- Software engineering
Software Engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. It is the application of Engineering to software because it integrates significant mathematics, computer science and practices whose origins are in Engineering. It is also defined as a systematic approach to the analysis, design, assessment, implementation, test, maintenance and reengineering of software, that is, the application of engineering to software. The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference, and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time.
Software development, a much used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. Although it is questionable what impact it has had on actual software development over the last more than 40 years, the field's future looks bright according to Money Magazine and Salary.com, which rated "software engineer" as the best job in the United States in 2006.
When the first modern digital computers appeared in the early 1940s, the instructions to make them operate were wired into the machine. Practitioners quickly realized that this design was not flexible and came up with the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. Thus the division between "hardware" and "software" began with abstraction being used to deal with the complexity of computing.
Programming languages started to appear in the 1950s and this was also another major step in abstraction. Major languages such as Fortran, ALGOL, and COBOL were released in the late 1950s to deal with scientific, algorithmic, and business problems respectively. E.W. Dijkstra wrote his seminal paper, "Go To Statement Considered Harmful", in 1968 and David Parnas introduced the key concept of modularity and information hiding in 1972 to help programmers deal with the ever increasing complexity of software systems. A software system for managing the hardware called an operating system was also introduced, most notably by Unix in 1969. In 1967, the Simula language introduced the object-oriented programming paradigm.
These advances in software were met with more advances in computer hardware. In the mid 1970s, the microcomputer was introduced, making it economical for hobbyists to obtain a computer and write software for it. This in turn led to the now famous Personal Computer (PC) and Microsoft Windows. The Software Development Life Cycle or SDLC was also starting to appear as a consensus for centralized construction of software in the mid 1980s. The late 1970s and early 1980s saw the introduction of several new Simula-inspired object-oriented programming languages, including Smalltalk, Objective-C, and C++.
Open-source software started to appear in the early 90s in the form of Linux and other software introducing the "bazaar" or decentralized style of constructing software. Then the World Wide Web and the popularization of the Internet hit in the mid 90s, changing the engineering of software once again. Distributed systems gained sway as a way to design systems, and the Java programming language was introduced with its own virtual machine as another step in abstraction. Programmers collaborated and wrote the Agile Manifesto, which favored more lightweight processes to create cheaper and more timely software.
The current definition of software engineering is still being debated by practitioners today as they struggle to come up with ways to produce software that is "cheaper, better, faster". Cost reduction has been a primary focus of the IT industry since the 1990s. Total cost of ownership represents the costs of more than just acquisition. It includes things like productivity impediments, upkeep efforts, and resources needed to support infrastructure.
Legal requirements for the licensing or certification of professional software engineers vary around the world. In the UK, the British Computer Society licenses software engineers and members of the society can also become Chartered Engineers (CEng), while in some areas of Canada, such as Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec, software engineers can hold the Professional Engineer (P.Eng)designation and/or the Information Systems Professional (I.S.P.) designation; however, there is no legal requirement to have these qualifications.
The IEEE Computer Society and the ACM, the two main professional organizations of software engineering, publish guides to the profession of software engineering. The IEEE's Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge - 2004 Version, or SWEBOK, defines the field and describes the knowledge the IEEE expects a practicing software engineer to have. The IEEE also promulgates a "Software Engineering Code of Ethics".
In 2004, the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics counted 760,840 software engineers holding jobs in the U.S.; in the same time period there were some 1.4 million practitioners employed in the U.S. in all other engineering disciplines combined. Due to its relative newness as a field of study, formal education in software engineering is often taught as part of a computer science curriculum, and many software engineers hold computer science degrees.
Many software engineers work as employees or contractors. Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies (civilian or military), and non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work for themselves as freelancers. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the software development process. Other organizations require software engineers to do many or all of them. In large projects, people may specialize in only one role. In small projects, people may fill several or all roles at the same time. Specializations include: in industry (analysts, architects, developers, testers, technical support, middleware analysts, managers) and in academia (educators, researchers).
