Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh


Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

{category|}Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = metropolitan city
type_2 = capital
native_name = Hyderabad
nickname = "The City of Pearls, The City of the Nizams."
state_name = Andhra Pradesh
skyline = Hyderabad india .jpg
skyline_caption = Charminar, the most enduring symbol of the city
latd = 17.366
longd = 78.476
locator_position = right
region = Andhra Pradesh
district = Hyderabad
area_total = 6856
area_magnitude = 2
attitude = 536
coastline = 0
climate = Aw
precip = 803
temp_annual = 26.0
temp_summer = 30.9
temp_winter = 23.5
distance_1 = 1499
direction_1 = S
destination_1 = Delhi
mode_1 = land
distance_2 = 711
direction_2 = SE
destination_2 = Mumbai
mode_2 = land
distance_3 = 658
direction_3 = N
destination_3 = Chennai
mode_3 = land
population_as_of = 2008
population_total = 4 893 640
population_metro = 6 696 939
population_metro_as_of = 2008 june
population_metro_rank = 5th
population_density = 16215
official_languages = Hindi, Telugu, Urdu
leader_title_1 = Mayor
leader_name_1 = Election due
leader_title_2 = Commissioner
leader_name_2 = N K Singh
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1592
parliament_const = Hyderabad, Secunderabad, malkajgiri(new)
planning_agency = GHMC
area_telephone = 91-40
postal_code = 500 xxx
vehicle_code_range = AP9, AP10, AP11, AP12, AP13, AP28, AP29
unlocode = INHYD
website = www.ghmc.gov.in/
footnotes =

Hyderabad audio|Hyderabad.ogg|pronunciation ( _te. హైదరాబాదు)is the capital city and most populous city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad has an estimated population of around 4.4 million. Greater Hyderabad metropolitan area has an estimated metropolitan population of 8.8 million, making it an A-1 status city.

Hyderabad is known for its rich history, culture and architecture representing its unique character as a meeting point for North and South India, and also its multilingual culture, both geographically and culturally.Also known as "The City of Nizams" and "The City of Pearls," [http://www.boloji.com/places/0028.htm] Hyderabad is today one of the fast developing cities in the country and a modern hub of Information technology, ITES, and biotechnology.

Hyderabad has become a preferred conference venue in India as well as in Asia, with many conferences and meetings taking place in the city. The city is home to the world's largest film studio, the Ramoji Film City as well as the second largest film industry in the country, the Telugu Film Industry known popularly as Tollywood. The city is also known to be a sporting destination with many national and international games conducted here. The city is regarded as a blend of traditionality with modernity.

Etymology

After founding the city, Quli Qutb Shah fell in love with and married a local Banjara girl, who converted to Islam and changed her name to Hyder Mahal. Hence the new city was named Hyderabad (literally, "the city of Hyder").cite journal |title=Telugu Vāṇi |pages=12 |author=International Telugu Institute ( _te. Antarjātīya Telugu Saṃstha) ]

History

Hyderabad's history dates back to 500 BC, as proved by the discovery of numerous Iron Age sites belonging to that era. [cite web
url=http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ET_Cetera/Hyderabads_history_dates_back_to_500_BC/articleshow/3468146.cms
title=Hyderabad's history could date back to 500 BC
publisher=Economic Times
accessdate=2008-09-10
]

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty the ruling family of the Golconda, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in 1512, founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591;cite book |title=Historical Dictionary of the British Empire |last=Olson |first=JS and R Shadle |pages=544 |year=1996 |publisher=Greenwood |isbn=0-31329-366-X ] to relieve a water shortage the dynasty had experienced at their old headquarters at Golconda.cite book |title=Developments in Administration Under H.E.H. the Nizam VII |last=Aleem |first=S |pages=243 |year=1984 |publisher=Osmania University Press ] He also ordered the construction of the Charminar, the iconic monument of the city, in 1591, reportedly in gratitude to the Almighty for arresting the plague epidemic before it did irreversible damage to his new city.cite book |title=Encyclopedia of India |last=Bansal |first=SP |pages=61 |year=2007 |publisher=Smriti |isbn=8-18796-771-4 ]

The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured Hyderabad in 1687 and during this short Mughal rule. But the Mughal-appointed governors of the city soon gained autonomy. In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over Hyderabad. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad until a year after India's independence from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad both culturally and economically. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the kingdom and Golconda was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, Himayat Sagar, and others were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams which is a tourist attraction.The state was richest and the largest among the princely states of India.The land area of the state was 90,543 mi² its population in 1901 was 5,00,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £9,00,29,000.

