Bangalore


Bangalore

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Bengalūru (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು)
other_name = Bangalore
type = metropolitan city
type_2 = capital
skyline = Vidhana_Soudha.jpg
skyline_caption = Vidhana Soudha
locator_position = left
latd=12 |latm=58 |latNS=N
longd=77 |longm=34 |longEW=E
state_name = Karnataka
district = Bangalore Urban
region = Bayaluseeme
leader_title = Commissioner
leader_name = Dr. S. Subramanya
altitude = 920
population_as_of = 2007
population_city = 5,104,047
population_rank = 3rd
population_total = 6200000
area_magnitude = 9
area_total = 741
area_total_cite = The total area of Greater Bangalore has been mentioned in the Karnataka budget of 2007-08 as 741 km². cite web |url=http://www.kar.nic.in/finance/bud2007/bs07e.pdf |title=Finance Budget for 2007-08 |publisher=Government of India |accessdate=2007-06-28|format=PDF]
area_telephone = 91-(0)80
postal_code = 560 xxx
vehicle_code_range = KA 01, KA 02, KA 03, KA 04, KA 05, KA 41, KA 50, KA 51, KA 53
unlocode = IN BLR
footnotes =

Bangalore (Audio-IPA|Hi-Bangalore.ogg| [ˈbæŋgəloːɾ] ), officially Bengaluru (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, Audio-IPA|Bengaluru-Kannada-Pronunciation.ogg| ['beŋgəɭuːɾu] ), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city [cite web |url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=80&geo=-104&srt=pnan&col=aohdq&msz=1500&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan |title=India: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population
publisher=World Gazetteer
] and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration.

Though historical references to the city predate 900 CE, a modern written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, who many regard as the architect of modern Bangalore, built a mud fort in the city and established it as a province of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire. During the British Raj, it became a centre of colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrants from other parts of the country. Today, as a large and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to some of the most well-recognized colleges and research institutions in India.Numerous public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defense organisations are located in the city. Bangalore is known as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its pre-eminent position as the nation's leading IT employer and exporter.cite web |url=http://www.indianexpress.com/india-news/full_story.php?content_id=60231 |title=Bangalore Crumbling |accessdate=2007-10-06 |publisher=The Sunday Express] A demographically diverse city, Bangalore has developed into one of India's major economic hubs and is the fastest growing major metropolis in India. [ [http://us.rediff.com/money/2008/feb/06sld2.htm India's 10 fastest growing cities] . Rediff.com. February 06, 2008]

Etymology

The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the city's name in the Kannada language, "Bengalūru". The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra kallu" (ವೀರ ಗಲ್ಲು) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Old Kannada.K. Chandramouli. [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mp/2002/07/25/stories/2002072500270200.htm "The City of Boiled Beans"] . The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 25 July 2002] An article, published in The Hindu, states: [http://www.hindu.com/2004/08/20/stories/2004082016400300.htm "Inscription reveals Bangalore is over 1,000 years old"] . The Hindu. ḷ2006. The Hindu Group. 20 August 2004]

An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bengaluru is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city...written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it.

An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 11th-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda kaal-uru" ( _kn. ಬೆಂದಕಾಳೂರು) (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which was eventually simplified to "Bengalūru".cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/Oct302006/index20581420061029.asp|title=Many miles to go from Bangalore to Bengaluru|author=Vijesh Kamath|publisher=Deccan Herald|accessdate=2007-07-02]

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to "Bengaluru", which is its name in Kannada. [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/264262.cms "From today, Bangalore becomes Bengalooru"] . The Times of India. 2006. The Times Group. 1 November 2006] On 27 September 2006, the Bruhath Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change, [cite news | title= It will be `Bengaluru', resolves BMP | publisher=The Hindu | date=2006-09-28 | url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/28/stories/2006092824250300.htm |accessdate=2007-05-16] which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006. [cite news | title= It’ll be ‘Bengaluru’ from Nov 1 | publisher=Deccan Herald | date=2006-10-08 | url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/Oct82006/index2044162006107.asp |accessdate=2007-05-16] However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry. [cite news | title= Centre mum on ‘Bengaluru’ | publisher=The Hindu | date=2007-12-18 | url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/18/stories/2007121854970600.htm |accessdate=2008-04-10]

History

After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas, Bengaluru was captured by the Cholas in 1024 which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandu bhűmi" or "Land of Heroes". [http://web.archive.org/web/20060919220936/http://www.bangaloreit.in/html/aboutbng/history.htm "About Bangalore - History"] . Department of IT and Biotechnology. 2006. Government of Karnataka.]

Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions called "pētēs" (IPA-all|peːteː). The town had two main streets: Chikkapētē Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapētē Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapētē Square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary.Vagale, Uday Kumar. PDFlink| [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05172004-231956/unrestricted/4.pdf "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections"] |773 KB. Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004.] During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City").After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahji as a jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji, son of Shahji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/mp/2005/02/22/stories/2005022201010300.htm|title=The bean city|publisher=The Hindu|author=S. Srinivas|accessdate=2007-07-02] "The Mughal Throne", Abraham Eraly, Phoenix, London, Great Britain, 2004 (ISBN 0-7538-1758-6), Incidental Data, page 538.] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore. Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established at Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/M/MY/MYSORE_CAPITAL_.htm "Mysore (CAPITAL)"] . Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 ed.] Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils. [ [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05172004-231956/unrestricted/4.pdf Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections (Chapter 8, Page 17)] ] Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleshwara and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh. Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81 , which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.Digital Libraries and Archives] In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as Motor Industries Company (MICO; a subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a boom in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows to multi-storied apartments.Benjamin, Solomon. PDFlink| [http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN020773.pdf "Governance, economic settings and poverty in Bangalore"] |149 KB.Environment&Urbanization Vol 12 No 1 2006. United Nations Public Administration. 1 April 2000.] In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational to set up base in Bangalore. Other Information Technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.

Geography and climate

Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned at coord|12.97|N|77.56|E| and covers an area of 741 km² (286 mi²). The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Doddabettahalli, which is 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge. [http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/wetlands/sarea.html "Studyarea- Bangalore"] . Centre for Ecological Sciences. 2006. Indian Institute of Science.] No major rivers run through the city, though the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centers located in the periphery of Bangalore.cite web |url=http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/mar112004/metro1.asp |title= "Each drop of water counts" |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070311005340/http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/mar112004/metro1.asp |archivedate=2007-03-11. Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. 11 March 2004]

climate chart
Bangalore
15.1|27.0|3
16.6|29.6|7
19.2|32.4|4
21.5|33.6|46
21.2|32.7|120
19.9|29.2|81
19.5|27.5|110
19.4|27.4|137
19.3|28.0|195
19.1|27.7|180
17.2|26.6|64
15.6|25.9|22
18.6|29.0|969
source= [http://www.worldweather.org/066/c00523.htm World Weather Information Service]
float=right
clear=right

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi river.cite web|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060206121846/http://bwssb.org/help_faq.html|title=FAQ|accessdate=2007-07-02] Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city. [http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/StoryPage.aspx?id=8dc55aa2-693c-49f9-a954-28f811fb5d68 "Thirsty Bangalore seeks divine help"] . Hindustan Times. 2006. HT Media Ltd. 9 June 2003.] However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.PDFlink| [http://web.archive.org/web/20060320001853/http://www.bmrtl.com/EIA.PDF "Environmental Impact Analysis"] |362 KB. Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005.] Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.soils]
Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.cite web|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2001/jan/30inter.htm|title=The Rediff Interview/ Dr S K Srivastav, additional director general, Indian Meteorological Department|publisher= [Rediff.com] |author=Onkar Singh|accessdate=2007-07-02]

Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys salubrious climate throughout the year, although freak heat waves can make things very uncomfortable in the summer.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2005/05/18/stories/2005051818670300.htm|publisher=The Hindu|title=Rise in temperature `unusual' for Bangalore|accessdate=2007-07-02] The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 33.6 °C.cite web|url=http://www.imd.ernet.in/section/climate/bangalore1.htm|title=Bangalore|publisher=Government of India|accessdate=2007-02-07] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (on January 1884).cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/10/stories/2006051022920300.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-05-10|title=Set up rain gauges in areas prone to flooding|author=Vidyashree Amaresh|accessdate=2007-12-22] cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/Dec172006/city115220061217.asp|work=Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-12-17|title=B’lore weather back again|author=Ashwini Y.S.|accessdate=2007-12-22] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 36–37 °C (100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order. The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is convert|179|mm|in recorded on 1 October 1997.cite web|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2223/stories/20051118005402400.htm|work=The Frontline|date=2005-11-05|title=Bangalore's woes|author=Ravi Sharma|accessdate=2008-02-05]

