Cuddalore


Cuddalore


Cuddalore
—  city  —
Cuddalore
Location of Cuddalore
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates 11°45′N 79°45′E / 11.75°N 79.75°E / 11.75; 79.75Coordinates: 11°45′N 79°45′E / 11.75°N 79.75°E / 11.75; 79.75
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District(s) Cuddalore
Population 158,569 (2001)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation


1 metre (3.3 ft)

Website http://www.cuddalore.tn.nic.in/

Cuddalore About this sound pronunciation (Tamil: கடலூர்) is a fast growing industrial city and headquarter of Cuddalore district in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India. Located south of Pondicherry on the coast of Bay of Bengal, Cuddalore has a large number of industries which employ a great deal of the city's population.

Cuddalore is known for its picturesque beaches, particularly Silver Beach. Cuddalore was the Capital of the English Possessions on the Coromandal Coast from 1748 to 1752.

Contents

Etymology

Earlier the name Cuddalore was spelt as Koodalur (meaning: confluence in Tamil). It is the place of confluence of three rivers namely Pennaiyar River, Kedilam and Paravanar. Since the British regime, it has been called Cuddalore.

Cuddalore Town

There are two large divisions in the town of Cuddalore: the Old Town, and the New Town Thirupathiripuliyur. The Gedilam River flows through the town and separates the Old Town from the new one. The Old Town has been a seaport since ancient times; Cuddalore traded with the Roman Empire approximately 2000 years ago. Archaeological evidence of these ancient trade relationships can be found in the Cuddalore Government Museum in Manjakuppam.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[1] Cuddalore had a population of 158,569. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Cuddalore has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 81% and female literacy is 70%. In Cuddalore, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Template:Cuddalore weatherbox

History

The Dutch were the first to conquer Cuddalore, followed by Portugal, France and later Britain. The British bought Fort St David in Cuddalore near Devanampattinam from the Gingee rulers.

The Siege of Cuddalore was a siege attempt by British troops against a combined French and Mysorean garrison in the fortress of Cuddalore late in the War of American Independence and the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The siege was ended by the preliminary peace between France and Britain.

The naval Battle of Cuddalore took place on 29 April 1758 during the Seven Years' War near Cuddalore off the Carnatic coast of India and was an indecisive battle between a British squadron under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and French squadron under Comte d'Aché. British casualties were 29 killed and 89 wounded, while France lost perhaps 600 killed.[1]

The two squadrons met again on 3 August at the Battle of Negapatam and again on 10 September at the Battle of Pondicherry.

Places of interest

South Arcot District

Cuddalore is Head-Quarters of Cuddalore District

South Arcot is a former district of British India, located in the state of Tamil Nadu. South Arcot was the southern portion of the Mughal province of Arcot. Arcot came under the control of a local Nawab after Mughals lost control southern India in the 18th century. The "subah" of Arcot was ceded to the British East India Company in 1801, and subsequently the district was split into North Arcot and South Arcot. On September 30, 1993 South Arcot District was split into Cuddalore District and Villupuram District.

The town is well known for its temples. This is one of the rarest town with both Saiva and Vaishnava temples. The most famous of these is the temple of Shiva (Saiva), one of the three principal deities of Hinduism. The incarnation of Shiva at Cuddalore is called Padaleeshwarar. The temple itself is located in Thiruppadirippuliyur [the town's old name is padaliputhiram at SAMANAS period] center of the town. The other one is "Perumal" Temple in Thiruvandhipuram 7 km from Thirupathiripuliyur. Chidambaram, a city also known for dance and temples, is only 43 km away from Cuddalore. Cuddalore has famous Vaishnavate temples in and around the city.

Thiruvanthipuram, the Sacred Abode of Lord Devanatha, is one of the ancient Vaishnavite temples and also one of the 108 Vaishnavite shrines sanctified by the visit of the great Alwars and Acharyas, held in great reverence by the devotees. This place is one of the two Nadunattu Tirupathis. It is situated 7 km west of Thirupathiripuliyur Railway Station.

