- Food technology
Food scientists and food technologists study the physical,
microbiological, and chemical makeup of food. Depending on their area of specialization, food scientists may develop ways to process, preserve, package, or store food, according to industry and government specifications and regulations. Consumers seldom think of the vast array of foods and the research and development that has resulted in the means to deliver tasty, nutritious, safe, and convenient foods.
In some schools, food technology is part of the
curriculumand teaches, alongside "how" to cook, nutrition and the food manufacturing process.
Early history of food technology
Research in the field now known as food technology has been conducted for decades.
Nicolas Appert’s development in 1810 of the canningprocess was a decisive event. The process wasn’t called canning then and Appert did not really know the principle on which his process worked, but canning has had a major impact on food preservation techniques. Louis Pasteur's research on the spoilage of wineand his description of how to avoid spoilage in 1864 was an early attempt to put food technology on a scientific basis. Besides research into wine spoilage, Pasteur did research on the production of alcohol, vinegar, wines and beer, and the souring of milk. He developed pasteurization—the process of heating milk and milk products to destroy food spoilage and disease-producing organisms. In his research into food technology, Pasteur became the pioneer into bacteriology and of modern preventive medicine.
1940's to 1950's, the original four departments that had taught the subject under different names (including those at the University of Massachusettsand the University of California) had been retitled "food science", "food science and technology", or a similar variant.
Developments in food technology
Several companies in the food industry have played a role in the development of food technology. These developments have contributed greatly to the food supply. Some of these developments are:
*Instantized Milk Powder - D.D. Peebles (U.S. patent 2,835,586) developed the first instant milk powder, which has become the basis for a variety of new products that are rehydratable in cold
wateror milk. This process increases the surface areaof the powdered product by partially rehydrating spray-dried milk powder.
Freeze Drying- The first application of freeze drying was most likely in the pharmaceuticalindustry; however, a successful large-scale industrial application of the process was the development of continuous freeze drying of coffee.
*High-Temperature Short Time Processing - These processes for the most part are characterized by rapid heating and cooling, holding for a short time at a relatively high temperature and filling aseptically into sterile containers.
Decaffeinationof Coffeeand Tea- Decaffeinated coffee and tea was first developed on a commercial basis in Europearound 1900. The process is described in U.S. patent 897,763. Green coffee beans are treated with steam or water to around 20% moisture. The added water and heat separate the caffeinefrom the bean to its surface. Solvents are then used to remove the caffeine from the beans. In the 1980s, new non-organic solvent techniques have been developed for the decaffeination of coffee and tea. Carbon dioxideunder supercritical conditions is one of these new techniques. U.S. patent 4,820,537 was issued to General FoodsCorp. for a CO2 decaffeination process.
Process optimization- Food Technology now allows production of foods to be more efficient, Oil saving technologies are now available on different forms. Production methods and methodologyhave also become increasingly sophisticated.
* [http://www.foodsciencecentral.com/ Food Science Central] International Food Information Service (IFIS).
* [http://www.ift.org/ Institute of Food Technologists] Professional non-profit society for food technology and food science.
* [http://www.foodprocessing-technology.com/ Food processing technology] Worldwide food processing industry organisations and projects.
* [http://www.food-info.net Food-Info] Largest consumer oriented information on food science and technology in many languages
* [http://www.hyfoma.com/ Food processing technology knowledge portal] Big knowledge base on the food processing industry in Europe.