Civic Administration

The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, "Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation") is in charge of the civic administration of the city.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2007/01/18/stories/2007011820460300.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2007-01-08|title= Greater Bangalore, but higher tax?|author=Afshan Yasmeen|accessdate=2007-10-17] It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile "Bangalore Mahanagara Palike", with the neighbouring 7 City Municipal Councils (CMC), one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore.

Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is run by a city council. The city council comprises elected representatives, called "corporators", one from each of the wards (localities) of the city. Elections to the council are held once every 5 years, with results being decided by popular vote. A mayor and commissioner of the council are also elected through a quota system from a Scheduled Castes and Tribes candidate or to an Other Backward Class female candidate. Members contesting elections to the council represent one of more of the state's political parties. However, elections to the newly-created body are yet to be held, due to delays in delimitation of wards and finalising voter lists. There are expected to be about 150 wards, up from the 100 wards of the old Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Elections are tentatively scheduled to be held in early 2008.Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 "Battelle Environmental Evaluation System" (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to "ideal", while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly.PDFlink| [http://web.archive.org/web/20060320001853/http://www.bmrtl.com/EIA.PDF "Environmental Impact Analysis"] |362 KB. Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005. (page 30)] The BMP has been criticised by the Karnataka High Court, citizens and corporations for failing to effectively address the crumbling road and traffic infrastructure of Bangalore. [http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/jun292005/state1911192005628.asp "High Court pulls up BMP for bad roads"] . Deccan Herald. 2006. The Printers (Mysore) Ltd. 29 June 2005] The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems.

Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic. In 2005 both the Central Government and the State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore's infrastructure." [http://autofeed.msn.co.in/pandorav3/output/News/7e1bf015-99c9-49ff-8670-f6d3c44a689c.aspx Budget to trigger growth of metros: PM] ". MSN India. 2006. Microsoft India. 12 February 2006.] The Bangalore Mahanagara Palike works with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.van Beukering, Sehker, et al. [http://web.archive.org/web/20060304102415/http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdf/full/8113IIED.pdf "Analysing Urban Solid Waste..."] . International Institute for Environment and Development. 2006. March 1999.]

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations. [http://www.bcp.gov.in/english/index.htm "Bangalore City Police"] . Bangalore City Police. 2006. Karnataka State Police.] As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes two members to India's lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, and 24 members to the Karnataka State Assembly. [ [http://www.kar.nic.in/kla/mladr.htm "Members of Karnataka Legislative Assembly"] . National Informatics Centre. 2006. Government of Karnataka] In 2007, the Delimitation Commission of India reorganised the constituencies based on the 2001 census, and thus the number of Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in Bangalore has been increased to 28 and 3 respectively. [cite web|url=http://www.delimitation-india.com/Final_Publications/Karnataka/Final%20Notification%20&%20Order%20with%20Table%20A%20&%20B%20_Eng_.pdf |title=Final Notification and Order|publisher=Delimitation Commission of India|date=2007-07-02 | accessdate=2007-10-17|format=PDF ] These changes will take effect from the next elections.
Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited (KPTCL). Like many cities in India, Bangalore experiences scheduled power cuts, especially over the summer, to allow electricity providers to meet the consumption demands of households as well as corporations.

