cycle for the test procedures.
In February 2005, the organization launched a program called "Your MPG" that allows drivers to add real-world fuel economy statistics into a database on the EPA's fuel economy website and compare them with others and the original EPA test results.
It is important to note that the EPA actually conducts these tests on very few vehicles. "While the public mistakenly presumes that this federal agency is hard at work conducting complicated tests on every new model of truck, van, car, and SUV, in reality, just 18 of the EPA’s 17,000 employees work in the automobile-testing department in Ann Arbor, Michigan, examining 200 to 250 vehicles a year, or roughly 15 percent of new models. As to that other 85 percent, the EPA takes automakers at their word—without any testing-accepting submitted results as accurate." Two-thirds of the vehicles the EPA tests themselves are selected randomly, and the remaining third are tested for specific reasons.
Although originally created as a reference point for fossil fuelled vehicles, driving cycles have been used for estimating how many miles an electric vehicle will do on a single charge.
The Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) is in the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) and provides leadership and direction on the full range of air quality models, air pollution dispersion models and other mathematical simulation techniques used in assessing pollution control strategies and the impacts of air pollution sources.
The AQMG serves as the focal point on air pollution modeling techniques for other EPA headquarters staff, EPA regional Offices, and State and local environmental agencies. It coordinates with the EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) on the development of new models and techniques, as well as wider issues of atmospheric research. Finally, the AQMG conducts modeling analyses to support the policy and regulatory decisions of the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS).
SPCC - Spill Prevention Containment and Counter Measures. Secondary Containment mandated at oil storage facilities. Oil release containment at oil development sites.
The WaterSense program is designed to encourage water efficiency through the use of a special label on consumer products. Products include high-efficiency toilets (HETs), bathroom sink faucets (and accessories), and irrigation equipment. WaterSense is a voluntary program, with EPA developing specifications for water-efficient products through a public process and product testing by independent laboratories. The program was launched in 2006.
EPA ensures safe drinking water for the public, by setting standards for more than 160,000 public water systems throughout the United States. EPA oversees states, local governments and water suppliers to enforce the standards, under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The program includes regulation of injection wells in order to protect underground sources of drinking water.
EPA has following seven groups of projects to protect public from nuclear contamination.
- Waste Management Programs
- Emergency Preparedness and Response Programs
- Protective Action Guide
- EPA developed the manual to provide guideline for local and state governments to protect public from nuclear accident.
- EPA Cleanup and Multi-Agency Programs
- Risk Assessment and Federal Guidance Programs
- Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials Program
- Air and Water Programs
- Radiation Source Reduction and Management
On March 3, 2004, the United States Navy transferred USNS Bold, a Stalwart class ocean surveillance ship, to the EPA, now known as OSV Bold. The ship previously used in anti-submarine operations during the Cold War, is equipped with sidescan sonar, underwater video, water and sediment sampling instruments, used in study of ocean and coastline. One of the major missions of Bold is to monitor sites where materials are dumped from dredging operations in U.S. ports for ecological impact.
Advance identification, or ADID, is a planning process used by the EPA to identify wetlands and other bodies of water and their respective suitability for the discharge of dredged and fill material. The EPA conducts the process in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and local states or Native American Tribes. As of February 1993, 38 ADID projects had been completed and 33 were ongoing.
Air quality standards review
Since its inception the EPA has begun to rely less and less on its scientists and more on non-science personnel. EPA has recently changed their policies regarding limits for ground-level ozone, particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and lead. New policies will minimize scientist interaction with the agency and rely more on policy makers who have minimal scientific knowledge. This new policy has been criticized by Democrats. On March 12, 2008, the federal government of the United States reported that the air in hundreds of U.S. counties was simply too dirty to breathe, ordering a multi-billion dollar expansion of efforts to clean up smog in cities and towns nationwide.
In July 2005, an EPA report showing that auto companies were using loopholes to produce less fuel-efficient cars was delayed. The report was supposed to be released the day before a controversial energy bill was passed and would have provided backup for those opposed to it, but at the last minute the EPA delayed its release.
The state of California sued the EPA for its refusal to allow California and 16 other states to raise fuel economy standards for new cars. EPA administrator Stephen L. Johnson claimed that the EPA was working on its own standards, but the move has been widely considered an attempt to shield the auto industry from environmental regulation by setting lower standards at the federal level, which would then preempt state laws. California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, along with governors from 13 other states, stated that the EPA's actions ignored federal law, and that existing California standards (adopted by many states in addition to California) were almost twice as effective as the proposed federal standards. It was reported that Stephen Johnson ignored his own staff in making this decision.