Most software engineers and programmers work 40 hours a week, but about 15 percent of software engineers and 11 percent of programmers worked more than 50 hours a week in 2008. Injuries in these occupations are rare. However, like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer terminal typing at a keyboard, engineers and programmers are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
The Software Engineering Institute offers certifications on specific topics like Security, Process improvement and Software architecture. Apple, IBM, Microsoft and other companies also sponsor their own certification examinations. Many IT certification programs are oriented toward specific technologies, and managed by the vendors of these technologies. These certification programs are tailored to the institutions that would employ people who use these technologies.
Broader certification of general software engineering skills is available through various professional societies. As of 2006[update], the IEEE had certified over 575 software professionals as a Certified Software Development Professional (CSDP). In 2008 they added an entry-level certification known as the Certified Software Development Associate (CSDA). The ACM had a professional certification program in the early 1980s, which was discontinued due to lack of interest. The ACM examined the possibility of professional certification of software engineers in the late 1990s, but eventually decided that such certification was inappropriate for the professional industrial practice of software engineering.
In the U.K. the British Computer Society has developed a legally recognized professional certification called Chartered IT Professional (CITP), available to fully qualified Members (MBCS). Software engineers may be eligible for membership of the Institution of Engineering and Technology and so qualify for Chartered Engineer status. In Canada the Canadian Information Processing Society has developed a legally recognized professional certification called Information Systems Professional (ISP).
Impact of globalization
The initial impact of outsourcing, and the relatively lower cost of international human resources in developing third world countries led to the dot com bubble burst of the 1990s. This had a negative impact on many aspects of the software engineering profession. For example, some students in the developed world avoid education related to software engineering because of the fear of offshore outsourcing (importing software products or services from other countries) and of being displaced by foreign visa workers. Although statistics do not currently show a threat to software engineering itself; a related career, computer programming does appear to have been affected. Nevertheless, the ability to smartly leverage offshore and near-shore resources via the [follow-the-sun] workflow has improved the overall operational capability of many organizations. When North Americans are leaving work, Asians are just arriving to work. When Asians are leaving work, Europeans are arriving to work. This provides a continuous ability to have human oversight on business-critical processes 24 hours per day, without paying overtime compensation or disrupting key human resource sleep patterns.
A knowledge of programming is a pre-requisite to becoming a software engineer. In 2004 the IEEE Computer Society produced the SWEBOK, which has been published as ISO/IEC Technical Report 19759:2004, describing the body of knowledge that they believe should be mastered by a graduate software engineer with four years of experience. Many software engineers enter the profession by obtaining a university degree or training at a vocational school. One standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was defined by the CCSE, and updated in 2004. A number of universities have Software Engineering degree programs; as of 2010[update], there were 244 Campus programs, 70 Online programs, 230 Masters-level programs, 41 Doctorate-level programs, and 69 Certificate-level programs in the United States.
In addition to university education, many companies sponsor internships for students wishing to pursue careers in information technology. These internships can introduce the student to interesting real-world tasks that typical software engineers encounter every day. Similar experience can be gained through military service in software engineering.
Comparison with other disciplines
Major differences between software engineering and other engineering disciplines, according to some researchers, result from the costs of fabrication.
Software engineering can be divided into ten subdisciplines. They are:
- Software requirements: The elicitation, analysis, specification, and validation of requirements for software.
- Software design: The process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component. It is also defined as the result of that process.
- Software Construction: The detailed creation of working, meaningful software through a combination of coding, verification, unit testing, integration testing, and debugging.
- Software testing: The dynamic verification of the behavior of a program on a finite set of test cases, suitably selected from the usually infinite executions domain, against the expected behavior.
- Software maintenance: The totality of activities required to provide cost-effective support to software.
- Software configuration management: The identification of the configuration of a system at distinct points in time for the purpose of systematically controlling changes to the configuration, and maintaining the integrity and traceability of the configuration throughout the system life cycle.
- Software engineering management: The application of management activities—planning, coordinating, measuring, monitoring, controlling, and reporting—to ensure that the development and maintenance of software is systematic, disciplined, and quantified.
- Software engineering process: The definition, implementation, assessment, measurement, management, change, and improvement of the software life cycle process itself.
