Athens of the East — city — Coordinates Coordinates: Country India State Tamil Nadu District(s) Madurai district Mayor V. V. Rajan Chellappa Population
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30) Area
147.99 square kilometres (57.14 sq mi)
• 8 metres (26 ft)
Madurai (Tamil: மதுரை, [mɐd̪ɯrəj]; formerly Madura) is the third largest city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It served as the capital city of the Pandyan Kingdom. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District and is famous for its temples built by Pandyan and Madurai Nayak kings in the Dravidian style of architecture. It is also one of India's prominent Hindu pilgrimage centres.
Madurai's recorded history goes back to the 3rd century BC and the city is mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to India and Kautilya, the minister of the Mauryan Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. The city was the principal administrative and cultural centre of the Pandyan dynasty which ruled over the southern parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala till the first half of the 14th century AD. In about 1311, the Pandyan dynasty was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate which established the province of Ma'bar which later became independent as the Ma'bar Sultanate. When the Ma'bar Sultanate began to decline in the latter years of the 14th century, Madurai was absorbed into the Vijayanagar Empire. The viceroys of the Vijayanagar Empire established the Madurai Nayak kingdom and ruled as independent kings from 1559 to 1736. After a brief period of occupation by Chanda Sahib and the Carnatic kingdom, Madurai was annexed by the British East India Company in 1801.
The city has been variously referred to as "Madurai", "Naan maada Koodal", "Koodal Nagar", "Thirvalavai", and "Aalavai". Many theories have been suggested for the name of Madurai. Prominent among them is the one which traces the name to the Tamil word Madhura (Sweetness). Another popular theory is that the name is the derivation of the word Marutham, which refers both to a species of trees that grew on the banks of the River Vaigai and a type of landscape of the Sangam age. According to legend, the original city of Madurai, called Then Madurai (Madurai of South), was destroyed by a tsunami in ancient Kumari Kandam, after which the city moved inland to its present location. Apart from the current city, there is a town in the neighbouring Dindigul district called Vada Madurai (North Madurai) and another in Sivagangai district called Manamadurai. The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 17th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam (Thiruvalavai Maanmiyam) written by Paranjothi Munivar. One legend says that on the day the city was to be named, Shiva blessed the land and its people while divine nectar showered on the city from his matted locks. The city hence came to be known as Madhurapuri meaning The City of Divine Nectar. The legend is likely[original research?] a late tale attempting to Sanskritise the otherwise-Dravidian derivative of Madurai. Madurai is sometimes called Thoonga Nagaram (the city that never sleeps) because it has the appearance of operating twenty four hours a day. Unusually for India, a large number of the city's food outlets remain open well past midnight.
Madurai has a long and well recorded history. As early as the 3rd century BC, Megasthenes visited, the city being referred to as "Methora" in his accounts. The city is also mentioned in Kautilya's Arthashastra. Madurai has been described as the seat of the Pandyan Dynasty in Sangam literature (especially in Maturaikkāñci). The city is also described extensively in the 2nd-century CE epic Silapathikaram. The city was home to the third and last Tamil Sangam (between 300 BCE and 200 CE). Madurai finds mention in the works of Roman historians Pliny the Younger and Ptolemy and those of the Greek geographer Strabo. It is also mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
After the Sangam age, most of present day Tamil Nadu, including Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhras dynasty, who were ousted by the Pandyas around 550 CE. The Pandyas were in their turn removed from power by the Chola dynasty during the early 9th century. The city remained under control of the Cholas until the early 13th century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai as its capital. After the death of the last Pandyan ruler, Kulasekara Pandian, Madurai came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. The Madurai Sultanate, then seceded from Delhi and functioned as an independent kingdom till its destruction by the Vijayanagar Empire in 1378. Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 under the Nayaks. Nayak rule ended in 1736 and Madurai changed hands several times between Chanda Sahib, Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (Marudhanayagam) in the middle of the 18th century.
In 1801 the British East India Company took direct control of Madurai and brought it under the Madras Presidency. In 1837, the city was expanded to accommodate the growing population by demolishing the fortifications around the temple. This was done on the orders of the then collector John Blackburn. The moat was drained and the debris was used to construct the new streets - Veli, Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri streets. The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866.
