AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors

AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors

The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. In 1972, it was revised and issued as the second edition by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1985, the subsequent fourth edition was split into two volumes. Volume I includes stationary point and area source emission factors, and Volume II includes mobile source emission factors. Volume I is currently in its fifth edition and is available on the Internet. [ [http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/index.html AP 42, Volume I] ] Volume II is no longer maintained as such, but roadway air dispersion models for estimating emissions from onroad vehicles and from non-road vehicles and mobile equipment are also available on the Internet. [ [http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models.htm Mobile source emission models] ]

In routine common usage, Volume I of the emission factor compilation is very often referred to as simply AP 42.


Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that attempts to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.

The equation for the estimation of emissions before emission reduction controls are applied is:

:E = A × EF

and for emissions after reduction controls are applied:

:E = A × EF × (1-ER/100)

Emission factors are used by atmospheric dispersion modelers and others to determine the amount of air pollutants being emitted from sources within industrial facilities.

Chapters in AP 42, Volume I, Fifth Edition

Chapter 5, Section 5.1 "Petroleum Refining" discusses the air pollutant emissions from the equipment in the various refinery processing units as well as from the auxiliary steam-generating boilers, furnaces and engines, and Table 5.1.1 includes the pertinent emission factors. Table 5.1.2 includes the emission factors for the fugitive air pollutant emissions from the large wet cooling towers in refineries and from the oil/water separators used in treating refinery wastewater.

The fugitive air pollutant emission factors from relief valves, piping valves, open-ended piping lines or drains, piping flanges, sample connections, and seals on pump and compressor shafts are discussed and included the report EPA-458/R-95-017, "Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates" which is included in the Chapter 5 section of AP 42. That report includes the emission factors developed by the EPA for petroleum refineries and for the synthetic organic chemical industry (SOCMI).

In most cases, the emission factors in Chapter 5 are included for both "uncontrolled" conditions before emission reduction controls are implemented and "controlled" conditions after specified emission reduction methods are implemented.

Chapter 7 "Liquid Storage Tanks" is devoted to the methodology for calculating the emissions losses from the six basic tank designs used for organic liquid storage: fixed roof (vertical andhorizontal), external floating roof, domed external (or covered) floating roof, internal floating roof, variable vapor space, and pressure (low and high). The methodology in Chapter 7 was developed by the American Petroleum Institute in collaboration with the EPA.

The EPA has developed a software program named "TANKS" which performs the Chapter 7 methodology for calculating emission losses from storage tanks. The program's installer file along with a user manual, and the source code are available on the Internet. [ [http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/tanks/index.html#order TANK download site] ]

Chapters 5 and 7 discussed above are illustrative of the type of information contained in the other chapters of AP 42. It should also be noted that many of the fugitive emission factors in Chapter 5 and the emissions calculation methodology in Chapter 7 and the TANKS program also apply to many other industrial categories besides the petroleum industry.

Other sources of emission factors

* [http://www.naei.org.uk/emissions/index.php United Kingdom's emission factor database] .
* [http://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en European Environment Agency's 2005 Emission Inventory Guidebook] .
* [http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.htm Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (reference manual)] .
* [http://files.harc.edu/Projects/AirQuality/Projects/H005.2002/H5FinalReport.pdf Fugitive emissions leaks from ethylene and other chemical plants] .
* [http://www.npi.gov.au/handbooks/approved_handbooks/sector-manuals.html Australian National Pollutant Inventory Emissions Estimation Technique Manuals] .
* [http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/ghg/guidance/calcu_pro_e.cfm Canadian GHG Inventory Methodologies] .
* [http://ghg.api.org Sangea - American Petroleum Institute Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimation Methodologies] .
* [http://www.mining.ca/english/publications/Mining%20Strat_Guide_Pt_B1/index.html Mining Association Of Canada Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimation Methodologies] .

ee also

*Cement kiln emissions
*Emission factor


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Air pollution — from World War II production Smog over …   Wikipedia

  • Air pollution dispersion terminology — describes the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to those who work in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. Governmental environmental protection agencies (local, state, province and national) of many countries have… …   Wikipedia

  • Emission factor — An emission factor can be defined as the average emission rate of a given pollutant for a given source, relative to the intensity of a specific activity. Emission factors are used to derive estimates of air pollutant or greenhouse gas emissions… …   Wikipedia

  • Air Resources Laboratory — The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) is an air quality and climate laboratory in the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR) which is an operating unit within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). In October 2005, the …   Wikipedia

  • Air Quality Modeling Group — The Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) is in the U.S. EPA s Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) and provides leadership and direction on the full range of air quality models, air pollution dispersion models and other mathematical simulation… …   Wikipedia

  • United States emission standards — In the United States, emissions standards are managed on a national level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). State and local governments play a subsidiary role. Contents 1 Motor vehicles 1.1 Light duty vehicles 1.1.1 Phase 1 1994 1999 …   Wikipedia

  • US emission standard — In the United States, emissions standards are managed on a national level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). State and local governments play a subsidiary role. Motor vehicles Due to its pre existing standards and particularly severe… …   Wikipedia

  • South Coast Air Quality Management District — The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), formed in 1976, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for regulating stationary sources of air pollution for most of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside County, and all of… …   Wikipedia

  • Emissions trading — (or emission trading) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. It is sometimes called cap and trade.A central authority (usually a government …   Wikipedia

  • TA Luft — Germany has a well known air pollution control regulation entitled Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft) and commonly referred to as the TA Luft.… …   Wikipedia