After the federal government bailed out General Motors and Chrysler in the Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010, the 2010 Chevrolet Equinox was released with EPA fuel economy rating abnormally higher than its competitors. Independent road tests found that both vehicle did not out-perform its competitors, which had much lower fuel economy ratings. Later road tests found better, but inconclusive, results.
In June 2005, a memo revealed that Philip Cooney, former chief of staff for the White House Council on Environmental Quality, and former lobbyist for the American Petroleum Institute, had personally edited documents, summarizing government research on climate change, before their release. Cooney resigned two days after the memo was published in The New York Times. Cooney said he had been planning to resign for over two years, implying the timing of his resignation was just a coincidence. Specifically, he said he had planned to resign to "spend time with his family." One week after resigning he took a job at Exxon Mobil in their public affairs department.
In December 2007, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson approved a draft of a document that declared that climate change imperiled the public welfare - a decision that would trigger the first national mandatory global-warming regulations. Associate Deputy Administrator Jason Burnett e-mailed the draft to the White House. White House aides - who had long resisted mandatory regulations as a way to address climate change - knew the gist of what Johnson's finding would be, Burnett said. They also knew that once they opened the attachment, it would become a public record, making it controversial and difficult to rescind. So they didn't open it; rather, they called Johnson and asked him to take back the draft. U.S. law clearly stated that the final decision was the EPA administrator's, not President Bush's. Johnson rescinded the draft; in July 2008, he issued a new version which did not state that global warming was danger to public welfare. Burnett resigned in protest.
Greenhouse gas emissions
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began regulating greenhouse gases (GHGs) from mobile and stationary sources of air pollution under the Clean Air Act (“CAA” or “Act”) for the first time on January 2, 2011. Standards for mobile sources have been established pursuant to Section 202 of the CAA, and GHGs from stationary sources are controlled under the authority of Part C of Title I of the Act. See the page Regulation of Greenhouse Gases Under the Clean Air Act for further information.
In 2004, the Agency began a strategic planning exercise to develop plans for a more virtual approach to library services. The effort was curtailed in July 2005 when the Agency proposed a $2.5 million cut in its 2007 budget for libraries. Based on the proposed 2007 budget, the EPA posted a notice to the Federal Register, September 20, 2006 that EPA Headquarters Library would close its doors to walk-in patrons and visitors on October 1, 2006. The EPA also closed some of its regional libraries and reduced hours in others, using the same FY 2007 proposed budget numbers.
In June 2011, the EPA Library Network published a strategic plan for fiscal years 2012-2014.
In March 2005, nine states (California, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, New Mexico and Vermont) sued the EPA. The EPA's inspector general had determined that the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions did not follow the Clean Air Act, and that the regulations were influenced by top political appointees. The EPA had suppressed a study it commissioned by Harvard University which contradicted its position on mercury controls. The suit alleges that the EPA's rule allowing exemption from "maximum available control technology" was illegal, and additionally charged that the EPA's system of pollution credit trading allows power plants to forego reducing mercury emissions. Several states also began to enact their own mercury emission regulations. Illinois's proposed rule would have reduced mercury emissions from power plants by an average of 90% by 2009.
9/11 air ratings
A report released by the Office of the Inspector General of the United States Environmental Protection Agency in August 2003 claimed that the White House put pressure on the EPA to delete cautionary information about the air quality in New York City around Ground Zero following the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Very fine airborne particulates
Tiny particles, under 2.5 micrometres, are attributed to health and mortality concerns, so some health advocates want the EPA to regulate it. The science may be in its infancy, although many conferences have discussed the trails of this airborne matter in the air. Foreign governments such as Australia and most EU States have addressed this issue.
The EPA first established standards in 1997, and strengthened them in 2006. As with other standards, regulation and enforcement of the PM2.5 standards is the responsibility of the state governments, through State Implementation Plans.
In April 2008, the Union of Concerned Scientists said that more than half of the nearly 1,600 EPA staff scientists who responded online to a detailed questionnaire reported they had experienced incidents of political interference in their work. The survey included chemists, toxicologists, engineers, geologists and experts in other fields of science. About 40% of the scientists reported that the interference has been more prevalent in the last five years compared to previous years. The highest number of complaints came from scientists who are involved in determining the risks of cancer by chemicals used in food and other aspects of everyday life.
