Coimbatore district


Coimbatore district
Coimbatore District

கோயம்புத்தூர் மாவட்டம்

—  district  —
D.B. Road in R. S. Puram, Coimbatore


Location of Coimbatore District
in Tamil Nadu
Coordinates 11°0′45″N 76°58′17″E / 11.0125°N 76.97139°E / 11.0125; 76.97139Coordinates: 11°0′45″N 76°58′17″E / 11.0125°N 76.97139°E / 11.0125; 76.97139
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
Subdistrict(s) Coimbatore North, Coimbatore South, Coimbatore West Pollachi, Mettupalayam
Headquarters Coimbatore
Largest city Coimbatore
Largest metro Coimbatore
Collector M Karunakaran, IAS
Assembly constituency 12
Planning Agency Coimbatore Local Planning Authority
Municipal Corporations Coimbatore
Municipalities
Town Panchayats
Population

Density

5,472,578[1] (2011)

572 /km2 (1,481 /sq mi) (2001)

Sex ratio M-50.81%/F-49.19% /
Literacy

• Male
• Female

69%% 

• 75%%
• 63.1%%

Official languages Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

• Coastline

4,850 square kilometres (1,870 sq mi)

0 kilometres (0 mi)

Climate

Precipitation
Temperature
• Summer
• Winter


     700 mm (28 in)

     35 °C (95 °F)
     18 °C (64 °F)

Central location: 11°15′N 77°19′E / 11.25°N 77.317°E / 11.25; 77.317
Website Official website of Coimbatore District

Coimbatore District (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர் மாவட்டம்) is one of the more affluent and industrially advanced districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. Coimbatore is known as the Manchester of South India. It one of the most industrialized towns of Tamil Nadu. It has the highest GDP among the districts of Tamil Nadu, even ahead of the state capital Chennai. The region is bounded by Kerala state and is surrounded by the districts of Tirupur District,Nilgiris District, Erode District.[2]The headquarters of the district is Coimbatore city. Except taluks like Mettupalayam and Pollachi all other parts belong to Coimbatore city itself and few parts of Tirupur district.

Most of the city region of Coimbatore comes under this district. Proximity to the city of Coimbatore has its own impact on the district, with a considerable daily commuting population. The rural people are mostly agriculturists, although with the advent of SEZs in the area, service and IT industries are booming. The second largest city in Tamil Nadu, which is located approximately 497 km from Chennai, the state capital. It is highest revenue yielding district in the state, next to Chennai district.

Contents

History

The district was ruled successively by several dynasties of South India. Under the Cholas during the 11th century, the present-day Coimbatore came into existence as a jungle village under an Irula chieftain. The district was occupied by Mysore in 18th century from the Madurai rulers and after the Mysore wars in 1799, the district was occupied by the British until the Indian independence in 1947.

Geography and climate

Landscape near Pollachi

Coimbatore district lies in the western part of Tamil Nadu, part of the Kongu Nadu region. The district borders with Palakkad district of Kerala in the West, Nilgiris district in the north, Erode district in the North East and East, Idukki district of Kerala in the South and Dindigul district in the south east. The district has an area of 7,649 square kilometers. The South Western and Northern parts are hilly, part of the Western Ghats, and enjoys pleasant climate all throughout the year with heavy rainfall. To the West is the Palghat Gap, the only major pass in the long stretch of the ghats abutting Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Palghat Gap, connecting Coimbatore city and Palakkad city, serves as an important transit link for both the states. The rest of the district lies in the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats and experiences salubrious climate most parts of the year. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for Coimbatore city during summer and winter vary between 35°C to 18°C.[3] The average annual rainfall in the plains is around 700 mm with the North East and the South West monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall.[4] The major rivers flowing through the district are Bhavani, Noyyal, Amaravathi and Aliyar. The Siruvani dam is the main source of drinking water for Coimbatore city and is known for its tasty water. Siruvani dam is said to be naturally formed dam surrounded by mountains of western ghats and there are no rivers at all in the name of siruvani.

Waterfalls in Coimbatore District include Chinnakallar Falls, Monkey Falls, Sengupathi Falls, Siruvani Waterfalls, Thirumoorthy Falls and Vaideki Falls.

Demographics

It had a population of 29,16,620 as of 2001, with a decennial growth rate of 21.76%.[5] The literacy rate of the district is 69%. Distribution of the population by age groups is as per the following table.

Age group Percentage of the population
0-14 23.2%
15-59 67.5%
60 and above 9.3%

Tamil is the principal language spoken in the district, with sizable minorities of Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada speakers. Hindus formed the majority of the population at 90.08% followed by Muslims at 5.33%, Christians at 4.35% and others at 0.24%.[6] As per the 2001 Census, Coimbatore district had a population density of 600 persons per square kilometer and a sex ratio of 963 females for every 1000 males.