Madurai played a role in the Indian independence movement. It was there that Gandhi made the decision to switch to wearing a loin cloth after seeing agricultural laborers wearing it. The independence movement in Madurai was led by leaders such as N. M. R. Subbaraman, Mohammad Ismail Sahib and Meer Niyamatullah Ibrahim Sahib. Post-independence, the city has expanded particularly to the north of river Vaigai by the development of new residential neighbourhoods like Anna Nagar and K. K. Nagar.
Geography and climate
Madurai Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D2030201432211835235537257037264036265036251043525119342418832241453023512921 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D0.886680.590700.795732.299772.899791.697791.996774.195774.793757.490755.7867328470 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches
Madurai is located at  Madurai city is situated at a distance of 498 kilometres (309 mi) south-west of Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu. It is situated at a distance of 161 kilometres (100 mi) from Tiruchirappalli, 367 kilometres (228 mi) from Coimbatore and 241 kilometres (150 mi) north of Kanniyakumari. It has an average elevation of 101 metres. The city of Madurai lies on the flat and fertile plain of the river Vaigai which runs in the north-south direction through the city dividing it almost into two equal halves. The Sirumalai and Nagamalai hills lie to the north and west of Madurai. The land in and around Madurai is utilized largely for agricultural activity which is fostered by the Periyar Dam.
The municipal corporation of Madurai has an area of 147.99 km2. The climate is dry and hot, with Northeast monsoon rains during October–December. Temperatures during summer reach a maximum of 40 and a minimum of 26.3 °C, though temperatures over 43 °C are not uncommon. Winter temperatures range between 29.6 and 18 °C. The average annual rainfall is about 85 cm. The city is surrounded by Tirumangalam, Tiruparankunram, Melur, Anaiyur, Avaniapuram Municipalities.
Madurai is built around the Meenakshi Sundareswar Temple. Concentric rectangular streets surround the temple, symbolizing the structure of the cosmos. The entire city is laid out in the shape of a lotus. Some of these rectangular streets are named after months in the Tamil calendar. The six major rectangular streets around Meenakshi temple are Chittirai, Aadi, Aavani Moola, Maasi, Maarat and Veli streets.
Historical populations Year Pop. ±% 1871 51,987 — 1881 73,807 +42.0% 1891 87,428 +18.5% 1901 105,984 +21.2% 1911 134,130 +26.6% 1921 138,894 +3.6% 1931 182,018 +31.0% 1941 239,744 +31.7% 1951 361,781 +50.9% 1961 424,810 +17.4% 1971 549,114 +29.3% 1981 820,891 +49.5% 1991 940,989 +14.6% 2001 928,869 −1.3% 2011 1,016,885 +9.5% Source:
An inhabitant of Madurai is known as a Maduraiite. The 2001 census showed that the city corporation had a population of 928,869, while that of the Madurai urban agglomeration was 1,203,095. In Madurai, males constitute 50.53% of the population and females 49.46%. The city has an average literacy rate of 77.6%, higher than the national average of 64.5%. Male literacy is 82.2%, and female literacy is 72.9%. 10,7% of the population is under 6 years of age. The sex ratio is 979 females per 1,000 males. slightly higher than the national average of 944. In 2005, the crime rate in the city was 283.2 per 100,000 people, accounting for 1.1% of all crimes reported in major cities in India. Madurai ranked 19th among 35 major cities in India in the incidence of crimes. In 2001, the population density in the city was 17,100 per km2 (44,200 per mi²).
A government order was issued[when?] which would cause a substantial expansion of the area defined as Madurai by merging various surrounding areas into it . However, the whether or not this will be implemented remains uncertain as at summer 2011. Madurai Tamil is the standard dialect spoken. Other languages spoken are Sourashtra, Urdu and English.
Madurai city is administered by the Municipal Corporation. Formed in 1971, this was the second corporation established in Tamil Nadu. The mayor is responsible for the day-to-day running of the municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital, and the city library. The city serves as the headquarters of Madurai district.