- Software engineering tools and methods: The computer-based tools that are intended to assist the software life cycle processes, see Computer Aided Software Engineering, and the methods which impose structure on the software engineering activity with the goal of making the activity systematic and ultimately more likely to be successful.
- Software quality: The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.
Systems engineers deal primarily with the overall system requirements and design, including hardware and human issues. They are often concerned with partitioning functionality to hardware, software or human operators. Therefore, the output of the systems engineering process serves as an input to the software engineering process.
Computer Software Engineers
Computer Software Engineers are usually systems level (software engineering, information systems) computer science or software level computer engineering graduates. This term also includes general computer science graduates with a few years of practical on the job experience involving software engineering.
- ^ a b SWEBOK executive editors, Alain Abran, James W. Moore ; editors, Pierre Bourque, Robert Dupuis. (2004). Pierre Bourque and Robert Dupuis. ed. Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge - 2004 Version. IEEE Computer Society. pp. 1–1. ISBN 0-7695-2330-7. http://www.swebok.org.
- ^ ACM (2006). "Computing Degrees & Careers". ACM. http://computingcareers.acm.org/?page_id=12. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- ^ Laplante, Phillip (2007). What Every Engineer Should Know about Software Engineering. Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 9780849372285. http://books.google.com/?id=pFHYk0KWAEgC&lpg=PP1&dq=What%20Every%20Engineer%20Should%20Know%20about%20Software%20Engineering.&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- ^ Peter, Naur; Brian Randell (7–11 October 1968). "Software Engineering: Report of a conference sponsored by the NATO Science Committee" (PDF). Garmisch, Germany: Scientific Affairs Division, NATO. http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/brian.randell/NATO/nato1968.PDF. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Randell, Brian (10 August 2001). "The 1968/69 NATO Software Engineering Reports". Brian Randell's University Homepage. The School of the Computer Sciences, Newcastle University. http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/brian.randell/NATO/NATOReports/index.html. Retrieved 2008-10-11. "The idea for the first NATO Software Engineering Conference, and in particular that of adopting the then practically unknown term "software engineering" as its (deliberately provocative) title, I believe came originally from Professor Fritz Bauer."
- ^ The end of software engineering and the start of economic-cooperative gaming
- ^ 35 years on: to what extent has software engineering design achieved its goals?
- ^ Kalwarski, Tara; Daphne Mosher, Janet Paskin and Donna Rosato (2006). "Best Jobs in America". MONEY Magazine. CNN. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/bestjobs/2006/. Retrieved 2006-04-20.
- ^ Leondes (2002). intelligent systems: technology and applications. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849311215.
- ^ Dijkstra, E. W. (March 1968). "Go To Statement Considered Harmful". Communications of the ACM 11 (3): 147–148. doi:10.1145/362929.362947. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/ewd02xx/EWD215.PDF. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
- ^ Parnas, David (December 1972). "On the Criteria To Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules". Communications of the ACM 15 (12): 1053–1058. doi:10.1145/361598.361623. http://www.acm.org/classics/may96/. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Raymond, Eric S. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. ed 3.0. 2000.
- ^ Williams, N.S.W. (19–21 February 2001). "Professional Engineers Ontario's approach to licensing software engineering practitioners". Software Engineering Education and Training, 2001 Proceedings. 14th Conference on. Charlotte, NC: IEEE. pp. 77–78.
- ^ Software Engineering Code of Ethics
- ^ 97 Things Every Software Architect Should Know — O'Reilly Media, Inc.(published February 5, 2009) ISBN: 978-0-596-52269-8
- ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, USDL 05-2145: Occupational Employment and Wages, November 2004, Table 1.