After the Indian independence in 1947, under the terms of independence from the British, the Nizam wanted to either remain independent or accede to Pakistan. India, then, implemented an economic blockade and forced Hyderabad state to sign a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union. On September 17, 1948, more than a year after India had gained independence, the Nizam signed the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union in the aftermath of Operation Polo.

On November 1, 1956, the states of India were reorganized on linguistic grounds. The territories of the State of Hyderabad were divided between newly created "Andhra Pradesh", Bombay state (later Maharashtra), and Karnataka. Hyderabad and the surrounding areas were added to Andhra Pradesh, based on the Telugu speaking community. Thus, Hyderabad became the capital city of the new state of Andhra Pradesh.

Geography and climate

Situated on the Deccan Plateau, Hyderabad has an average elevation of about 500 metres above sea level (1640 ft). Most of the area has a rocky terrain and some areas are hilly. There is a lot of cultivation in the surrounding areas with paddy fields and other crops which are grown.

climate chart
Hyderabad
16|27|6
18|31|9
22|33|16
25|36|17
26|37|40
24|32|116
23|29|155
22|28|163
22|29|152
21|28|97
18|28|29
15|27|3
source= [http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=43128&Units=both Weather Underground]
float=left
clear=left

The original city of Hyderabad was founded on the banks of river Musi. Now known as the historic "Old City", home to the Charminar and Mecca Masjid, it lies on the southern bank of the river. The city center saw a shift to the north of the river, with the construction of many government buildings and landmarks there, especially south of the Hussain Sagar lake. The rapid growth of the city, along with the growth of Secunderabad and neighboring municipalities has resulted in a large and populous metropolitan area.

Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate with hot summers from late February to early June, the monsoon season from late June to early October and a warm winter from late October to early February. Hyderabad gets about 32 inches (about 810 mm) of rain every year, almost all of it concentrated in the monsoon months. The highest temperature ever recorded was 42 o C (107 F) while the lowest recorded temperature was 10 o C (50 F) [cite web
last = Weatherbase
url = http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=82134&refer=&units=metric
accessdate = 2008-10-03
] .

Demographics

IndiaCensusPop
title= Hyderabad Population
1971= 1796000
1981= 2546000
1991= 4544000
2001= 8852000
estimate=
estyear=
estref=
footnote= Source: Census of Indiacite web|url=http://www.cicred.org/Eng/Seminars/Details/Seminars/PDE2007/Papers/IYER_Neelakantan_paperNairobi2008-project.pdf|title=Census population|Title=Population data|work=Census of India|publisher=Cicred|pages=21|accessdate=2008-06-07]
The city's population in 2001 was 5.7 million and it has reached over 8.8 million in 2008 making it 4th largest city in India , while the population of the metropolitan area was estimated at over 9.5 million. Hinduism is the most widely practiced religion in the city, followed by Islam. Muslims have substantial presence across the city and especially they are densely concentrated in and around Old City. Christians constitute a small amount of the city's population. Churches are located across the city and the popular ones are in Abids area.

Though Telugu and Urdu are the principal languages of the city, Hindi is also used around the city especially among the North Indians settled here. English has a strong presence among the educated people. The city has a considerable Tamil population [cite web
url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/136824.cms
title=Telugu in Tamil Nadu and Tamil in Hyderabad
publisher=The Times of India
accessdate=2008-10-09
] , along with other communities such as Marathi, Malayalee and Sikh.

The Telugu spoken here has assimilated many Urdu words into it. Similarly, Urdu spoken here is also unique, with influences of Telugu and Marathi, giving rise to a dialect sometimes called Hyderabadi Urdu or Deccani. Telugu spoken in Hyderabad and rest of Telangana is distinct from the one spoken in Coastal Andhra.