The corporation received several awards in 2008 for implementing development works.
The Madurai Junction is one of the busiest in the country. Madurai division has repeatedly received the award for being the best-maintained station in the Southern Railway. Madurai Railway Division is the second largest revenue generating division in Tamil Nadu next only to Chennai. There are capacity pressures relating to passenger numbers. As a consequence of this, Southern Railway plans to modify and extend the Madurai Junction.
The state government has announced Mono rail project for Madurai. The railway stations in the Madurai area are Madurai Junction, Koodal Nagar, Samayanallur, Sholavandan, Vadipatti, East Madurai, Silaiman, Tirupuvanam, Thiruparankundram, Tirumangalam, Chekanoorani, and Usilampatti.
Madurai has several major bus stands, including the Madurai Integrated Bus Terminus (MIBT) at Mattuthavani and those at Arappalayam and Periyar. Between them, these provide transport both within the city and to numerous destinations across south India. Three-wheeled, referred to as autos, are available for travel with in the city. MIBT has pre-paid auto counter where commuters can pay fixed auto-fare depends on destination and hire. Madurai is connected by several National Highways. These include NH 7, NH 45B and NH 49.
Madurai Airport is located 12 kilometers from the city. It offers domestic flights to major cities and there are plans to introduce international services. Among the carriers operating from the site are Spice Jet, Jet Air Ways, Kingfisher Airlines and Air India.
Madurai has a literacy rate and human development index above the state average.
Madurai Kamaraj University is situated in Madurai. It pioneered the concept of distance education in India. The university was accorded the status of "University with Potential for Excellence". There is also Madurai Medical College, a government homoeopathic medical college and hospital, an agricultural college and research institute, a law college, and many colleges for engineering, arts and science, such as Thiagarajar College of Engineering.
Madura College,The American College in Madurai, M.S.S.Wakf Board College and Lady Doak College are among the oldest institutions of Madurai. Thiagarajar School of Management is devoted to Management Studies. Tamil Nadu polytechnic college is in Madurai. There are also significant number of Hotel Management & Catering institutes in the city.
Madurai has many schools, polytechnics and Industrial training institutes (ITIs).
The city is served by the Government Rajaji Hospital, among others. The AIIMS hospital was being constructed at Thoppur, Madurai with a proposed completion date of September 2010.[clarification needed] There are numerous private hospitals - such as Aravind Eye Hospital, Apollo Specialty Hospital and Bose Hospital - which attract people to the city.
Places of worship
The Meenakshi-Sundareswarar temple was originally built by the early Pandya King Kulasekara. It is one of the greatest Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu. According to legend, Natarajar performed a dance raising his right leg in Madurai.[clarification needed] (Kaal maari Aadiya Natarajar). Shiva was very happy with the temple construction and performed a different dance.[clarification needed] This is the temple which is believed to have survived when Kannagi burned the city.
Kazimar Big Mosque and Maqbara
Kazimar mosque (masjid) was the first Muslim place of worship in the city. It was constructed under the supervision of Kazi Syed Tajuddin, who came from Oman, received the piece of land from the then Pandya ruler King Ku(lasekara) Pandiyan during the 13th century and is believed to be a descendant of the prophet Muhammed. It is also the second oldest mosque in Tamil Nadu and is known as Periya Pallivasal (Big Mosque). The descendants of Kazi Syed Thajuddin, who was appointed Kazi of the sultans, are known as the Huqdars (Share holders). They have managed the mosque since his time and have lived in the locality of Kazimar Street for more than 700 years. They are known as Syeds and among them are appointed Kazis to the Government of Tamil Nadu till today. The dargah of Madurai Hazrats called as Madurai Maqbara is located inside the mosque.
The legend is that Murugan married Deivanai at Thiruparankundram Murugan Temple, which also is the first among the Six Holy Abodes of Murugan (Arupadai Veedu, literally "Six Battle Camps"). This cave temple is much older than the Meenakshi temple. On Fridays women place candles or sit around the temple floor and create kolams or rangoli patterns on the ground using coloured powders, ash and flowers as an offering to Durga.