Around 9 km from Cuddalore is the ancient Shiva temple of Tirumanikuzhi. It is one of the paadal petra stalas (familiar place for saiva). Thiruvadhigai Veerattaneswarar Temple and Thirunavalur Shiva temple are also located around 15 km from Cuddalore.jumma mosque very near the bus stand.Cuddalore's magnificent beaches are becoming a tourist attraction, especially the well-known Silver Beach, second largest beach in Tamil Nadu. Cuddalore's harbour is the naturally formed one.

Silver Beach

Silver Beach is a beach on the southeast coast of India. It is located 2 km from downtown Cuddalore, the headquarters of Cuddalore district in the state of Tamil Nadu. Silver Beach, however, is untouched by the busy life of the city. It is the second longest beach on the Coromandel Coast and one of the longest beaches in Asia.

See : Silver Beach (India)

Cuddalore Old Town (O.T.)

Present day Cuddalore O.T. was known as Islamabad during the Mughal period. Even today the majority of the people in Cuddalore O.T. follow Islam. Cuddalore O.T. has one of the oldest and biggest mosque in South India. The mosque and most of the houses there were built in Persian style. Until 1866 District Collectorate, Cuddalore Municipal Office and other administrative offices were in present Cuddalore O.T. In 1866 all these offices were shifted to Manjai Nagar. It was only after the shift in 1866 the term Cuddalore OT and Cuddalore NT (NewTown) came into existence. Still there are several streets and localities named after popular British rulers. Clive street, Wellington street are some to name.

Roads named after British like Napier Road (now called Nethaji Road), Lawrence Road, Imperial Road and streets like Clive street, Wellington street, business establishments like Panpari market and Parry's House remains a reminder of the British rule here.

Temples around Cuddalore

In puraana, this district is described as part of Sri. Rama Khetra. This town and the district are very old, being mentioned in many of the older texts and literature. Vriddhachalam is an example where a mountain once prevailed disappeared with time.

This district historically consists of Chola Naadu and Nadu Naadu. Nadu Naadu (middle country) probably got its name as this place is between Chola Nadu and 'Thondai Mandalam' - or it might be because of it lying between the 'Pallava Kingdom' and 'Chola Kingdom'. Yet another facet of the name might be because it lies between the main land and the ocean. This land is one of the parts where great personalities have originated - whether be it religion, administration or chiefs and leaders.

To prove it, saivaite pathmakers Thirunaukkarasu, Sundarar were born in this district. Maikaudar, one of the sithas out of eighteen, was born in this district. This district is the birth place of Vallalar Ramalingar.

Ovvaiyar, the Tamil poetess, gave in marriage angavai, Sangavai, the daughters of King 'Pari', the great vallal (one who gives great gifts and never says no to anyone) in Tirukoilur to the king Deiviekan.

The famous temple of Sri Natarajan is situated in this district, which is known for its logic construct and universal form of the lord. It is an interesting subject to scientists and innovators[who?] to research on the dancing postage of Lord Sri. Nataraja.

Other temples in and Cuddalore are:

Chozha Naadu Temples[North of River Kaveri]

Sculptures as seen in early 20th century near Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu
Thiuvanthipuram Temple near Cuddalore
  • Aadhinath Jain Temple at Cuddalore OT
  • Natarajar Temple at Chidambaram
  • Pasupateswarar Temple at Thiruvetkalam
  • Uchinathar Temple at Thirunelvayil
  • Paalvanna Naathar Temple at Thirukkazhippalai
  • Patanjali Nathar Temple at Omampuliyur
  • Tuyartheerthanathar Temple at Thirukkaanaattumulloor
  • Soundareswarar Temple at Thirunaarayur
  • Amritaghateswarar Temple at Kadambur
  • Natarajar Temple at Neyveli