Administration

The city is administered by "Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation" (GHMC), [cite web
url=http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/17/stories/2008041719080100.htm
title=GHMC comes into existence
publisher=The Hindu
accessdate=2008-04-17
] whose titular head is the Mayor who has few executive powers. In the past, the mayor was chosen by the legislative body of the corporation, but just before the last elections, the state government modified the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad Act to stipulate that the mayoral election be held directly and simultaneously with the corporation elections. The real executive power of the corporation is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an IAS officer appointed by the Andhra Pradesh state government. The Mayor and the Corporation legislative body can and have been in the past dismissed by the state government. For several years elections had not been held for the corporation. Recently the corporation completed its full term and elections are due to the GHMC and for the post of Mayor.

A large part of the twin city Secunderabad and some parts of Hyderabad itself come under the jurisdiction of the Secunderabad Cantonment Board(SCB) owing to a large presence of military units. The Hyderabad Police comes under the state Home Ministry and is headed by a Police Commissioner, an IPS officer. Basheerbagh, houses important government offices such as the Police Commissioner's office, Police Control room, Income tax Commissioner's office, Central Excise and customs office, Central Reservation office etc. The city is divided into five police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Hyderabad Police.

The GHMC is in charge of the civic needs and the infrastructure of the metropolis. Hyderabad is divided into 110 municipal wards, each overseen by a corporator. The corporators of the administration are elected through a popular vote, and almost all the field candidates.The metropolitan area of Hyderabad covers three districts, Hyderabad Rangareddy and Medak. The administration of each district is headed by a District Collector who is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central government. The district collector also oversees the national elections held in the city.

Hyderabad is the seat of the State High Court known as the AP HIgh Court, and also has two lower courts - the Small Causes Court for civil matters and the Sessions Court for criminal cases.Hyderabad elects two members to the Lok Sabha, the lower-house of the Indian parliament, who represent the constituencies of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. In addition, parts of the city overlap two other Lok Sabha electoral districts. Hyderabad elects thirteen representatives to the State's Legislative Assembly.

Hyderabad has 13 assembly constituency under it. Asifnagar, Charminar, ChandrayanaGutta, Contonment, Himayathnagar, Karwan, Khairatabad, Malakpeta, Maharajganj, Mushirabad, Secunderabad, Sanathnagar & Yakhuthpura.These are going to change shape with the delimitation of constituencies coming into force w.e.f. 2009 general elections.The new Assembly segments are Amberpet, Jubilee Hills, Khairatabad, Musheerabad, Nampally, Sanatnagar, Secunderabad under Secunderabad LS seat;Bahadurpura, Chandrayanagutta, Charminar, Goshamahal, Karwan, Malakpet, Yakutpura under Hyderabad LS seat;Cantonment, Kukatpally, LBNagar, Malkajgiri,Quthbullapur,Uppal under Malkajgiri LS seat;Rajendranagar and Serilingampally under Chevella LS seat

Economy

See Also:List of IT companies in HyderabadHyderabad is the financial and economic capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product, state tax and excise revenues. The workforce participation is about 29.55 percent. Starting in the 1990s, the economic pattern of the city has changed from being a primarily service city to being one with a more diversified spectrum, including trade, transport, commerce, storage, communication etc. Service industry is the major contributor, with urban workforce constituting 90% of the total workforce.Fact|date=March 2008

Hyderabad is known as the city of pearls, lakes and, lately, for its IT companies. The bangles market known as Laad Bazaar is situated near Charminar. Products such as silverware, saris, Nirmal and Kalamkari paintings and artifacts, unique Bidri handcrafted items, lacquer bangles studded with stones, silk-ware, cotton-ware and handloom-based clothing materials are made and traded through the city for centuries.