A durga is located at the top of the hill, where the grave of an Islamic saint, Hazrat Sultan Sikandhar Badushah Shaheed Radiyallah Ta'al anhu, who came from Jeddah along with Hazrat Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed Badushah of Madinah during the early 13th century, is found. Irrespective of religion, people from all parts of Tamil Nadu and from Kerala visit this durgah. People who visit the Ervadi Durgah in Ramanathapuram district are supposed to visit this durgah. The Anniversary urus festival of Hazrat Sulthan Sikandar badusha Shaheed is commemorated on 17th night of the Islamic month of Rajab every Hijri year.
The name Gorippalayam comes from the Persian word Gor which means Grave. This area is called as Goripalayam because the Graves of the two saints of Islam and rulers of Madurai Hazrat Sulthan Alauddin Badusha (Radiyallah) and Hazrat Sulthan Shamsuddin Badhusha (Radiyallah) are located here. A green coloured tomb can be seen from the A.V.Bridge madurai, which is the Gorippalayam Dargah located in the northern banks of the River Vaigai. The dome is 70 feet (21 m) in diameter and 20 feet (6.1 m) in height and is made of a single block of stone which was brought from the Azhaga Hills. The two rulers were brothers who ruled the northern part of madurai after coming from Oman during 13th century to spread Islam. Hazrat Kazi Syed Tajuddin Radiyallah of Kazimar street was Govt. Kazi (Islamic Legal advisor and jury) to them. An ancient Tamil inscription, can be found planted on the outer campus of the Maqbara of the dargah campus which reads about a case relating to the lands of the dargah. This inscription is thought by some to prove the existence of the Dargah since 13th century. The anniversary urus festival of this dargah is held on 15th night of the Islamic month of Rabi al-awwal on every hijri year.
Theppakulam is a part of Vandiyur Mariyamman temple. There is an artificial island at the centre, made of stone. It was built sometime around 1500 AD.
Koodal Azhagar Koil
A Vishnu temple in the city center, Koodal Azhagar is unusual in having Navagraham, which normally are found only in Shivan temples. There is a Hayagriva temple close to this temple where Hayagriva is the main deity. Most of the students do their regular prayer[original research?] here as Hayagriva is the one who brought the epic fallen into water back to the earth. This temple is believed to be older than the Meenakshi temple.
St. Mary’s Cathedral Church
St. Mary’s Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Madurai. It is one of the oldest Roman Catholic churches in India.
Because of city's proximity to rubber producing centers, it has had rubber as a traditional industry. Besides gloves, sports goods, mats and other utility products, Madurai contributes in large to the production of automobile rubber components. TVS Srichakra (tyre manufacturing), Sundaram Industries (Rubber Division, Coach division), Fenner India, Hi-Tech Arai Ltd and Lanxess India are some of the rubber based industries in the city. The rubber industry, industrialists feel, has a rich potential to transform Madurai economy. The anticipated growth in this industry, triggered by a boom in automobile sector, will have a cascading effect on other wings of the local economy. Despite being an industry with potential to cause pollution, the manufacturers are taking “special care” to adopt environment-friendly processes.
Major automobile producers, including General Motors, Ford, Toyota and Honda, are regular buyers of components produced in the city.
IT and ITES
IT industries have located in Madurai. Software Technology Parks of India, an agency of the Government of India, has authorized several such companies to receive benefits under its national information technology development program. The city hosts multinational corporations such as Honeywell Technology Solutions.
In 2008, C Chandramouli, the IT Secretary to the government of Tamil Nadu, said that the " ... work culture, low attrition rates and also the availability of educational institutions in these tier II cities [such as Madurai] is attracting these companies,” This followed announcements of business process outsourcing ventures in the area involving HCL, Satyam and Sutherland Global Services. The state government proposed two IT- Special Economic Zone (SEZ)s in Madurai and these have been fully occupied by various IT companies. The work on provision of infrastructure is in progress in Information Technology parks.