Nadu Naadu temples

  • Theerthapureeswarar Temple at Thiruvattaturai
  • Sudarkozhuntheesar Temple at Pennaagadam
  • Nerikkattunayakar Temple at Goodalaiyatrur
  • Swetargavaneswarar Temple at Erukkattampuliyur
  • Sivakkozhuntheeswarar Temple at Tiruttinai Nagar
  • Mangalapureeswarar Temple at Tiruchopuram
  • Veerateswarar Temple at Thiruvathikai
  • Vridhagireeswarar Temple at Vriddhachalam
  • Pasupateeswarar Temple at Thirutturaiyur
  • Vaamaneswarar Temple at Thirumaanikkuzhi
  • Paataleeswarar Temple at Thiruppaatirippuliyur
  • Devanathaswamy Temple at Thiruvanthipuram

Other places

In the neighborhood are the ruins of Fort St David situated on the river Gadilam, which has a stirring history. As a small fort built by a Hindu merchant, it fell into the hands of the Marathas after the capture of Gingee by Sivaji in 1677. From them it was purchased by the English in 1690, the purchase including not only the fort but the adjacent towns and villages within "ye randome shott of a piece of ordnance." A great gun was fired to different points of the compass and all the country within its range, including the town of Cuddalore, passed into the possession of the English. The villages thus obtained are still spoken of as cannon ball villages.

From 1725 onwards the fortifications were greatly strengthened. In 1746 Fort St. David became the First British headquarters for the British India, and Dupleix' attack was successfully repulsed. Clive was appointed its governor in 1756; in 1758 the French captured it, but abandoned it two years later to Sir Eyre Coote. In 1782 the French captured it again, and restored it sufficiently to withstand a British attack in 1783, see Battle of Cuddalore (1783). In 1785 it finally passed into British possession.

Europeans started establishing their business settlements in Indian coast ever since 17th century. In the eastern coast French established their business settlements in Pondichéry and British established their settlements and business establishments in Cuddalore.

Later British started ruling the region and they built several forts. Fort St. David was the first fort built by British. Robert Clive, who laid a strong foundation for British rule in Indian subcontinent used St. David Fort as the centre for his military operations.

Fort St. David: Fort St. David was built in 1653 A.D. by Elihu Yale. The fort was strengthened on 1693, 1698, 1702, 1725, 1740 and on 1745.

Until 1758 Cuddalore was the capital to South Indian territories which was under British control then. British ruled a greater part of South India (entire Tamil Nadu, parts of present Andra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka) from the fort St. David.

The fort was attacked by French in 1758. It was after this attack St. David Fort lost its political importance. The operational power was shifted to Fort St. George, Madras. Even today the post office in Devanampattinam known as Silver Beach uses the rubber-stamp with Ft. St. David embossed in it.

Garden House: The present official residence of Cuddalore District Collector was then known as Garden House. It was then the residence of Robert Clive. The roof of the Garden House was built without steel and wood. It was built using only bricks and slaked lime. It bears testimony of the later medieval architecture. St. David fort was also built using the same ingredients and techniques.

The large vacant space next to Garden House which now know Chevalier Shivaji Arangam or Manjai Nagar (now known as manjakuppam) Ground was an esplanade then. British used to have esplanades near their fortresses.

Brookes Pet: Brookes Pet is half a kilometre from present Vandipalayam. It was named after Henry Brookes who ruled between 1767 and 1769.

Cumming Pet: The area to north of Thriupathiripuliyur is known as Cumming Pet. It was named after William Cumming who ruled the region from 1778. Cumming Pet was once a place meant for washermen. On 1798 Tipu Sultan-The King of Mysore invaded Cumming Pet and the settlements there cleared on the invasion.

Gadilam Castle: Nawab Umdat-ul-Umara built Gadilam Castle in 18th century. Gadilam Castle was located to the North of Gadilam river. It was built exactly in the place where the present Brindhavan Hotel is located.