Hyderabad is a major centre for pharmaceuticals with companies such as Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Matrix Laboratories, Hetero Drugs Limited, Divis Labs, Aurobindo Pharma Limited and Vimta Labs being housed in the city. Initiatives such as Genome Valley, Fab City and the Nano Technology park are expected to create extensive infrastructure in bio-technology. [cite web |url=http://www.iciciknowledgepark.com/icicikp/iciciinnerfiles/genomevalley.htm |title=The Genome Valley, Hyderabad |accessdate=2006-03-06] Like many Indian cities, Hyderabad has witnessed a remarkable growth in the real estate business, thanks to a predominantly information-technology-driven boom in the 1990s and the retail industry growth over the last few years which have spurred hectic commercial activity. A number of mega malls have come up or are being built in the city. Real Estate demand in the suburban and rural areas surrounding Hyderabad has gone up exponentially leading to reckless increase in prices over the past few years.

The retail industry in Hyderabad is on the rise. Many International and national brands have set up retail chains here. The city has multiple CBDs (Central Business district) spread across the city. Major business/commercial districts are Abids, Ameerpet-Punjagutta-Somajiguda areas, Banjara Hills, Charminar area, Dilsukhnagar, Kukatpally etc. For the advancement of infrastructure in the city, the government is building a skyscraper business district at Manchirevula with a 450 m supertall APIIC Tower at its centre, which upon completion may be the tallest building in India.

Information Technology Industry

Hyderabad city is today known for its IT and IT Enabled Services, Pharmaceuticals and Entertainment industries. Many Software firms, call centres, Business process outsourcing (BPO) firms, dealing with IT and other technological services were set up in the 1990s making it one of the major regions for call centre setups, technology development and KPO hubs in India. The development of a township with state-of-the-art facilities called HITEC City prompted several IT and ITES companies to set up operations in the city. An aggressive promotion of growth in this area has led civic boosters to call the city "Cyberabad". Hyderabad has also been referred to as the second Silicon Valley of India next to Bangalore. [cite web
url=http://finance.indiainfo.com/news/2005/05/11/1105it-exports.html
title=Report on IT exports of India
accessdate=2007-12-05
] There have been extensive investments in digital infrastructure within the city promoting the setting up of several campuses by a vast array of companies within the city. This list includes several multinational corporations having established their development centres in the city. The major areas where such campuses have been set up are Madhapur and Gachibowli.

Hyderabad is home to many Fortune 500 Corporations, majority of them are related to IT industry. Microsoft (the largest R&D campus outside the US), Computer Associates, Amazon, GE, IBM,AMD, Accenture, Google, Motorola, DuPont, Deloitte, Oracle Corporation, Yahoo, Dell, Franklin Templeton, Qualcomm, Agilent, ADP, UBS AG, Rockwell Collins, Bank of America, CSC, Verizon, Convergys, Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Virtusa, are some the Fortune 500 companies that have significant presence in Hyderabad. Honeywell plans to open up a new R&D centre at Nanakramguda, which is situated on the outskirts of the city.

Indian IT giants such as Satyam, Infosys, Wipro, Patni Computer Systems, Cognizant Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services, ICICI Bank, Polaris, Infotech, Avineon, Apollo Health Street, Zavata Inc and Mayur's group of industries also have set up their development centres in the city.

Transport

Road

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation [cite web
url=http://apsrtc.gov.in APSRTC official web site
title=APSRTC
publisher=
accessdate=2006-08-29
] runs a fleet of 19,000 buses, the largest in the world. [ [http://www.apsrtc.gov.in/About%20Us/guinnes.htm guinnnes ] ] Hyderabad has the third largest bus station facility in Asia, with 72 platforms for 89 buses to load passengers at a time. Officially named as the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station, it is locally known as the Imlibun Bus Station.

The yellow colored Auto Rickshaw usually referred to as an "auto", is the most widely used transport/ taxi service and has flag down of Rs 12 for first 1.5 km and then Rs 7 per km. Radio Taxis by private players have provided a luxury travel in the city but are expensive.

Hyderabad is connected to the rest of the country by National Highways—NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202. Like other cities, Hyderabad suffers from traffic congestion. Inner and Outer Ring Roads, going in and around Hyderabad city is also underway and is proposed to make travel in the city easier. Many flyovers and subways are also being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.