Economy

Bangalore's INRConvert|260260|c|-2 economy (2002–03 Net District Income) makes it a major economic centre in India.PDFlink| [http://des.kar.nic.in/ptc/KAGGeneral.pdf "All India figures at a glance"] |2.75 MB. Department of Economics and Statistics. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 16 Dec. 2005. ] With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the fastest growing major metropolis in India [http://in.rediff.com/money/2008/jan/29gdp.htm Surat, fastest growing city] . Rediff.com. 29 January 2008] . Additionally, Bangalore is India's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) market. [http://ia.rediff.com/money/2006/aug/23bang.htm?q=bp&file=.htm "Bangalore most affluent market"] . 2006. Rediff.com. 23 Aug. 2006] The city is the third largest hub for high net worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of INRConvert|4.5|c|0 and INRConvert|50|l|-2|nolink=yes respectively. [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS/India_Business/After_Mumbai__Delhi_Bangalore_home_to_richest/articleshow/1842018.cms "Bangalore third richest city in country"] .2007. Times of India.Times of India. 1 Apr. 2007] As of 2001, Bangalore's share of INRConvert|1660|c|-2 in Foreign Direct Investment was the fourth highest for an Indian city.Mathur, Om Prakash. PDFlink| [http://www.cdsindonesia.org/documents/op4-ommathur-040903.pdf "Impact of globalisation on cities and city-related policies in India"] |436 KB. 2006. The Urban Partnerships Foundation Aug. 2003]

In the 1940, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mirza Ismail and Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya played an important role in the development of Bangalore's strong manufacturing and industrial base.

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Electronics Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city.

Bangalore is called the "Silicon Valley of India" because of the large number of Information Technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's INRConvert|144214|c|0|nolink=yes IT exports in 2006-07.cite web|url=http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage_c.php?leftnm=10&autono=299725 |title=IT in India: Big successes, large gaps to be filled|author=Jairam Ramesh|work=Online Edition of The Business Standard, dated 2007-09-30|accessdate=2007-10-04] Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main "clusters" — Software Technology Parks of India, Bangalore (STPI); International Technology Park Bangalore (ITPB), formerly International Technology Park Ltd. (ITPL); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone. [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1672524.cms UB City is finally here-Bangalore-Cities-The Times of India ] ]
Infosys and Wipro, India's second and third largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore as are many of the global "SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies".

The growth of Information Technology has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka.cite web|url=http://www.telegraphindia.com/1051110/asp/opinion/story_5421239.asp|work=Online Edition of The Telegraph|title= Poverty of Politics - If politicians lack vision, the rate of change will remain slow|author=Surendra Munshi|accessdate=2007-10-25] Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2005/04/23/stories/2005042301960600.htm|work=Online edition of The Hindu, dated 2005-04-23|title=Bangalore Helix to be a reality soon|accessdate=2007-10-04] cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/health-SP/idUSBOM33872620071004|work=Online webpage of Reuters, dated 2007-10-04|title=Biocon in drug development talks with Bayer|accessdate=2007-10-04]

Transport

Bangalore is served by the newly-built Bengaluru International Airport (IATA code: BLR) which started operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport which was India's fourth busiest airport. [ [http://aai.aero/traffic_news/jun2k7annex3.pdf Airports Authority of India: Traffic statistics - Passengers (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIIC] ] [ [http://aai.aero/traffic_news/jun2k7annex2.pdf Airports Authority of India: Traffic statistics - Aircraft movements (Intl+Domestic), Annexure IIC] ] cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/Oct272006/index211220061026.asp|publisher=Deccan Herald|title=Expressway for airport drive|author=R. Krishnakumar|accessdate=2007-07-02] Air Deccan and Kingfisher Airlines have their headquarters in Bangalore.cite web|url=http://www.businessworld.in/content/view/1886/1949/1/3/|work=Online Edition of The Business World|title=A Sense of Deja Vu|accessdate=2007-10-04]

