Nuclear engineering


Nuclear engineering

Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown (fission) as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission, it particularly includes the interaction and maintenance of systems and components like nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. The field also includes the study of medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related technology (e.g., radioactive waste disposal), and the problems of nuclear proliferation.[1]

Contents

Professional areas

Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a susceptible (fissile) atom's nucleus into two different, smaller elements and other particles including neutrons. Approximately 2.4 neutrons are released per fission, which may cause additional fissions if enough fissionable material is present. Nuclear fission is made by separating one atom or combining two different atoms.

The common types of nuclear fission include thermal fission, which is fission caused by the absorption of a relatively slow thermal neutron with kinetic energy approximately 0.025 eV. Fast fission is fission caused by the absorption of a more energetic neutron, with kinetic energy on the order of MeV. Also, in especially heavy nuclei, spontaneous fission may occur. Nuclei that are fissionable by neutrons typically carry at least a very small chance of spontaneous fission occurring.

Generally, thermal fission is used in commercial reactors, though Fast Breeder Reactors have been developed to harness fast fission.

The United States gets about 19 % of its electricity from nuclear power.[2] Nuclear engineers in this field generally work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for national laboratories. Current research in the industry is directed at producing economical, proliferation-resistant reactor designs with passive safety features. Although government labs research the same areas as industry, they also study a myriad of other issues such as nuclear fuels and nuclear fuel cycles, advanced reactor designs, and nuclear weapon design and maintenance. A principal pipeline for trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the Navy Nuclear Power Program.

Nuclear medicine and medical physics

An important field is medical physics, and its subfields nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, health physics, and diagnostic imaging.[3] From x-ray machines to MRI to PET, among many others, medical physics provides most of modern medicine's diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options.

Nuclear materials and nuclear fuels

Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of materials. Improvement of nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from studying structural changes to reactor components to studying nano-modification of metals using ion-beams or particle accelerators.

Radiation measurements and dosimetry

Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in the development of more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, and using these to improve imaging technologies. This includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging systems, among other things.

Nuclear engineering organizations

List of institutions offering nuclear engineering courses

List of universities in Argentina

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
National University of Cuyo Instituto Balseiro BE, ME, PhD

List of universities in Brazil

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Nuclear Engineering Department/COPPE BS, MS, PhD

List of universities in Bulgaria

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" Faculty of Physics Department of Nuclear Engineering BS, MS, PhD
University & college Department (external links) Degrees offered
Technical University of Sofia Department of Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering BS, MS, PhD

List of universities in Canada

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
McMaster University, Hamilton Engineering Physics (Nuclear Engineering Option) B.Eng. Phys., Dipl. Nuc.Tech, M.Eng, M.A.Sc, Ph.D.
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa Nuclear Engineering B.Eng, M.Eng, M.A.Sc, Ph. D
École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal Institute of Nuclear Engineering M.Eng, M.Sc, PhD
Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering M.Sc, M.A.Sc, M.Eng, PhD

List of universities in France

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
Institut National des Sciences et Techniques du Nucléaire Department of Nuclear Engineering MEng MSc PhD
Grenoble INP PHELMA-Grenoble INP M.Eng MSc

List of colleges in India

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai Engineering Sciences, Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Health Sciences, Life Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Strategic Studies

In the following constituent institutes: Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Institute of Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Tata Memorial Centre and Institute of Mathematical Sciences

For science and engineering : PGDip, M.Phil, M.Sc(Engg), M.Tech, Ph.D.