Rail

Hyderabad has a combination of light rail transportation system known as the MultiModal Transport System (MMTS) and suburban railway system which offer connectivity between rail and road transport for the facility of the commuters. MMTS provides connectivity to all major parts of the city, and is a suitable alternative for those who want to avoid road traffic. The South Central Railway headquarters are located at Secunderabad. The three main railway stations are Secunderabad Railway Station, Hyderabad Railway Station (Nampally) and Kachiguda Railway Station. Secunderabad is one of the biggest railway junctions and connects Hyderabad to the rest of the country. The Hyderabad Railway Station at Nampally is the main station for the city, providing connectivity to all other parts of the state as well the country.

The Hyderabad Metro has been planned and constructional activity will begin in October 2008. The Metro is expected to ease the burgeoning traffic in the city. The Metro will travel in three different routes,with a stretch of 71 km approximately, extending even to the outskirts in the second phase of its construction. [cite web
url=http://www.ourmch.com/
title=Hyderabad Growth Corridor - Outer ring road
publisher=
accessdate=2007-08-29
]

Air

There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of passengers leading to increased air traffic. The Airport at Begumpet was unable to cope up with the situation and was shut down on 22 March 2008. The new state-of-the-art Rajiv Gandhi International Airport opened on March 2008 by Smt.Sonia Gandhi at Shamshabad, southwest of the city. The airport has the second longest runway in India next to Delhi and caters to the high passenger and cargo transits. An express flyover at a length of 11.5 km is being constructed from Mehdipatnam to Aramgarh for providing dedicated high speed travel to the airport. A proposal for extending the MMTS to the new airport is under consideration. There are three wide roads leading to the new airport from the city and modern taxis can shuttle passengers between the city and the airport.The Outer Ring Road from Gachibowli to Shamshabad is being allowed to vehicular traffic from November 2008 onwards.

Culture

The City has evolved into a cosmopolitan society due to the heavy presence of the Information technology Industry while maintaining ancient culture and traditions. Historically, Hyderabad has been the city where distinct cultural and linguistic traditions of North India and South India meet. "Hyderabadis", as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of ancient Hindu traditions of Telugu people and Islamic Culture.

Women of all cultures and faiths in Hyderabad typically wear either the traditional Indian dress, the sari, or, increasingly, the Salwar kameez especially among the younger population. The traditional Hyderabadi garb for females are the Khara Dupatta and the Shalwar Qamis, and for the males, it is the Sherwani. This is one of the more visible cultural attributes of Hyderabad.One of Hyderabad's public carnivals is the annual immersion of Lord Ganesh idols after the 10 day Ganesh Chaturthi celebrations on Ananta Chaturdashi (locally known as the Ganesh Nimajjanam). Bonalu a vernacular festival that is celebrated with great fervour. Another is the procession of Muharram which takes place every year 10th Muharram (1st month of Islamic calendar). While this event is mourned throughout the Shia Muslim world , the old city of Hyderabad is known for its grand procession in which participants sacrifice their own blood by hitting on their heads, chest and back with sharp edge weapons (knives, swords and knives attached to chains).

Hyderabadi cuisine is a blend of Mughal and Persian cuisine. Hyderabadi Biryani is an iconic dish of the region. Other native preparations include Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha, Phirni (a sweet vermicelli porridge eaten during the festival of "Deepawali", Nahari Kulche also known as "paya" and Haleem (a meat dish traditionally eaten during the holy month of Ramzan), Kaddu Ki Kheer(A sweet porridge made with sweet guard), Sheer Qorma(a sweet liquidy dish cooked with vermicelli and milk), Mirchi ka saalan, Bagaare Baigan, Khatti Dal, Khichdi and Khatta, Til ki chutney, baigan ki chutney, Til ka Khatta, Aam ka Achaar, Gosht ka achaar, Peosi [a sweet prepaired with egg white and milk] , Shahi Tukde, Kheema Aaloo(absolut favorite of the natives). The natives are known for using Imli in most of the curries.