Administration and politics

Assembly
Constituency
Political
Party
Elected
Representative
Mettupalayam AIADMK O.K. Chinnaraj
Thondamuthur INC M.N. Kandaswamy
Singanallur AIADMK R. Chinnaswamy
Coimbatore West AIADMK T. Malarvan
Coimbatore East DMK N. Pongalur Palanisamy
Perur AIADMK S.P. Velumani
Kinathukadavu AIADMK S. Damodaran
Pollachi AIADMK V. Jayaraman
Valparai INC Kovai Thangam
Pongalur DMK S. Mani
Lok Sabha
Constituency
Political
Party
Elected
Representative
Coimbatore CPI(M) P.R. Natarajan
Pollachi AIADMK K. Sugumar
Nilgiris (SC) DMK A. Raja
Source: Indian Elections / Election Commission of India.[7][8]

The district collector of Coimbatore is Thiru M. Karunakaran, IAS and the District Revenue Officer is Thiru. A. Shanmuga Sundaram.[9] The following table enlists the details of Revenue Divisions, Taluks, Firkas and Revenue Villages.[10]

Revenue Division No. of taluks No. of zones No. of Firkas No. of revenue villages
Coimbatore 3 4 15 100
Pollachi 3 6 18 225
Total 6 10 33 325

Out of the two revenue divisions, Coimbatore is industrially developed and Pollachi is predominantly agriculture. Coimbatore district has 3 parliament constituencies and 10 assembly constituencies.[11] Under former alliances, from the Tamil Nadu assembly elections of 2006, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) and its allies won 7 constituencies and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and its allies won the remaining 3 constituencies. Since in 2009, the Left Front joined the AIADMK alliance, AIADMK and its allies now hold power in 10 constituencies, while DMK and its allies hold power in 5 constituencies.

Transport

NH 209 which passes through Coimbatore district
Coimbatore city railway station
Coimbatore Airport front view

Coimbatore district is well connected by roads and highways. There are five Regional Transport Offices at[12]:

  • Coimbatore South - TN 37
  • Coimbatore North - TN 38
  • Coimbatore West - TN 39
  • Coimbatore Central - TN 66
  • Mettupalayam, Annur - TN 40
  • Pollachi - TN 41

There are three National Highways namely NH-47, NH-67 and NH 209 connects the City to other parts of the States. There are railway stations at Peelamedu, Singanallur, Vellalore, Coimbatore North Junction, Mettupalayam, Irugur, Podanur and the Coimbatore City railway station is the largest railway station.[13] The district is served by the Coimbatore International Airport about 17 km from the city centre. Coimbatore Junction is the second highest revenue yielder in Southern Railways after Chennai in Tamil Nadu.

Flora and fauna

Western Ghats on the Coimbatore-Palakkad National Highway

Coimbatore district is home to Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. The Park and the Sanctuary are the core of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and is under consideration by UNESCO as part of The Western Ghats World Heritage site.[14] The park is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna typical of the South Western Ghats. There are over 2000 species plants of which about 400 species are of prime medicinal value. The animals in the park include Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Elephant, Indian Giant Flying Squirrel. The birds endemic to the Western Ghats residing here include Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Nilgiri Pipit, Nilgiri Flycatcher, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Spot-billed Pelican etc. The Amaravathi reservoir and the Amaravathi river are breeding grounds for the Mugger Crocodiles.[15]

Major city and Suburbs

  • Coimbatore - Capital of the district and the second largest city in Tamil Nadu. Major manufactuing and commercial centre in the region, nicknamed 'Manchester of South India'.
  • Pollachi - Major agricultural trading centre (in the south of Coimbatore).
  • Kinathukadavu -A Suburb of Coimbatore city, which is included by Coimbatore Corporation in the mid of Coimbatore and Pollachi.Famous for Tomato market and Fencing Stones.
  • Mettupalayam - Agriculture (arecanut and betel) centre (in the north of Coimbatore).
  • Valparai - Famous hill station in the district (in the south of coimbatore)
  • Sirumugai - A town panchayat,rich in Agriculture and textile.It is famous for Kora puttu,SIV industry (rayon) and Temples (in the north of Coimbatore).
  • Annur - A Suburb of Coimbatore city, which is included by Coimbatore Corporation rich in textile industry and agriculture (in the north-east of Coimbatore on the National Highway 209).
  • Sulur - A Suburb of Coimbatore city, which is included by Coimbatore Corporation rich in textile industry (in the east of Coimbatore).

Vellalore Vellalore is a part of Coimbatore City on north bank of noyyal . It is rich in Agriculture. It was recently meged with the Corporation of Coimbatore.

Industries

Coimbatore trade center

Textiles are the major industry in the Coimbatore district; it is one of the important textile hubs of India. Coimbatore is also called the "Manchester of South India" because it houses many textile industries. India's leading Textile Machinery Manufacturer "Lakshmi Machine Works Ltd" produces textile machinery for textile mills in India and abroad. LMW is the pride of Coimbatore. There are many electric pump manufacturing companies in and around Coimbatore, such as Deccan, CRI, Texmo, KSB, Sharp. Coimbatore also houses some auto component manufacturing brands, such as Roots, Pricol and LGB. German auto component major Robert Bosch started their R & D facility in Coimbatore. Coimbatore also houses many Information Technology and Business Process Outsourcing companies such as Cognizant Technology Solutions and Perot Systems. The district is home to almost 50% of the poultry population of Tamil Nadu.[16]

Major crops

  • Gingelly (With 34% share, the district is the top producer in Tamil Nadu.)[17]
  • Cotton
  • Coconut
  • Arenut and betel
  • Corn, maize and millet
  • Wheat and rice (limited areas)
  • Sugarcane (limited areas)
  • Tea
  • Coffee
  • Pepper
  • Poultry
  • Jaggery

Education

Coimbatore has three universities in Anna University Coimbatore, Bharathiar University and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. To add to this, there are several deemed universities in the district. There are various Engineering, Medical, Law, Hotel Management and Arts & Science colleges, the most prominent ones being PSG College of Technology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology and Government Law College.

References

External links



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