For Health Sciences : at Tata Memorial Centre : DM (Medical Oncology), M.Ch.(Surgical Oncology), MD (Pathology), MD (Anesthesia), MD (Radiotherapy), MD (Radio-diagnosis) and Ph.D.(Health Sciences, Epidemiology) are offered

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Nuclear Engineering and Technology M.Tech, PhD
Mody Institute of Technology and Science [1] M.Tech
Indian Institute of Technology,Madras [2] M.Tech
Sastra university,Tanjore [3]

[4]

M.Tech
Delhi University [5] M.Tech
J.N.T.UNIVERSITY KAKINADA,KAKINADA,ANDHRA PRADESH www.jntukakinada.edu.in M.E
SRM University,Chennai [6] B.Tech, M.Tech, Ph.D
Jadavpur University [7] Masters of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of engineering and Technology
Manipal Institute of Technology [8] M.Tech in Nuclear Engineering

List of colleges in Israel

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Ben Gurion University of the Negev [9]

List of colleges in Jordan

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Jordan University of Science and Technology Department of Nuclear Engineering BS

List of colleges in Pakistan

College/University Department (external links) Degrees offered
Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Islamabad Department of Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Kannup Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering/NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi Department of Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Chasnupp Center for Nuclear Training (CHASCENT), Chasma Center for Nuclear Training and Engineering MS,PhD

List of colleges in Russian Federation

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (National Research Nuclear University) [10] BE,MS,PhD

List of universities in South Africa

North-West University

List of universities in Switzerland

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
EPF Lausanne and ETH Zurich Nuclear Engineering MS, PhD

List of colleges in Turkey

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Hacettepe University Department of Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD

List of universities in the United Arab Emirates

Khalifa University of Science

University of Sharjah - Nuclear Engineering

List of universities in the United Kingdom

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Lancaster University Nuclear Engineering M.Eng
University of Birmingham Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors MSc
Nuclear Technology Education Consortium Nuclear Science and Technology MSc
Nottingham Trent University Physics with Nuclear Technology BSc
Imperial College London Centre for Nuclear Engineering MSc, M.Eng (Joint Honours)
University of Cambridge [11] MPhil in Nuclear Energy

List of colleges in the U.S.

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Air Force Institute of Technology Engineering Physics MS, PhD
Arkansas Tech University Nuclear Engineering MEng, BS
Colorado School of Mines Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Cornell University School of Applied and Engineering Physics BS,MEng,PhD
Georgia Institute of Technology Nuclear and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Idaho State University Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Kansas State University Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nuclear Science and Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Missouri University of Science and Technology Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
North Carolina State University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Ohio State University Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Oregon State University Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics BS,MS,PhD
Pennsylvania State University Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Pennsylvania State University Distance Learning Program in Nuclear Engineering M.Eng.
Purdue University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Mechanical, Aerospace & Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
South Carolina State University Nuclear Engineering BS
Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of California, Berkeley Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Cincinnati Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Florida Nuclear and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Idaho Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Maryland, College Park Materials and Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Massachusetts Lowell Chemical Engineering BS,MS
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences BS,MS,PhD
University of Missouri Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute MS,PhD
University of Nevada, Las Vegas Nuclear Engineering MS
University of New Mexico Chemical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PHD
University of South Carolina Nuclear Engineering ME,MS,PhD
University of Tennessee at Knoxville Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Texas at Austin Nuclear and Radiation Engineering MS,PhD
University of Utah Nuclear Engineering ME, MS, PhD
University of Wisconsin–Madison Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics BS,MS,PhD
United States Military Academy Nuclear Engineering BS
Virginia Commonwealth University Nuclear Engineering MS

See also

References

  1. ^ Journal of Petroleum Engineering and Technology"Journal of Petroleum Engineering and Technology". JoPET. http://www.stmjournals.com. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  2. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/tablees1a.html
  3. ^ http://www.aapm.org/medical_physicist/fields.asp

http://www.stmjournals.com

Further reading

  • Gowing, Margaret. Britain and Atomic Energy, 1939-1945 (1964).
  • Gowing, Margaret, and Lorna Arnold. Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, Vol. I: Policy Making, 1945-52; Vol. II: Policy Execution, 1945-52 (London, 1974)
  • Johnston, Sean F. "Creating a Canadian Profession: The Nuclear Engineer, 1940-68," Canadian Journal of History, Winter 2009, Vol. 44 Issue 3, pp 435-466
  • Johnston, Sean F. "Implanting a discipline: the academic trajectory of nuclear engineering in the USA and UK," Minerva, 47 (2009), pp. 51-73

External links


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