Capper Hills: Capper Hills was named after Francis Capper who was the Captain till 1796. He resided in a palace in there. British built a prison in the Capper Hills. Freedom fighters like Barathiar and other prisoners of war were imprisoned there.

British Educational Institution: In 1717 St. David school was started in Cuddalore O.T. to educate the children of East India Company. In 1886 a college was started in its premises. The college was named after St. Joseph. It is one of the earliest schools in India which follows Western education system.

Tourist Spots

Tourist Spots in and near cuddalore are

  • Silver Beach at Devanampatinam
  • St. David Fort
  • Padaleeswarar temple
  • Thiruvandheepuram Devanatha swamy temple
  • Thiruvandhepuram Haiyakrever temple
  • Pichavaram one of the world's largest mangrove forests
  • Cuddalore Thouheed Mosque
  • Thirumutam Boovaraga Swami
  • Vadalur Vallalar Sathya Gnana Sabha
  • Kurinjipadi Subraya Swamigal temple
  • Vengadampet Venugopalaswamy temple
  • Thiruvadhigai Veerataneswar temple

Educational institutions

Cuddalore has some respected Schools, Colleges.St. David' High School, Cuddalore Port which is one of the oldest school started during 1717 by SPG Missionaries. Many schools were founded by Europeans in the 17th century and they are some of the oldest surviving schools in India

Some of the major schools in the town are:

  • Sri Valliammal Matriculation hr.sec school (formerly, Valliammal Vidyalaya matriculation higher secondary school), Thirupadhiripuliyur, Cuddalore - 607002
  • Government higher secondary school, cuddalore
  • Aristo Public School, Thirupadhiripuliyur
  • P R S Memorial Matriculation School
  • CK School Of Practical Knowledge
  • Government Municipal Boys Hr. Sec. School
  • St. Mary's Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  • A.R.L.M. Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  • St. Joseph's Hr. Sec. School, Koothapakkam
  • Krishnasamy Memorial Matriculation and Higher Secondary School
  • St. Joseph's Higher Secondary School NT, Manjakuppam
  • St. Joseph's Higher Secondary School NT, Thirupadhiripuliyur
  • Sri Saraswathi Vidhyaalaya Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Cuddalore-Port
  • St. David's Matriculation school
  • St. Anne's Girls Higher Secondary School, Pudupalayam
  • Lakshmi Chordia Memorial Matriculation School, Thirupadhiripuliyur

The colleges in and around the town are:

  • Periyar Government College of Arts and Science
  • St. Joseph's College of Arts and Science
  • Kandhaswami Naidu College of Arts & Science for Women
  • Krishnaswamy College of Engineering & Technology
  • Sri Jayaram Engineering College
  • J.S.J.V Teacher Training Institute
  • Jayavignesh Teacher Training Institute

See: List of Schools and Colleges in Cuddalore District

Transportation

Cuddalore is connected to other parts of Tamil Nadu through a very good rail and road network. Frequent buses run to nearby towns like Puducherry (Pondicherry), Chidambaram, Panruti, Tindivanam and Villupuram. Buses to major cities of Tamil Nadu such as Chennai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Tiruvannamalai are also available from Cuddalore.

Railways

Cuddalore has two railway stations, Thirupadirippuliyur and Cuddalore Port Junction, with station codes TDPR and CUPJ respectively. The station code for Cuddalore Port Junction was previously COT, as the station is located in Cuddalore OT. Thirupadirippuliyur railway station is located in the Cuddalore new town and is at a walkable distance to Cuddalore bus stand.

Roads

See Main Article : Transport in Cuddalore

Medical Facilities

There are hundreds of private clinics and a bunch of private nursing homes in Cuddalore. Almost all the surrounding towns and small towns are heavily relying on Cuddalore's Government Hospitals, doctors and private clinics for minor treatment and sickness consultations.

Business and industrialization

Even though Cuddalore has a bunch of industries, the main business of Cuddalore in the past, was fisheries. The original Cuddalore town is called Old Town, it was once an anchor point for imports and exports, but after the Government started accumulating and organising imports and exports to the nearest Metro city, Cuddalore's labor force was diluted to Factories and Industries.