Indian sweets are known for their ghee-based items. Mozamjahi Market located in Nampally, is known for its fruit biscuits and the sweet "Dil Khush". A family residing in Azeez Bagh palace in the old part of the city is famous for the preparation of "badaam ki jaali" (Almond lattice confection).Fact|date=August 2007 Also widely found on street-corners are Irani café's that offer "Irani chai", "Irani samosa" and "Osmania biscuit".

ister Cities

Hyderabad has several sister cities. [ [http://www.sister-cities.org/ Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI)] ]

Education and research

Hyderabad is an important seat of learning in India. The city is home to three central universities, two deemed universities, and six state universities. Among them is the Osmania University, established in 1917, which is the seventh oldest university in India and the third oldest in South India.cite web
url=http://www.osmania.ac.in/AboutUsVCSpeech.htm
title="Vice Chancellor's Speech about Osmania University"
accessdate=2007-11-15
] Important institutions for technical education such as Indian Institute Of Technology ,Hyderabad ,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, International Institute of Information Technology are located in this city.
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, a well known educational institution in the field of Agriculture is located on the outskirts of the city. Important medical institutions such as the Gandhi Medical College, Osmania Medical College and several other private medical colleges such as Deccan College of Medical Sciences are located in Hyderabad.

The Indian School of Business, a top ranking business school which attracts students from all over the world is present at Gachibowli, Hyderabad. Hyderabad Central University, National Academy of Legal Studies & Research, Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Maulana Azad National Urdu University and English and Foreign Languages University are other famous universities which are present in the city.

Hyderabad has various research institutes such as the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and ICRISAT. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has research centres in Hyderabad to develop communication and radar systems and for the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP). Nuclear energy sector has a strong presence with three organisations under Department of Atomic Energy (India) including the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) and Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL).

Media

Hyderabad is home to the second largest film industry in India, Telugu cinema, also known as "Tollywood" which produces approximately 150 movies every year. Saradhi Studios, Annapurna Studios, Ramanaidu Studios, Ramakrishna Studios, Padmalaya Studios, Ramoji Film City (the largest Film Studio in the world) are some of the notable film studios in the city. The first Hyderabad International Film Festival (HIFF) was organised in 2007 by the Hyderabad Film Club and Andhra Pradesh Film Directors Association. Prasads at Hyderabad has an IMAX screen as well as smaller multiplex screens and other malls inside it. Adlabs Goldspot, PVR Cinemas, Cine Planet and Talkie Town are few other multiplexes in Hyderabad with the famous ADLABS chain of multiplexes opened 4 screens at Ameerpet and 17 more multiplexes to be opened very soon. Ravindra Bharati located at Saifabad circle, is an important and well known center for theatre and performing arts in the city. Many artists from around the world perform here regularly. Lalitha Kala Thoranam located within the Public gardens at Nampally, is also a similar center for arts and theatre.

The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. The FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR "Vividh Bharathi" FM (102.8 MHz), AIR Rainbow FM (101.9 MHz), Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Radio City FM (91.1 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), S FM (93.5 MHz) and AIR Gyan Vani FM (107.6 MHz). State-owned Doordarshan transmits two terrestrial television channels and one satellite television channel from Hyderabad. Many private regional television channels broadcast from Hyderabad, including DD-Saptagiri, ETV, Gemini, Teja, Maa TV, Maa Music, ETV Urdu, Vissa, ETV2, TV9, Zee Telugu, Gemini Music, Gemini News, NTV, TV 5, Bhakthi TV, Samskruthi, Shubhavartha TV, Sahara Samay .A channel from Asianet communications called Sitara is due to start operations soon.

Hyderabad has three print media groups that publish several newspapers and magazines in English, Telugu and Urdu. The major Telugu dailies include the Saakshi, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Andhra Bhoomi, Praja Shakthi, Eenadu. The major English dailies are The Deccan Chronicle, Business Standard, The Hindu, The Times of India, The Indian Express and The Economic Times. Hyderbad publishes the maximum number of Urdu dailies than any other Indian city. The major Urdu dailies are The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily, The Etemaad, Rehnuma-e-Deccan, Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, and The Daily Milap.