The EPA has been criticized for its lack of progress towards environmental justice. Administrator Christine Todd Whitman was criticized for her changes to President Bill Clinton's Executive Order 12898 during 2001, removing the requirements for government agencies to take the poor and minority populations into special consideration when making changes to environmental legislation, and therefore defeating the spirit of the Executive Order. In a March 2004 report, the inspector general of the agency concluded that the EPA "has not developed a clear vision or a comprehensive strategic plan, and has not established values, goals, expectations, and performance measurements" for environmental justice in its daily operations. Another report in September 2006 found the agency still had failed to review the success of its programs, policies and activities towards environmental justice. Studies have also found that poor and minority populations were underserved by the EPA's Superfund program, and that this equity was worsening.
Barriers to enforcing environmental justice
Localization Many issues of environmental justice are localized, and are therefore hard to be addressed by federal agencies such as the EPA. Without significant media attention, political interest, or ‘crisis’ status, local issues are less likely to be addressed on local or federal level. With a still developing sector of environmental justice under the EPA, small, local incidents are unlikely to be solved compared to larger, well publicized incidents.
Conflicting political powers The White House maintains direct control over the EPA, and its enforcements are subject to the political agenda of who is in power. Republicans and Democrats differ in their approaches to, and perceived concerns of, environmental justice. While President Bill Clinton signed the executive order 12898, the Bush administration did not develop a clear plan or establish goals for integrating environmental justice into everyday practices, which in turn affected the motivation for environmental enforcement.
Responsibilities of the EPA The EPA is responsible for preventing and detecting environmental crimes, informing the public of environmental enforcement, and setting and monitoring standards of air pollution, water pollution, hazardous wastes and chemicals. While the EPA aids in preventing and identifying hazardous situations, it is hard to construct a specific mission statement given its wide range of responsibilities. It is impossible to address every environmental crime adequately or efficiently if there is no specific mission statement to refer to. The EPA answers to various groups, competes for resources, and confronts a wide array of harms to the environment. All of these present challenges, including a lack of resources, its self-policing policy, and a broadly defined legislation that creates too much discretion for EPA officers.
Authority of the EPA Under different circumstances, the EPA faces many limitations to enforcing environmental justice. It does not have the authority or resources to address injustices without an increase in federal mandates requiring private industries to consider the environmental ramifications of their activities.
List of EPA administrators
No. Administrator Picture Start of term End of term President(s) 1 William D. Ruckelshaus 1971 1973 Richard Nixon 2 Russell E. Train 1973 1977 Richard Nixon
3 Douglas M. Costle 1977 1981 Jimmy Carter 4 Anne M. Gorsuch (Burford) 1981 1983 Ronald Reagan 5 William D. Ruckelshaus 1983 1985 Ronald Reagan 6 Lee M. Thomas 1985 1989 Ronald Reagan 7 William K. Reilly 1989 1993 George H. W. Bush 8 Carol M. Browner 1993 2001 Bill Clinton 9 Christine Todd Whitman 2001 2003 George W. Bush 10 Michael O. Leavitt 2003 2005 George W. Bush 11 Stephen L. Johnson 2005 2009 George W. Bush 12 Lisa P. Jackson 2009 present Barack Obama
- Acid mine drainage
- Air dispersion modeling
- Air pollution
- American Heritage Rivers
- AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors
- Atmospheric dispersion modeling
- Brownfield land
- Energy law
- Environmental Technology Verification Program
- EPA Methods
- Federal On Scene Coordinator
- Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation)
- Green Sticker programs
- List of solid waste treatment technologies
- List of Superfund sites in the United States
- List of waste management companies
- List of waste management topics
- Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency
- Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training
- Regulatory Flexibility Act
- Renewable energy
- U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board
- U.S. Climate Change Science Program
- Watershed central
- Wise Use Movement
- ^ a b 2010 EPA Budget p. 5[dead link]
- ^ "Our Mission and What We Do". US EPA. http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/whatwedo.html. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- ^ "Public Access – When and how was the EPA Created?". U.S. EPA. http://publicaccess.supportportal.com/link/portal/23002/23012/Article/23723/When-and-how-was-the-EPA-created. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- ^ Joseph Kahn and Jim Yardley (August 26, 2007). "As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/26/world/asia/26china.html.
Also see U.S. Census Bureau spreadsheet
- ^ "EPA SDSI Home Page". Epa.gov. 2008-12-22. http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/projects/formulat/sdsi.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "CleanGredients Home Page". Cleangredients.org. http://www.cleangredients.org. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "Federal Test Procedure Revisions". 1996-10-22. http://www.epa.gov/OMS/sftp.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-03.