Currently, the Government is concentrating on small to medium sized industries in and around Cuddalore. Such projects are SIDCO, SIPCOT, Regional Palm Products Manufacturing Society, Regional Sugarcane Research Foundation and more.

The proposed harbour is currently under construction, it can attract the Ship Building industry to Cuddalore.

Industries

The Neyveli Lignite Corporation, a public sector company operating out of Neyveli, is located near Cuddalore. Of the total quantum of thermal electricity generated in Tamil Nadu, a large percentage—more than 2500 megawatts—comes from the power plants in Neyveli.

Nellikuppam Integrated Sugar Complex is Located near Cuddalore, which is India's first sugar plant and is owned by EID Parry of Murugappa Group

Port-Based Industries

  • Petroleum Refinery developed by Nagarjuna Oil Corporation Limited
  • Shipyard developed by Goodearth Shipbuilding Pvt Ltd
  • Mid sea oil field by Hardy Exploration and Production India Inc
  • Thermal Powerplant by SRM Energy India
  • Chemplast Sanmar PVC Plant
  • APT Global Marine Engineering PVT LTD (APT group,Dubai).

Pollution in the SIPCOT Area

Cuddalore's recent past has been overshadowed by the consequences of its industrial development. one industrial pocket -SIPCOT - has also secured it a place in the dubious club of global toxic hotspots owing to the area's high levels of pollution.[2] As in many other towns in Tamil Nadu such as Kodaikanal, Mettur or Karaikal in Pondicherry, development in Cuddalore has taken a heavy toll among local communities who have struggled to be able to defend themselves.[3]

Reports of the illegal dumping of toxic waste abound,[4] although very little progress has been made through judicial channels.

On 22 March 2008 a report for the Tamil Nadu Pollution Board by the Nagpur-based National Environmental Engineering Research Institute found that residents of the SIPCOT area of Cuddalore were at least 2000 times more likely to contract cancer in their lifetimes due to their exposure to high levels of toxic gases from chemical industries in the region.[5]

Politics

Cuddalore assembly constituency is part of Cuddalore (Lok Sabha constituency).[6]

Media and Communication

Leading Tamil, English and other regional languages newspapers are available in Cuddalore. English dailies such as, Deccan Chronicle, The New Indian Express, The Hindu are available in Cuddalore. Tamil daily Dinathanthi has a separate edition for Cuddalore. Apart from that, other Tamil dailies such as Dinamalar, Dinakaran, Dinamani and Maalaimalar are also available in Cuddalore. Cuddalore falls under the Tamil Nadu Telecom circle. A station of All India Radio is located in nearby Puducherry (Pondicherry). The town also has several Local TV Channels.

List of leading Mobile networks in Cuddalore:

Network Name Type
Aircel GSM
Airtel GSM
BSNL GSM
Vodafone GSM
Reliance CDMA,GSM
Tata Indicom CDMA
Tata Docomo GSM
MTS CDMA
IDEA GSM

Cuddalore Central Prison

Tamil Nadu prison has eight major prisons - Puzhal (near Chennai), Palayamkottai, Vellore, Cuddalore, Tiruchi, Salem, Coimbatore and Madurai - across the state, apart from 107 sub-jails . Puzhal is the most recently built prison, while the other seven main prisons were built during the British rule.

The Cuddalore Central Prison, set up in 1865 A.D. is another historically important landmark as some eminent personalities and freedom fighters like Subramanya Bharathi and other political leaders had served their prison terms here.

Cuddalore Port

The Cuddalore Port is situated in Lat. 110 43 N. Long. 79049’ East at the confluence of the rivers Gadilam and Paravanar discharging as combined river into the sea in the District of Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. The ships anchor in mid stream at a distance of about a mile from the shore and cargo is loaded and discharged through lighters.