There are numerous textile and chemical industries operating in the area, including Thiagarajar Mills (one of the largest manufacturer and exporter of 100% Indian cotton yarn), Kasim Textile Mills, Sundaram Textiles, Weaves India, and Vaigai Group.
There are also few Granite industries like PRP Exports (one of India's largest granite processors and exporters) Madurai Arkay Rock, P.R.Granites, Duniterocks, and Arkay Glenrock. There is a proposal to set up a granite industry near Melur, and a polishing factory in Madurai.
Retail and malls
There are numerous large shops and malls and the construction of new facilities for these businesses is ongoing. Particular streets within the city are occupied by businesses involved in similar trade. For example, East Gate contains household utensil shops, East Masi Street has grocery shops, and shops selling garments and textiles are found in South Masi Street.
Culture, tourism and entertainment
The city attracts a large number of tourists from within the country and abroad. About 4,100,000 tourists visited Madurai in 2007, out of which foreigners numbered 224,000.
Thirumalai Nayakar Mahal
The palace complex of Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal was constructed in the Indo-Saracen style by Thirumalai Nayakar in 1636. It is a national monument and is now under the care of the Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department.
The palace of Rani Mangamma has been renovated and is now one of the five Gandhi Sanghralayas (Gandhi Museums) in the country. It includes a part of the blood-stained garment worn by Gandhi when he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse. A visit by Martin Luther King Jnr. provided him with inspiration for his own peaceful protests against discrimination.
- The Eco park features lighting, including trees using optical fibres, and fountains. It has a water show accompanied by music,
- Hawa valley, on the outskirts of Madurai, is a beauty spot that also contains a go-kart track.
- Rajaji children park is situated in between the Gandhi museum, and the Tamukkam grounds. It has lots of children play with some hotels like Poonga Arya bhavan and some other eateries shops. Also there are some collection of birds and some kight and music play.
- MGR Race Course Stadium is an athletic stadium which has a synthetic track. Several National Meets are held here and also International Kabadi Championship was held here.
- Railway grounds at Arasaradi, Medical college grounds & Madura College Grounds are the full fledged Cricket Stadiums in the city.
- Theatres: Asia's former largest theatre "Thangam Theatre" is located in Madurai.
City hosts several radio stations, including Radio Mirchi and Suryan FM. The Sun TV Network has a regional office at Uththangudi, Madurai. Many other channels such as Vijay TV, Jaya TV and SS Music also have offices in the area.
The Hindu, The New Indian Express and The Times of India are the three principal English language daily newspapers which have editions published in the city. Deccan Chronicle, though not printed here, is widely circulated in the city. Tamil language daily morning newspapers include Dina Malar, Dina Thanthi, Dina Mani and Dinakaran. There are also daily evening newspapers, being Tamil Murasu, Malai Murasu and Malai Malar.
In the recent years, the city has seen growth in the hospitality industry. The "Heritance Madurai" is a five star hotel. Some of the other top rated hotels are the Royal Court, Hotel GRT Regency, the Park Plaza, the Gateway Hotel (Taj Garden Retreat), Hotel Germanus, North Gate, Madurai Residency, Hotel Sangam and Hotel Fortune Pandiyan. of the city. Madurai is known for its idlis which are available with variety of chutneys in almost all the restaurants.
The people of Madurai celebrate numerous festivals, which include Meenakshi Tirukkalyanam, The Chittirai Festival, and the Car Festival.
Mattu pongal is celebrated on the next day[clarification needed] of Pongal (Harvest Festival) to honour bulls, who work hard throughout the year. Bulls are bathed, their horns are painted, and in some villages they wear new dresses too.[clarification needed]
The Thepporchavam festival celebrated in the month of January, on the full moon day of Tamil Month Thai. The ornamented icons of the Meenakshi and her consort are taken out in a colourful procession from the Meenakshi Temple to the Mariamman Teppakulam. The icons are floated in the tank on a raft decked with flowers and flickering lamps.
Santhanakoodu festivals are celebrated on various days during the year to commemorate saints.
- ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_2_PR_Cities_1Lakh_and_Above.pdf. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_3_PR_UA_Citiees_1Lakh_and_Above.pdf. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- ^ a b "Tamil Nādu - City Population - Cities, Towns & Provinces - Statistics & Map". Citypopulation.de. http://www.citypopulation.de/India-TamilNadu.html. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- ^ "Largest Urban areas". CityMayor.de. http://www.citymayors.com/gratis/indian_cities.html.
- ^ "Madurai Districts". Dinamalar. http://www.dinamalar.com/district_main.asp?id=291.
- ^ a b c Harman, William. P (1992). The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 30–36. ISBN 9788120808102. http://books.google.com/books?id=F_siW9T3ev4C&pg=PA36.
- ^ a b Reynolds, Holly Baker (1987). The City as a sacred center: essays on six Asian contexts - Madurai: Koyil Nagar. BRILL. pp. 12–25. ISBN 9789004084711. http://books.google.com/books?id=OsAfAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA12.
- ^ Madurai is a city that never sleeps: Gaurav - Times Of India
- ^ Indian Society Of Hypertension
- ^ "Ptolemy (2nd century ce), commenting on the brisk trading relations between ‘Modura’, the Greeks and the Romans, calls it ‘the Mediterranean emporium of the south’" Madurai (2002). In Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend, Thames & Hudson.
- ^ Bardwell Smith, Holly Baker Reynolds. The city as a sacred center: essays on six Asian contexts : Annual meetings. 1987: BRILL. pp. 18. ISBN 9789004084711. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=OsAfAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA18.
- ^ Narasaiah (2009). Aalavai - Madurai Managarathin Kadhai. Palaniyappa Brothers. pp. 85. ISBN 9788183795173.
- ^ Etched in everybody's memory, The Hindu
- ^ Kamat Research Database, Biography: N.M.R.Subbaraman
- ^ David Arnold (1977). The Congress in Tamilnad: nationalist politics in South India, 1919-1937. Manohar. p. 128. ISBN 9780883869581. http://books.google.com/books?id=Nx8LAQAAIAAJ&q=nmr+subbaraman&dq=nmr+subbaraman.
- ^ More J. B. P (1977). Political Evolution of Muslims in Tamilnadu and Madras 1930–1947. Orient Blackswan. p. 106. ISBN 9788125011927. http://books.google.com/books?id=QDht7OyOjXMC&pg=PA106&dq=ismail+madura&cd=2#v=onepage&q=ismail%20madura&f=false.
- ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Madurai, India". Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/25/Madurai.html. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India, Vol 16, p 404
- ^ TN Govt GO #220
- ^ "History of Madurai". www.madurai.com. http://www.madurai.com/history.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- ^ Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 16. Clarendon Press. 1908.
- ^ Singh, Ujagir; Dube, Kamala Kant; Singh, Alok Kumar (1988). Urban environment in India: problems and prospects. Inter-India Publications. p. 407. ISBN 8121002052, ISBN 9788121002059.
- ^ Students' Britannica India. 1-5. p. 319.
- ^ Primary Census Abstract - Census 2001
- ^ Incidence & Rate Of Total Cognizable Crimes (IPC) In States, UTs & Cities During 2005
- ^ "Urban Areas by Population Density", World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations). Demographia. March 2007
- ^ "Number of wards in Madurai, Coimbatore to go up to 100". The Hindu. 10 February 2011. http://www.hindu.com/2011/02/10/stories/2011021053110600.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
- ^ "Welcome to Madurai Corporation - All About Madurai Corporation". 18.104.22.168. http://22.214.171.124/newmducorp/aboutus.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- ^ "Madras High Court". Hcmadras.tn.nic.in. 2004-07-24. http://www.hcmadras.tn.nic.in/mduhist.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- ^ "Madurai Corporation bags three national awards". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-12-09. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/09/stories/2008120960120600.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
- ^ "Elegant ambience". The Hindu. October 16, 2004. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2004/10/16/stories/2004101600330100.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-09.
- ^ AIADMK revives Chennai Monorail Project - southindia - Chennai - ibnlive
- ^ Madurai Airport - Airport of Madurai, Airport in Madurai India
- ^ The Hindu : Cities / Madurai : International flights from Madurai soon: Chidambaram
- ^ "Traffic Report - AllAboutMadurai.Com". http://allaboutmadurai.com/viewtopic.php?p=17#p17. Retrieved 2009-12-31.