- ^ "EPA Fuel Economy". Epa.gov. http://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/420f06069.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "The Truth About EPA City / Highway MPG Estimates". 2009-08. http://www.caranddriver.com/features/09q3/the_truth_about_epa_city_highway_mpg_estimates-feature. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- ^ Previous post Next post. "Honda Finds EVs a Perfect Fit | Autopia". Wired.com. http://www.wired.com/autopia/2010/11/honda-finds-evs-a-perfect-fit. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X. www.crcpress.com
- ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Air-dispersion.com
- ^ EPA. "WaterSense."
- ^ Radiation Protection Programs retrieved 2011-7-9
- ^ "EPA Protective Action Guides" (PDF). http://www.kdheks.gov/radiation/presentations/PAGs.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "About the OSV Bold". EPA. pp. EPA 842-F-05-004. http://www.epa.gov/owow/osvbold/brochure.html. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
- ^ "EPA > Wetlands > Wetlands Fact Sheet". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. http://www.epa.gov/OWOW/wetlands/facts/fact28.html. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ C&E News, December 18, 2006, page 15
- ^ CNN, March 13, 2008[dead link]
- ^ Danny Hakim (July 28, 2005). "E.P.A. Holds Back Report on Car Fuel Efficiency". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/28/business/28fuel.html.
- ^ Blog.Wired.com
- ^ "EPA Denies California Waiver". ABC. February 29, 2008. http://abclocal.go.com/kfsn/story?section=news/state&id=5980352.
- ^ Simon, Richard; Wilson, Janet (2007-12-20). "EPA denies California's right to mandate emissions". LATimes.com. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-epa20dec20,0,1603760.story?coll=la-home-center. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- ^ "Absurdity at the EPA: Denying California emissions plan a new low | News for Dallas, Texas | Dallas Morning News | Opinion: Editorials". The Dallas Morning News. 2008-01-01. http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/editorials/stories/DN-EPA_30edi.ART.State.Edition1.36bb1ef.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- ^ "Text of Letter from Gov. Schwarzenegger and 13 other Governors Regarding U.S. EPA’s Denial of California’s Tailpipe Emissions Waiver Request". Gov.ca.gov. http://gov.ca.gov/press-release/8596/. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- ^ Wilson, Janet (2007-12-21). "EPA chief is said to have ignored staff". LATimes.com. http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/california/la-me-epa21dec21,0,7077099,full.story?coll=la-headlines-pe-california. Retrieved 2009-11-21.
- ^ "2010 Chevrolet Equinox LT2 Full Test and Video". Edmunds InsideLine. 2009-09-29. http://www.insideline.com/chevrolet/equinox/2010/2010-chevrolet-equinox-lt2-full-test-and-video.html. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
- ^ Jared Gall (August 2009). "2010 Chevrolet Equinox LT - Short Take Road Test". Car and Driver. http://www.caranddriver.com/reviews/car/09q3/2010_chevrolet_equinox_lt-short_take_road_test. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
- ^ John Voelcker (2009-10-27). "Drive Report: 26mpg in 2010 Chevrolet Equinox Four-Cylinder". GreenCarReports.com. http://www.greencarreports.com/blog/1037186_drive-report-26-mpg-in-2010-chevrolet-equinox-four-cylinder. Retrieved 2010-02-17.
- ^ "Why the Chevy Equinox EPA Mileage Numbers Don't Add Up". Thetruthaboutcars.com. http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/why-the-chevy-equinox-epa-mileage-numbers-dont-add-up/. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "2010 Chevrolet Equinox vs. 2011 Kia Sorento, Program #2939". Motorweek. 2010-05-28. http://www.mpt.org/motorweek/reviews/rt2939a.shtml. Retrieved 2010-07-06.
- ^ "REVIEW: 2010 CHEVROLET EQUINOX LT FWD". http://www.leftlanenews.com/chevrolet-equinox-review.html.
- ^ U.S. Official Edited Warming, Emission Link - Report, Reuters, June 8, 2005
- ^ White House Official Resigns After Climate Documents Flap, Agence France Presse, June 12, 2005
- ^ Ex-White House environment official joins Exxon, Reuters, June 15, 2005
- ^ John Shiffman and John Sullivan (December 7, 2008). "An Eroding Mission at EPA; The Bush administration has weakened the agency charged with safeguarding health and the environment". Philadelphia Inquirer. http://www.philly.com/inquirer/front_page/20081207_An_Eroding_Mission_at_EPA.html?viewAll=y.