A rapid transit system called the "Namma Metro" is being developed and is expected to be operational by 2011. Once completed, this will encompass a 33 km (20.5 mi) elevated and underground rail network, with 32 stations in "Phase I" and more being added in "Phase II".cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/18/stories/2006101824830300.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-10-18|title=Metro rail may result in increase in temperature|author=Govind D. Belgaumkar|accessdate=2007-10-17] Bangalore is well connected to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The "Rajdhani Express" connects Bangalore to New Delhi, the capital of India. The city is also connected to Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Kochi, as well as other major cities in Karnataka.cite web|url=http://www.irctc.co.in/Popular_trains.html|work=Online webpage of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited|title=Popular Trains|accessdate=2007-10-17] Three-wheeled, black and yellow auto-rickshaws, referred to as "autos", are a popular form of transport.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/15/stories/2006121520050300.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-12-15|title=Stir leaves hundreds stranded|accessdate=2007-10-17] They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi service within Bangalore is provided by several operators commonly referred to as "Citi taxis" which can carry up to four passengers and are usually metered and more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are also a means of public transport available in the city.cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Jun202007/city200706208444.asp|title=Loyalty may pay for Volvo commuters!|author=S Praveen Dhaneshkar|work=Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2007-06-20|accessdate=2007-04-10] While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users. BMTC also runs air-conditioned, red-coloured Volvo buses on major routes. The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation runs 10,400 buses, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states.
cite web|url=http://www.cicred.org/Eng/Seminars/Details/Seminars/PDE2007/Papers/IYER_Neelakantan_paperNairobi2007-project.pdf|title=Census population|work=Census of India|publisher=www.cicred.org|pages=21|accessdate=2008-06-07|format=PDF] With an estimated population of 5,281,927 in the year 2007, Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 27th most populous city in the world.cite web|url=http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&srt=pnan&col=aohdq|work= World-Gazetter.com|title=World: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population|accessdate=2007-10-17] With a decadal growth rate of 38%, Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi for the decade 1991–2001. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as "Bangaloreans" in English or "Bengaloorinavaru" in Kannada. Kannadigas formed about 39% of the population, by some estimatesRamachandran, Sudha. [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/JD02Df01.html Local pride buffets Bangalore business] . Asia Times. 2 April 2008] [http://in.news.yahoo.com/indiabroadcast/20080215/r_t_ibn_nl_general/tnl-b-lore-feels-bubbling-kannadiga-vs-m-3a4f8c1.html Bangalore feels bubbling Kannadiga Vs migrant tension] . Yahoo! News. Feb 11, 2008] , while non-Kannadigas form the rest of the population.

The cosmopolitan nature of the city has caused people from other states of India to migrate to Bangalore and settle there [http://www.hindu.com/2004/07/23/stories/2004072310610400.htm "Kannadigas assured of all support"] . The Hindu. 2006. The Hindu Group. 23 July 2004] Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Apart from English and Kannada, other major languages spoken in the city are Telugu, Tamil and Hindi. [http://www.karnataka.com/tourism/bangalore/facts.html Karnataka.com's "Bangalore Facts"] ]

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.37% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average. [http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/Religion_WhizMap1/housemap.htm "Census GIS Household"] . censusindiamaps.net. 2006.] Muslims comprise 13.37% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.79% and 1.05% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. Anglo-Indians also form a substantial group within the city. Women make up 47.5% of Bangalore's population. Bangalore has the second highest literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai. Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slumscite web |url=http://www.censusindia.gov.in/|title= "Total Population, Slum Population..." |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070806121833/http://www.censusindia.net/results/slum/slum2.html |archivedate=2007-08-06. Census of India, 2001. 2006. Government of India.] — a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (42%) and Nairobi (60%).Warah, Rasna. [http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/2003/1006slums.htm "Slums Are the Heartbeat of Cities"] . The EastAfrican. 2006. National Media Group Ltd. 6 October 2003] The 2004 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 9.2% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India. Delhi and Mumbai accounted for 15.7% and 9.5% respectively.PDFlink| [http://ncrb.nic.in/crime2004/cii-2004/CHAP2.pdf "Crime in Mega Cities"] |159 KB. National Crime Records Bureau. 2006. Government of India. 2004.]

Culture

Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India" [cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/mag/2004/06/06/stories/2004060600520700.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2004-06-06|title=Garden city|accessdate=2007-10-16] because of its greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park. Dasara, a traditional celebratory hallmark of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is the state festival and is celebrated with great vigour. Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Eid ul-Fitr, and Christmas are also celebrated. Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year.cite web|url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2125/stories/20041217006413300.htm|work=Online Edition of The Frontline, Volume 21 - Issue 25, Dec. 04–17, 2004|author=Ravi Sharma|title=A chauvinistic turn|accessdate=2007-11-22] . One of the most notable contributors to Sandalwood, as the Kannada Movie Industry is referred to, was the late Dr. Rajkumar.

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.