* [http://www.s-4nanoball.com/ S-4 Nanoball] Applications of Nanotechnology on Food Production for Deep Frying
* [http://www.effost.org European Federation of Food Science and Technology]
* [http://www.ansto.gov.au/ansto/bragg/projects/food_science.html Food Science Programme] Food Science research at the Bragg Institute in Australia
* [http://www.food-ingredients.com/ Food-ingredients.com] Industrial food ingredients search engine, especially meant for food technologists
Food Technology journals
Drying Technology [http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/07373937.asp]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00236438 LWT - Food Science and Technology] , ISSN: 0023-6438, Elsevier
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09242244 Trends in Food Science & Technology] , ISSN: 0924-2244, Elsevier
Food Science and Technology Study Programmes
* [http://www.mft.wur.nl Wageningen University] , the Netherlands
* [http://www.eurmscfood.nl European Masters Degree in Food Studies] , 4 countries
* [http://ndfs.byu.edu Brigham Young University] , USA
* [http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/cifs/ Cornell University] , USA
* [http://www.fcs.iastate.edu/fshn/ Iowa State University] , USA
* [http://www.foodsci.k-state.edu/DesktopDefault.aspx Kansas State University] , USA
* [http://www.agctr.lsu.edu/inst/research/departments/foodscience/ Louisiana State University ] , USA>
* [http://www.msu.edu/unit/fshn/ Michigan State University] , USA
* [http://www.msstate.edu/dept/fst Mississippi State University] , USA
* [http://www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/cals/food_science/index.html North Carolina State University ] , USA
* [http://www.ndsu.edu/ndsu/academic/factsheets/ag/foodsci.shtml North Dakota State University] , USA
* [http://cfaes.osu.edu/departments.html Ohio State University ] , USA
* [http://www.orst.edu/dept/foodsci Oregon State University] , USA
* [http://www.cas.psu.edu/docs/CASDEPT/FOOD/index.html Pennsylvania State University] , USA
* [http://www.foodsci.purdue.edu/ Purdue University] , USA
* [http://foodsci.rutgers.edu/ Rutgers University] , USA
* [http://ifse.tamu.edu Texas A&M University] , USA
* [http://www.uark.edu/depts/foodsci/foodsci-home.html University of Arkansas] , USA
* [http://www-foodsci.ucdavis.edu/ University of California Davis] , USA
* [http://fshn.ifas.ufl.edu/index.htm University of Florida] , USA
* [http://www.griffin.peachnet.edu/cfs University of Georgia] , USA
* [http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~fshn/ University of Illinois] , USA
* [http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/FoodScience/welcome.html University of Kentucky] , USA
* [http://www.food.leeds.ac.uk/biofreeze University of Leeds] , United Kingdom
* [http://www.food.leeds.ac.uk/ University of Leeds] , USA
* [http://www.nfsc.umd.edu University of Maryland] , USA>
* [http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~foodsci/ University of Massachusetts] , USA
* [http://www.ume.maine.edu/~nfa/fsn/ University of Maine] , USA>
* [http://fscn1.fsci.umn.edu/ University of Minnesota] , USA
* [http://www.missouri.edu University of Missouri (Columbia)] , USA
* [http://www.http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodbiosciences/ University of Reading] , UK
* [http://ianrwww.unl.edu/ianr/foodsci/fstfpc.htm University of Nebraska] , USA
* [http://foodscience.utk.edu University of Tennessee ] , USA
* [http://www.wisc.edu/foodsci University of Wisconsin (Madison)] , USA
* [http://www.uwrf.edu/food-science University of Wisconsin (River Falls)] , USA
* [http://www.fst.vt.edu/ Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] , USA
* [http://av.fshn.wsu.edu/ Washington State University] , USA
* [http://www.science.wayne.edu/~nfs" Wayne State University] , USA
* [http://www.upd.edu.ph/~che/fsn University of the Philippines Diliman - College of Home Economics] , Philippines
* [http://www.ust.edu.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=358&Itemid=85 University of Santo Tomas] , Philippines
* [http://www.pup.edu.ph/ Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Philippines
* [http://iitkgp.ac.in/departments/home.php?deptcode=AG IIT Kharagpur, India
* [http://www.ugm.ac.id/, Dept Food and Agric. Product Tech. Gadjah Mada Univ Jogjakarta, Indonesia
* [http://www.annauniv.ac.in] ,INDIA
* [http://www.sggw.pl Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Poland
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