Hyderabad is covered by a large network of optical fibre cables. The city's telephone system is serviced by four Telecom Utility companies: BSNL, Tata Indicom, Reliance and Airtel. There are seven mobile phone companies: GSM players include BSNL, Vodafone, Idea, Airtel and CDMA is offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom and Reliance. Soon to be joining this list would be Spice Telecom. Several companies like BSNL, Beam Cable, Pioneer, Tata Indicom, Bharti, Hathway, Reliance, Vodafone, Sify Ltd. and YOU Telecom offer broadband Internet access.

Sports

Cricket and Hockey are the most popular sports in the city. Hyderabad Sultans won the inaugural Premiere Hockey League championship in 2005. Cricket is the favorite sport among kids and the youth, and is played in all varieties such as home cricket, street cricket, ground cricket etc. The game of Badminton is usually played by adults and veterans in the locality parks.

The earliest stadium built in the city is the Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium. Formerly known as Fateh Maidan, it was, till recently, the city's only stadium that could conduct International cricket matches. The first cricket match played here was on November 19, 1955. The stadium is currently being used to conduct ICL matches. The new Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium at Uppal has a capacity of approximately 65,000 spectators and is being enhanced to have world class facilities. Hyderabad's cricket team in the Indian Premier League was bought by Deccan Chronicle for USD 107 million. Notable players include Adam Gilchrist, Andrew Symonds, VVS Laxman, Herschelle Gibbs, Scott Styris, RP Singh, Shahid Afridi, Rohit Sharma and Chaminda Vaas.

The city also houses the Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex, the G.M.C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium and the Velodrome. The Aquatics Complex Stadium with a capacity of 3000 spectators hosts swimming, diving, water polo and synchronized events. Kotla Vijay Bhaskar Reddy Indoor Stadium is multi-purpose stadium with a capacity of 2500 spectators and wooden flooring with temperature control. SAAP Tennis Complex has a central court that holds 5000 spectators and has seven courts with synthetic surface. The city also has five Go-Karting tracks and a Paint Ball Field.

The city is well known for Horse racing. The Hyderabad Race Club formerly known as the Nizam Race Club is located at Malakpet. The Hyderabad race club attracts jockeys from all over the country by conducting various derbys/events here. Deccan derby, a popular annual event is a regular feature here. The winter races also were conducted here recently. Further information about the races scheduled can be found at http://www.hydraces.com/