There is a bar at the mouth of the river, which maintains a depth of 5 to 6 feet at low water. During the months of July to September, the depth over the bar is reduced to about 3 to 4 feet.

Apart from Cuddalore Port, the following ports are under construction

  • Thiruchopuram port
  • Silambimangalam port
  • Parangipettai port
  • PY-03 Oil Field (Operational).[7]

Notable people

  • Jothi Ramalinga Swamigal, also familiarly known as Vallalar (October 5, 1823 - January 23, 1873), was born, as Ramalingam, in a village near Chidambaram.
  • Vethathiri Maharishi [1]
  • Jayakanthan,(born April 24, 1934) is a Tamil writer, essayist, journalist, pamphleteer, film-maker and critic.
  • Famous Indian Twins also known as "Arcot twins Brothers" Sir Arcot RamaSwamy Mudaliar and Sir Arcot Lakshmana Swamy Mudaliar were born and resided in this town. Legendary twins
  • Aswath Damodaran (famous Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business at New York, grandson of Sir Arcot Ramaswamy Mudaliar).
  • Cuddalore Janani is a fast upcoming singer. She has a bagful of awards. The pick of the lot - National Award for Exceptional Achievement In Classical Music (Vocal) - 2001 from the Central Government and the Ilam Kalaimani Award from the Tamil Nadu Government in 2003
  • Kriya Babaji- In the year 203 AD, Kriya Babaji Nagaraj was born on the night before the new moon during the Tamil month Karthigai (November 30). There is a temple constructed for him in his place of birth.
  • C.K. Ranganathan of founder of Chik Shampoo was born and raised in Cuddalore.
  • Shri Kannayan Ramalingam, Chairman of Airport Authority of India (AAI).
  • Muralidhar Swamigal was born in Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, South India on 8 November 1961.
  • V. Vaithilingam (born October 5, 1950 in Cuddalore) was a Chief Minister of Pondicherry, serving from 1991 to 1996 and 2008 to 2011.
  • Justice K. Kannan, Judge, high court of Judicature at Madras. author of several leading law books including ones on injunction and insurance. Editor of the Oldest private Journal, Madras Law Journal.
  • Sri Gopi Bhagavathar Panduranga Leela Bhajans hails from Cuddalore
  • India's Under World Don Haji Mastan was born in Cuddalore.

SportsmenSportswomenSports Accomplishments

  • Abraham Rajan Asian Games Gold Medalist, trained in Cuddalore during the late 70s and early 80s.
  • Balambal Balasubramaiyam (born and raised in Cuddalore) was a national athlete during the early 70s, represented Railways and participated in the World Masters championship held in Spain.
  • R. Ramkumar, Tamil Nadu Ranji Cricketer was born in Cuddalore
  • Krish Srikanth (Indian Captain, Cricket Commentator and Current(2010) Indian Team Selection Committee Chairman. Srikanths family hails from Cuddalore)
  • S. Balaji (born in Cuddalore, cricketer, played for Railways in the Ranji Trophy and represented ICF in the Chennai League).
  • Cuddalore (Earlier South Arcot) won the Inter-District Cricket Championship in 1969 (SS Rajan Trophy), PR Thevar Trophy (U-19) in the year 1980 and Runners up in 1979.

The 2004 Asian Tsunami Disaster and aftermath

Tsunami waves that followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake near Sumatra hit the eastern coast of India on 26 December 2004 by 08:32 in the morning. Cuddalore was heavily affected by the waves. 572 bodies were recovered and many are still missing. Several fishing hamlets have simply disappeared. Silver Beach and the historically important Cuddalore Port were devastated. Fort St. David survived without damage.

Cuddalore, being accessible from major cities like Chennai and Bangalore, received relief supplies relatively early. The management of relief operations in the district was handled by the local authorities and villagers themselves. Some remote villages became inaccessible due to a bridge breaking apart, leaving rescued villagers very anxious about their homes.

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links

See also



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