- ^ "Customs facility for Madurai airport". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2011-01-06. http://hindu.com/2011/01/06/stories/2011010661760300.htm.
- ^ "Madurai directory". http://www.maduraidirectory.com/education/cnh_colleges.php. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
- ^ "Tamil Nadu / Madurai News : Efforts on to get mega hospital for Madurai". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2007-08-23. http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/23/stories/2007082358730600.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- ^ "Madurai — a gateway to prosperity". http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2007/10/20/stories/2007102052622300.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- ^ "Genealogical Lineage of Madurai Maqbara Hazrats". http://maqbara.com/genealogy.php. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
- ^ "Tirupparankundram". http://www.murugan.org/temples/parankundram.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
- ^ "The first Aru Padai Veedu". http://www.maduraidirectory.com/tourism/thiru.php. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
- ^ Frommer's India By Pippa deBruyn, Keith Bain, Niloufer Venkatraman, Shonar Joshi
- ^ "An industry that can bolster the economy of Madurai". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2007-10-25. http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/25/stories/2007102550550200.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- ^ "TVS Group". http://www.tvsgroup.com/pages/contact.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- ^ "Madurai is next BPO hub in the making". http://www.moneycontrol.com/india/news/business/madurai-is-next-bpo-hub-making-/20/41/324363. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- ^ "ELCOT website". http://www.elcot.in/it-parks.php?page=4. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- ^ "Work on provision of infrastructure begins in Information Technology parks". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2008-12-07. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/07/stories/2008120758080200.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- ^ "Rock, shop and drop through the year". http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2007/12/29/stories/2007122950030100.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
- ^ "Tourism works around temple to be over by March". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2007-11-05. http://www.hindu.com/2007/11/05/stories/2007110555110600.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- ^ "Gandhi relics should be a medium to spread the message: Gandhi Museum director". http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/health/gandhi-relics-should-be-a-medium-to-spread-the-message-gandhi-museum-director_100162967.html. Retrieved 2009-03-08.
- ^ Annamalai, S. (2006-07-01). "Madurai soil for Cleveland". The Hindu (Chennai, India). http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/01/stories/2006070122320300.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Madurai/article2358763.ece
- ^ http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-08-05/news/29855008_1_cinema-hall-cinema-theatre-owners-association-starrer
- ^ "Aitken Spence launches Heritance Madurai in India = 2008-12-28". http://www.dailymirror.lk/DM_BLOG/Sections/frmNewsDetailView.aspx?ARTID=34580.
- ^ "Hotels in Madurai= 2009-01-09". http://www.tourism-of-india.com/hotels-in-tamil-nadu/madurai-hotels/.
- ^ "Where to Eat in madurai = 2009-01-09". http://www.madurai.com/eat.htm.