Bangalore is also a major center of Indian classical music and dance. Classical music and dance recitals are widely held throughout the year and particularly during the Ramanavami and Ganesha Chaturthi festivals. The Bengaluru Gayana Samaja has been at the forefront of promoting classical music and dance in the city. The city also has a vibrant Kannada theater scene with organisations like Ranga Shankara leading the way. Bangalore is also sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts. [Richard Plunkett (2001), p124] ;Sister Cities
* Minsk, Belarus. cite web|url=http://www.sovrep.gov.by/index_eng.php/.489.2528...1.0.0.html|work=Website of the National assembly of the Republic of Belarus|title=The official visit of the Republic of Belarus parliamentary delegation to the Republic of India is over|accessdate=2008-03-10]
* San Francisco, California, United States. [http://www.hindu.com/2007/05/11/stories/2007051119130500.htm Bangalore, San Francisco are sister cities] . The Hindu. 11 May 2007]
* Cleveland, Ohio, United States. [http://web.archive.org/web/20061003005509/http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/Asia/India/index Online Directory: India, Asia] . Sister Cities International.]
* Kharkiv, Kharkiv oblast, Ukraine

ports

Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captain Rahul Dravid, current test captain Anil Kumble and Robin Uthappa (others). Many children play gully cricket on the roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 40,000 [ [http://content-usa.cricinfo.com/india/content/ground/57897.html Cricinfo Page on Chinnaswamy Stadium] ] and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup.

The Indian Premier League (IPL) franchise Bangalore Royal Challengers and the Premier Hockey League (PHL) franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers are based in the city. India's Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi [http://www.sportsline.com/tennis/players/playerpage/384909 Profile] . CBSSports.com. CBS Interactive] and Rohan Bopanna [http://www.daviscup.com/teams/player.asp?player=10024192 Davis Cup Players] . Daviscup.com. International Tennis Federation.] also reside in Bangalore. The city hosts the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) Bangalore Open tournament annually. Beginning September, 2008, Bangalore will also host the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open ATP tournament annually. [http://cbs.sportsline.com/tennis/story/10834314 Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit] . CBSSportsline.com. ]

Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club,The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore. [ [http://www.oxford2oxford.co.uk/6.html Detailed Account on Bangalore Club] ] The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion, Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone.

Education

Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.Hayavadana Rao (1929), p494] The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, when two schools were established in Bangalore. Subsequently, Wesleyan Mission established a school in 1851 and the Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in 1858.Hayavadana Rao (1929), p497]

In post-independent India, schools for young children are mainly based on the kindergarten form of education.cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/122968.cms|work=Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2003-08-09|title=Bangalore a hot destination for foreign students|accessdate=2007-10-16] Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), ICSE and CBSE. cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/july012004/edu2.asp|work=Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2004-07-01|title=Broad choice of Class X boards|accessdate=2007-10-16] Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government).cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/682256.cms|title=Trimester system in all Karnataka schools from 1 June|work=Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2004-05-18|accessdate=2007-10-16] After completing their secondary education, students typically attend Pre Univiersity (PUC) in one of three "streams" – Arts, Commerce or Science.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/16/stories/2006051618850300.htm|title= Students, parents throng PU colleges in city|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-05-16|publisher=© 2006, The Hindu|accessdate=2007-10-16] Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in univerities. The Bangalore University,established in 1964, provides affiliation to about 500 colleges, with a total student enrollment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1114542.cms|title=BU overloaded, wants to split|work=Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2007-01-09|accessdate=2007-10-16]

Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India.cite web|url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2317/stories/20060908002809900.htm|work=Online Edition of the Hindu, dated 2006-09-08|title=Hub of research|author=Parvathi Menon and Ravi Sharma|accessdate=2007-10-16] Nationally renouned professional institutes such as the National Law School of India University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B) and the Indian Statistical Institute are located in Bangalore. The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), a premier mental health institution is located in Bangalore.