- ^ "Notification of Closure of the EPA Headquarters Library" (pdf), September 20, 2006
- ^ Letter to Appropriations Committee, Interior and Related Agencies Subcommittee, June 29, 2006 (pdf), from leaders of 16 local EPA unions
- ^ EPA Newsbrief, October 1, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- ^ Proposed Mercury Rules Bear Industry Mark, Washington Post, January 31, 2004
- ^ EPA Inspector Finds Mercury Proposal Tainted, Washington Post, February 4, 2005
- ^ New EPA Mercury Rule Omits Conflicting Data, Washington Post, March 22, 2005
- ^ States Sue EPA Over Mercury Emissions, LA Times, March 30, 2005
- ^ Governor Blagojevich and Illinois EPA Propose Aggressive Mercury Controls For Illinois Power Plants, Environmental Progress, Spring 2006, page 12
- ^ "Reasons Why Particulate Matter (PM) Should be Included in EPA Settlements with Electric Utility Companies" (PDF). http://www.icac.com/files/public/PMreasons.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "PM Standards Revision - 2006 | Particulate Matter | Air & Radiation | US EPA". Epa.gov. http://www.epa.gov/oar/particlepollution/naaqsrev2006.html. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
- ^ "Meddling at EPA? Activists point to survey; Two thirds of 1,586 EPA scientists polled cite interference, UCS reports". Associated Press. April 23, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24276709/.
- ^ a b O’Neil, S. G. (2007). Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive Order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 115, Number 7, pgs 1087–1093
- ^ Bullard, Robert (2007-07-25). "Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Regarding Environmental Justice".
- ^ Bullard, Robert. Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice, and Regional Equity. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007
- ^ Rosenbaum, W. A. “Still reforming after all these years: George W. Bush’s new era’ at the EPA. Environmental Policy: New directions for the Twenty-first century. Washington DC: CQ Press, 2003
- ^ Burns, Ronald G. Michael J. Lynch, and Paul Stretesky. Environmental Law, Crime, and Justice. New York: LFB Scholarly publishing Inc, 2008
- ^ Environmental Justice Coalition (EJC). “Environmental Justice act of 2009.” Environmental Justice Coalition, 2008. EJ Coalition Online: Ejcoalition.Multiply.com
- United States Environmental Protection Agency, Official Website
- DotGovWatch.com, created using EPA's Toxic Release Inventory Map
- CLU-IN.org, Haz Waste Site Cleanup Information by US EPA Technology Innovation Program
- Sanjour.info, Collected Papers of William Sanjour a retired EPA employee and whistleblower
- Selected Digitized Environmental Protection Agency Records Available in the National Archives' Archival Research Catalog
- OpenRegs.com, Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the United States Environmental Protection Agency
- Air and Radiation, Partnership between EPA and Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) to prevent air pollution
- United States Environmental Protection Agency at WhoRunsGov at The Washington Post
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
United States Environmental Protection Agency — Agence de protection de l environnement des États Unis Pour les articles homonymes, voir Agence de protection de l environnement. Environmental Protection Agency … Wikipédia en Français
United States Environmental Protection Agency — Emblem der Environmental Protection Agency der USA Hauptsitz Die US Environmental Protection Agency oder kurz EPA bzw. USEPA ist eine Organisation der … Deutsch Wikipedia
Environmental Protection Agency — may refer to: *United States Environmental Protection Agency, an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment **California Environmental Protection Agency … Wikipedia
Environmental Protection Agency — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Agence de protection de l environnement. Environmental Protection Agency … Wikipédia en Français
Environmental protection agency — Agence de protection de l environnement des États Unis Pour les articles homonymes, voir Agence de protection de l environnement. Environmental Protection Agency … Wikipédia en Français
United States environmental law — In the United States, there are numerous environmental laws. Although they have diverse purposes, they all relate to the protection of the natural environment and other environments, which include the control of pollution and the protection of… … Wikipedia
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in December 1970 under United States President Richard Nixon. The EPA is an agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human and environmental health.… … Investment dictionary
Environmental Protection Agency — The US government agency founded to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment air, water, and land upon which life depends. The Environmental Protection Agency is known as the EPA. The EPA s stated purpose is to ensure that::… … Medical dictionary
Environmental Protection Agency — (abbr the EPA) a US government organization that establishes rules and standards for protecting the environment, e.g. against pollution. It was started in 1970. * * * ▪ United States government agency agency of the U.S. government that sets … Universalium
Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency — Supreme Court of the United States Argued November 29, 200 … Wikipedia