- ^ "Welcome to Madurai - Festivals". Madurai.nic.in. http://madurai.nic.in/festivals.html. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
Dindigul Theni Sivaganga Madurai Virudhunagar Madurai History Geography & ArchitectureGeography of Madurai, Yanaimalai, Nagamalai, Pasumalai, Azhagar Kovil Range, Rock Mountain of Thirupparankundram ZonesMadurai East, Madurai South, Madurai West, Madurai North Neighbourhoods and suburbs
VilankudiNarimedu, Karimedu, Arapalayam, Goripalayam, Simmakkal, Therkuvasal, Avaniyapuram, Villapuram, Vilachery, Ponmeni, Arasaradi, SS Colony, Melamadai, Koodal Nagar, Anna Nagar, K.K. Nagar, Mathichiyam, K. Pudur, TVS Nagar, Balarangapuram, Chokkikulam, Tallakulam, Alagappan Nagar, Pasumalai, Iyer Bungalow, Paravai, Anuppanadi, Palanganatham, Kochadai, Ellis Nagar, Nelpettai
Railway stations Educational institutionsFatima College · Fatima Michel College of Engineering & Technology · Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology · KLN College of Engineering · KLN College of Information Technology · Lady Doak College · Latha Mathavan Engineering College · Madurai Institute of Engineering & Technology · Madurai Kamaraj University · Mannar Thirumalai Naicker College · Pandiyan Saraswathi Yadav Engineering College · PTR College of Engineering and technology · Raja College of Engineering and Technology · SACS M.A.V.M.M. Engineering College · Sethu Institute of Technology · Sourastra College · Sourastra College for Women · The American College · Thiagarajar College · Thiagarajar College of Engineering · Thiagarajar College of Engineering · Thiagarajar School of Management · Thiagarajar School Of Management , Thirupparankundram · Ultra College of Engineering and Technology for Women · Velammal College of Engineering and Technology · Vickram College of Engineering Places of worshipChurchesSt. Marry's Church CultureChithirai Festival · Jallikattu · Madurai Malli PoliticsTamil Nadu Assembly ConstituenciesLok Sabha constituenciesOther topics: People from Madurai District HeadquartersMadurai Country State RegionPandya Nadu Taluks Revenue blocks History Places of Worship Places of interest Universities
Cities and towns · People · Villages
Million-plus agglomerations in India
Agra · Ahmedabad · Allahabad · Amritsar · Asansol · Bangalore · Bhopal · Bhubaneswar · Chandigarh · Chennai · Coimbatore · Delhi · Dhanbad · Guwahati · Gwalior · Hyderabad · Indore · Jabalpur · Jaipur · Jamshedpur · Jodhpur · Kanpur · Kochi · Kolhapur · Kolkata · Kozhikode · Lucknow · Ludhiana · Madurai · Meerut · Mumbai · Navi Mumbai · Nagpur · Nashik · Patna · Pune · Rajkot · Ranchi · Sagar · Solapur · Srinagar · Surat · Thrissur · Thiruvananthapuram · Tiruchirappalli · Ujjain · Vadodara · Varanasi · Vijayawada · Visakhapatnam
State of Tamil NaduCapital: Chennai Topics State symbols Districts
- The Nilgiris
Major cities Protected
Biosphere reserves National parks Wildlife sanctuaries Bird sanctuaries Tiger reserves
- Anaimalai Tiger Reserve
- Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
- Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Madurai — மதுரை … Deutsch Wikipedia
Madurai — hindi: मदुरै tamil: மதுரை Bandera … Wikipedia Español
Madurai — Ajouter une image Administration Pays Inde État et territoire Tamil Nadu District … Wikipédia en Français
Madurai — [mä də rī′] city in S India, in the state of Tamil Nadu: pop. 941,000 * * * Ma·du·rai (mä də rīʹ, mădʹyo͝o rī ) A city of southern India south southwest of Chennai (Madras). It is a Hindu pilgrimage site and an educational and cultural center… … Universalium
Madurai — [mædʊ raɪ], bis 1949 Madura [mæ duːrɑ], Stadt im Bundesstaat Tamil Nadu, Südindien, im Tal des Vaigai, 941 000 Einwohner; katholischer Erzbischofssitz, anglikanischer Bischofssitz; Universität (gegründet 1966), eines der ältesten Kulturzentren… … Universal-Lexikon
Madurai — (anc. Madura) v. de l Inde (état de Tamil Nadu); 952 000 hab. Anc. ville sacrée de l Inde. Temple brahmanique dravidien (XVIIe s.) … Encyclopédie Universelle
Madurai — [mä də rī′] city in S India, in the state of Tamil Nadu: pop. 941,000 … English World dictionary
Madurai — Original name in latin Madurai Name in other language IXM, Madura, Madurai, Maduraj, Mathurai, m thu ri, ma du lai, madhura, madhurai, madoMaduraiurai, madulai, madura, madura i, madurai, maduraya, madwray, maturai, Мадура, Мадурай, State code IN … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Madurai — Admin ASC 2 Code Orig. name Madurai Country and Admin Code IN.25.1264522 IN … World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II
Madurai — geographical name city S India in S Tamil Nadu population 940,989 … New Collegiate Dictionary