Media

The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year 1840.cite web|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SB3_VodABdIC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=1840+printing+press+bangalore&source=web&ots=uNZGhgyiaC&sig=FcVm_5QykIKNsXVvt7YoeYTc1CA|title=Assimilation: A Study of North Indians in Bangalore|author=Vijaya B. Punekar|accessdate=2007-10-04] In 1859, "Bangalore Herald" became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalorecite web|url=http://www.google.co.in/books?id=XQgiAAAAMAAJ&dq=Bangalore+Herald+1859&q=1859&pgis=1#search|author= M. Fazlul Hasan|publisher=Historical Publications|title=Bangalore Through the Centuries|accessdate=2007-10-07] and in 1860, "Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini" became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, "Vijaya Karnataka" and "The Times of India" are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Praja Vani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printer's (Mysore) Limited - the largest print media house in Karnataka.cite web|url=http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2190334.cms|work=Online Edition of The Ecomomic Times, dated 2006-10-18|title=Double dhamaka|author=Preiti Sharma|accessdate=2007-10-07] cite web|url=http://www.telegraphindia.com/1061119/asp/look/story_7016875.asp|work=Online Edition of The Telegraph, dated 2006-11-19|author=Shuma Raha|title=Battleground Bangalore|accessdate=2007-10-07]

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955.cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/jan232006/metromon1727452006122.asp|work=Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-01-23|title=Idhu Akashvani, Bengalooru!|accessdate=2007-10-07] The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.cite web|url=http://www.blonnet.com/2002/05/23/stories/2002052301450400.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2002-05-23|title= Radio City goes on air in Mumbai|accessdate=2007-10-07] In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.cite web|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/jan82006/index204517200617.asp|work=Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 2006-01-08|title=Radio gaga: 6 more FM stations|accessdate=2007-10-07] The city also has various clubs for HAM radio enthusiasts.cite web|url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/mp/2003/01/13/stories/2003011301310100.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2003-01-13|title= Of young ladies and old men|author=Juliana Lazarus|accessdate=2007-10-08]

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981.cite web|url=http://www.pibbng.kar.nic.in/media.htm|work=Online webpage of the Press Information Bureau|title=Doordarshan, Bangalore|accessdate=2007-10-07] A production center was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983. Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now christened DD Chandana. The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels.cite web|url=http://thehindujobs.com/thehindu/2001/07/29/stories/13290695.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2001-07-29|title=Tune in to quality|author=Sevanti Ninan|accessdate=2007-10-08] Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the yearscite web|url=http://mib.nic.in/informationb/CODES/Consolidatedchannels310707.htm|work=Online webpage of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India|title=Consolidated list of channels allowed to be carried by Cable operators/Multi system operators/DTH licensees in India|accessdate=2007-10-04] , the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts.cite web|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/781475.cms|work=Online Edition of The Times of India, dated 2004-07-17|title=Rage against cable operators|accessdate=2007-10-08] Direct To Home services are also available in Bangalore now.cite web|url=http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ew/2007/05/28/stories/2007052800160200.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu Business Line, dated 2007-05-08|title=Going for the action|accessdate=2007-10-08]

The first internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.cite web|url=http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/publications/data/2006-05-02rbasant.pdf|title=Bangalore Cluster: Evolution, Growth and Challengers|author=Rakesh Basant|accessdate=2007-10-08|format=PDF] This internet service was however restricted to corporates, until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995.cite web|url=http://www.rediff.com/computer/1998/sep/07net.htm|title=A short recap on Internet developments in India|accessdate=2007-10-08] Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband internet connections in India.cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/29/stories/2006122922770200.htm|work=Online Edition of The Hindu, dated 2006-12-29|title= A highly net-savvy city|accessdate=2007-10-08]

See also

* Tourist attractions in Bangalore

References

Further reading

* Hasan, Fazlul. Bangalore Through The Centuries. Bangalore: Historical Publications, 1970.
* Plunkett, Richard. South India. Lonely Planet, 2001. ISBN 1864501618
* Vagale, Uday Kumar. PDFlink| [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05172004-231956/unrestricted/4.pdf "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections"] |773 KB. Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004.
*. Bangalore Metropolitan Rapid Transport Corporation Limited.. 2006. Government of Karnataka. 2005.
* Hunter, Cotton, Burn, Meyer. [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/ "The Imperial Gazetteer of India"] . 2006. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1909.
* "Bangalore." [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Bangalore Encyclopedia Britannica] . 1911 ed.
* Hayavadana Rao, The Mysore State Gazetteer, 1929

External links

* [http://www.bmponline.org/ Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike - (Municipal government)]
* [http://www.bangaloreone.gov.in/ Bangalore one service portal]
* [http://www.lalbagh.org/ Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore]
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