Attractions

* Charminar - the major landmark in Hyderabad with four graceful minarets located in the old city.
* Falaknuma Palace - Built by an Italian architect through one of the Paigah nobles, Nawab Viqar al-Umra', complete in Italian marble. It's a beautiful and stunning piece of architecture with Louis XIV-style decor, a lavish Mughal ambience, Italian marble staircases and ornate fountains.
* Golconda Fort - located on the outskirts of the city, Golconda Fort is one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India.
* Chowmahalla Palace- It was the seat of Asaf Jahi dynasty, where the Nizam entertained his official guests and royal visitors. Initiated in 1750 by Nizam Salabat Jung and designed along the lines of the Shah's palace in Isfahan, this actually consists of a group of palaces each used as a Durbar Hall.
* Salar Jung Museum - The museum houses the largest one-man collection of antiques in the world. Collections include "The Veiled Rebecca" and other huge collection of artifacts dating back to a few centuries. A mere day isn't enough to cover the whole museum.
* Taramati Baradari - It is Located near Golconda, built by a Qutb Shahi sultan.
* Mecca Masjid - a stone-built mosque, which lies immediate southwest of Charminar. Remarkable for its architecture, size and its royal splendour, this is one of the most beautiful mosques in Hyderabad.
* Birla Mandir - a Hindu temple made of white marble located on top of a hill overlooking the city.
* Birla Science Museum - The science centre is another beautiful structure, reflecting the advances made in science and technology. The interior décor matches the architectural exterior of the centre built over convert|10000|sqft|m2|abbr=on. The centre is host to a number of divisions such as the Planetarium, the Science Museum, and the centre for Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences.
* Birla Planetarium - The Planetarium is another magnificent building with a big dome resembling that of the Gol Gumbaz in Bijapur and some of the earliest government structures in New Delhi. A special attraction are the shows which unveil the mysteries of the cosmos and the origins of the universe, comets, eclipses, unidentified flying objects and the clash of titans. The latest addition is the Dinosrium, which houses a collection of dinosaur egg fossils. The highlight of the museum is a mounted "Kotasaurus yamanpalliensis", the remains of a 160 million old dinosaur.
* Purani Haveli - The official residence of the Nizam.
* King Kothi Palace - The last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan lived here.
* Qutb Shahi Tombs - Home to various Tombs dedicated to Rulers of Qutb Shahi dynasty, located at Shaikpet, near Golconda Fort.
* Lumbini Park - This is one of the popular parks in the city. The main attraction of this park was the Musical fountain. It is now replaced by the 1500 seater Laserium, the first of its kind in the state. Boat rides take you across the lake to give you a closer glimpse of the Buddha.
* Hussain Sagar - It is a man-made lake is also famous for the 19-metre tall Buddha statue on a platform island called "Rock of Gibraltar" in the middle of the lake, and for the Tank Bund which consists of beautiful gardens and statues of famous personalities. Boating and water sports are a regular feature here.
* Nehru Zoological Park - This zoo is among the largest in India, houses a large variety of animals, birds, nocturnal species, aquatic and amphibian species etc. Located close to this is the Mir Alam lake, which is proposed to be converted into an Aquarium along the lines of Sentosa, Singapore.
* Botanical Gardens - These gardens are spread across a sprawling area of convert|130|acre|km2, housing different varieties of herbs, plants, trees etc. These gardens provide a complete visual treat to the eyes with water bodies, meadows, and rich grasslands - nature at its best.
* Chilkur Balaji - It is the temple of Lord Sri Venkateshwara. Located around 23 km from Mehdipatnam.
* Necklace road - This popular boulevard lies on the other side of the lake, linking the IMAX theatre and Sanjivaiah park. This has become the-place-to-be for the Hyderabadis in the evenings. This strip provides a scenic atmosphere with lush lawns and long rows of flower beds. Eat-Street,Water Front are popular restaurants located on this strip. The latest addition to this strip is the Jal Vihar, a mini water world designed to soothe your senses.
* NTR gardens - This leisure spot is located beside the IMAX theatre. Situated on 36 acres of land adjoining the Hussain sagar, these gardens provide every kind of entertainment and recreation. It also houses a memorial of Late Shri N.T.Rama Rao, former Chief Minister, with an exemplary piece of architecture.
* Gandipet - A man-made lake, the largest in Hyderabad. The lake is a major drinking water source to the city. Abutting the lake are lush gardens that provide an ideal ambience for a holiday.
* Himayat Sagar - A lake close to Gandipet.
* Laad Bazaar - also called Chudi Bazaar is on the west of Charminar, and known for its exquisite bangles, jewelry and pearls..
* Lotus Pond - A beautiful garden built around a pond situated in Jubilee Hills, said to have been designed by an Italian designer. This garden is currently maintained by the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad. It is also home to a few rare species of birds.
* Shilparamam- Located opposite Cyber towers,HITEC city, it is an arts and crafts village which was conceived with an idea to create an environment for the preservation of traditional crafts such as sculpting wonders from stone, weaving in cotton, silk and gold thread, Dhaka muslin, Kondapalli toys, Bankura horses, gudda-guddis of Punjab, temple arts and a motley of Indian arts and crafts.
* Sanghi Temple - A temple dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara graces a promontory overlooking Sanghi Nagar.
* Ramoji Film City (RFC) is the world’s largest integrated film studio cum theme park, at nearly 3,000 acres (8 km²). It is also one of Asia’s most popular tourism and recreation centres. Recently, it has made its way to the Guinness Book of World Records for being the largest film studio in the world. Opened in 1996, it is located about 25 km from Hyderabad on Vijayawada National Highway (NH-9).

References

* [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/2/Hyderabad.html FallingRain Map - elevation = 489m (Red dots are railways)]

External links

* [http://www.ourmch.com Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad]
* [http://www.hudahyd.org/ Hyderabad Urban Development Authority]
*
* [http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/hyderabad/hyderabad.html Hyderabad under the Nizams, (1724-1948)]
* [http://www.hydintlairport.com Hyderabad International Airport]

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