- Information and communication technologies in education
Information and communication technologies in education deal with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) within educational technology.
The main purpose of ICT in education means implementing of ICT equipment and tools in teaching and learning process as a media and methodology. The purpose of ICT in education is generally to familiarise students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues.
ICT has also enabled learning through multiple intelligence as ICT has introduced learning through simulation games; this enables active learning through all senses.
ICT in education can be broadly categorized in the following ways as
- ICT as a subject (i.e., computer studies)
- ICT as a tool to support traditional subjects (i.e., computer-based learning, presentation, research)
- ICT as an administrative tool (i.e., education management information systems/EMIS)
In all of Australia, ICT is not a subject until the final two years of schooling, despite similar subjects being available before VCE or equivalent. In Victoria, children start ICT in Prep but are not reported upon until they are in Year 1. They undertake a wide range of activities using technology to learn in all curriculum areas.
In Kenya, ICT is not taught as a subject in primary school. It is taught as an added advantage to some schools. In high school, the ICT is an optional subject. In the university level students are offered several options to choose from. One may either take Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, Bachelor of Business Information Technology or Bachelor of Science in Computing Technology. All these courses are inter-related in terms of course work but differ in the majors that a student wants to take or Master.
In Norway, ICT is a course which students can select for their second year of upper secondary school. From pre-school to Year 10, ICT is interwoven throughout the curriculum as part of the Essential Learning of Communication.
Other countries, such as the Philippines, also have integrated ICT in their curriculum. As early as pre-elementary education in some schools, pupils are having their computer subjects. Other non-computer degree courses in tertiary also incorporated Computer Technology as part of their curriculum.
In the United Kingdom, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a subject in education, and a part of the National Curriculum. Most students can choose to study Information and Communication Technology to GCSE level.
The ICT programme in the United Kingdom is co-ordinated by Becta. A major initiative was the Curriculum Online scheme, which was closed in 2008 and which was produced to accelerate the uptake of technology amongst schools. Becta took over the running of this scheme from the Department for Education and Skills in 2005. Becta worked closely with the Joint Information Systems Committee to develop strategy.
Students are taught to use software such as office suites, desktop publishers; they are also taught about ICT theory, and how ICT can be used to solve problems. Computer programming is not taught at GCSE level.
Students also study the Data Protection Act, the Computer Misuse Act, and other legal and ethical issues related to ICT.
Within Scotland and the North East of England a pilot enterprise in education initiative aims to use ICT as a vehicle to encourage creative thinking within the youth demographic. Tapping into the 'unconstrained' minds of the region's young people, the programme simulates the process of taking a new innovative ICT idea through the commercialisation process. The competition is sponsored by Microsoft and BT and hopes to expand its reach throughout the UK in 2009/10.
- "Information and Communication Technology". National Curriculum on-line. Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. http://www.nc.uk.net/webdav/harmonise?Page/@id=6004&Subject/@id=3331.
- "Survey of Information and Communications Technology". Department for Educationls. 2003-10-30. http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SBU/b000421/index.shtml.
- Wray Bodys (October 2005). "The Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Scottisch Schools". HM Inspectors of Education. http://www.hmie.gov.uk/documents/publication/EvICT%20Final%2018%20Oct.html.
- International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) (2008). Using ICT in the Education Sector. pp. 4. http://www.iicd.org/files/ICT-in-the-education-sector.pdf.
- Report on Low-Power PC Research Project. Computer Aid International. 2009. pp. 9. http://www.computeraid.org/pdffiles/Report%20on%20Low-Power%20PC%20Research%20Project%20April%202009.pdf.
- Wan Zah Wan Ali, Hajar Mohd Nor, Azimi Hamzah and Hayati Alwi (2009). "The conditions and level of ICT integration in Malaysian Smart Schools". International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/viewarticle.php?id=618&layout=html. Retrieved 2009-05-16.
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- Children Now. (2007). The effects of interactive media on preschooler’s learning: A review of the research and recommendations for the future.
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- Hsi, S. (2006). Digital learning and play: A synthesis and elaboration from a CILS Bay Area Institute Roundtable. San Francisco: The Center for Informal Learning and Schools.
- International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). The ISTE national educational technology standards (NET-S) and performance indicators for students. Eugene, OR: ISTE.
- Jenkins, H. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century.
- The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. (2005). Digital media and learning fact sheet.
- Mizuko I., Horst, H., Bittanti, M., Boyd, D., Herr-Stephenson, B., Lange, et al. (2008). Living and learning with new media: Summary of findings from the Digital Youth Project.
- The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning.
- National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE). (2002). Early learning standards: Creating the conditions for success. Washington, D.C.: Authors.
- National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2008). Technology and young children – ages 3 through 8.
- National Institute for Early Education Research. (2009). Are new media a boon to young children’s education? 
- Rideout, V., Vanderwater, E. & Wartella, E. (2003). Zero to six: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
- Rogow, F. (adapted from). Choosing media for children checklist. San Francisco: Kids Watch Monthly.
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- Speer, N., Reynolds, J., Swallow K. & Zacks, J. (2009). Reading stories activates neural representations of visual and motor experiences.
- Swisher K. & Mossberg, W. (2009). All things digital. The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 6/2/09.
- Taffel, R. (2009). Childhood unbound: Saving our kids’ best selves – confident parenting in a world of change. New York: Free Press. US Census Bureau. (2008). US Census Bureau releases TV stats.
- Zacks, J. (2009). Reading creates simulations in minds. Science out of the Box [radio broadcast]. Washington DC: National Public Radio.
- ^ VIC.edu.au, ICT Curriculum and Standards.
- ^ Youth-Challenge.co.uk, ICT Youth Challenge
- ^ NYtimes.com, New York Times. Retrieved on May 31
- ^ ChildrenNow.org, Oakland, CA: Children Now. Retrieved May 15, 2009
- ^ Exploratorium.edu, Retrieved on April 1, 2009
- ^ MacFound.org, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Chicago: Author. Retrieved May 15, 2009 from:
- ^ MacFound.org, Chicago: Author. Retrieved on May 20, 2009
- ^ MacFound.org, Chicago: Author. Retrieved May 15, 2009
- ^ NAEYC.org, Washington, D.C.: Author. Retrieved May 15, 2009
- ^ NIEER.org, Rutgers: The State University of New Jersey. Retrieved April 15, 2009
- ^ KFF.org, Retrieved May 1,5 2009
- ^ KQED.org, Retrieved May 15, 2009
- ^ SCRIBD.com, Retrieved on May 21, 2009
- ^ BoradcastEngineering.com, Retrieved on April 26, 2009, from US Census Bureau News. (2007).
- ^ Census.gov, Received on May 15, 2009
- UNESCObkk.org, ICT in Education website of UNESCO Bangkok
- Youth-Challenge.co.uk, ICT Youth Challenge UK Schools program
- EduTechBlog.com, daily blog on ICT in Education
- European Schoolnet: ICT innovations for teaching
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