- ^ "Software Engineering". http://computingcareers.acm.org/?page_id=12. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
- ^ "Computer Software Engineers and Computer Programmers". http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos303.htm#training. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
- ^ SEI certification page
- ^ Wyrostek, Warren (March 14, 2008). "The Top 10 Problems with IT Certification in 2008". InformIT. http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1180991. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- ^ IEEE Computer Society. "2006 IEEE computer society report to the IFIP General Assembly" (PDF). http://www.ifip.org/minutes/GA2006/Tab18b-US-IEEE.pdf. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
- ^ IEEE. "CSDA". http://www.computer.org/portal/web/certification/csda. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
- ^ ACM (July 17, 2000). "A Summary of the ACM Position on Software Engineering as a Licensed Engineering Profession". Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). http://www.cs.wm.edu/~coppit/csci690-spring2004/papers/selep_main.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-03. "At its meeting in May 2000, the Council further concluded that the framework of a licensed professional engineer, originally developed for civil engineers, does not match the professional industrial practice of software engineering. Such licensing practices would give false assurances of competence even if the body of knowledge were mature; and would preclude many of the most qualified software engineers from becoming licensed." [dead link]
- ^ Canadian Information Processing Society. "I.S.P. Designation". http://www.cips.ca/standards/isp. Retrieved 2007-03-15.
- ^ As outsourcing gathers steam, computer science interest wanes
- ^ Computer Programmers
- ^ Software developer growth slows in North America | InfoWorld | News | 2007-03-13 | By Robert Mullins, IDG News Service
- ^ Gartner Magic Quadrant
- ^ Abran, Alain, ed (2005) . "Chapter 1: Introduction to the Guide". Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society. ISBN 0769523307. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/swebok/html/ch1. Retrieved 2010-09-13. "The total volume of cited literature is intended to be suitable for mastery through the completion of an undergraduate education plus four years of experience."
- ^ SE2004 Software Engineering Curriculum
- ^  Degree programs in Software Engineering
- ^ Young, Michal; Faulk, Stuart (2010). "Sharing What We Know About Software Engineering" (pdf). Proceedings of the FSE/SDP workshop on Future of software engineering research (FoSER '10). ACM. pp. 439–442. doi:10.1145/1882362.1882451. ISBN 978-1-4503-0427-6. http://www.ics.uci.edu/~jajones/papers/p439.pdf. Retrieved 2011-02-25. "The essential distinction between software and other engineered artifacts has always been the absence of fabrication cost. In conventional engineering of physical artifacts, the cost of materials and fabrication has dominated the cost of design and placed a check on the complexity of artifacts that can be designed. When one bottleneck is removed, others appear, and software engineering has therefore faced the essential challenges of complexity and the cost of design to an extent that conventional engineering has not. Software engineering has focused on issues in managing complexity, from process to modular design to cost-effective verification, because that is the primary leverage point when the costs of materials and fabrication are nil."
- Pressman, Roger S (2005). Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach (6th ed.). Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0072853182.
- Sommerville, Ian (2007) . Software Engineering (8th ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-321-31379-8. http://www.pearsoned.co.uk/HigherEducation/Booksby/Sommerville/.
- Jalote, Pankaj (2005) . An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering (3rd ed.). Springer. ISBN 0-387-20881-X. http://www.springer.com/east/home?SGWisbn=5-102-22-52090005-0&changeHeader=true.
- Ghezzi, Carlo; Mehdi Jazayeri, Dino Mandrioli (2003) . Fundamentals of Software Engineering (2nd (International) ed.). Pearson Education @ Prentice-Hall.
- Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report by The Joint Task Force for Computing Curricula ACM/AIS/IEEE-CS
- Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Software Engineering by The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula ACM/IEEE-CS
- Guidelines for Associate-Degree Transfer Curriculum in Software Engineering by The ACM Two-Year College Education Committee and The IEEE Computer Society/ACM Joint Task Force on Software Engineering
- Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge
- Computer Software Engineers - Definition and statistics from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
- A Student's Guide to Software Engineering Projects - a free online guide for students taking SE project courses
- The Open Systems Engineering and Software Development Life Cycle Framework OpenSDLC.org the integrated Creative Commons SDLC
Software engineering Fields Concepts Orientations ModelsDevelopment modelsOther modelsModeling languages Software
- Kent Beck
- Grady Booch
- Fred Brooks
- Barry Boehm
- Ward Cunningham
- Ole-Johan Dahl
- Tom DeMarco
- Martin Fowler
- C. A. R. Hoare
- Watts Humphrey
- Michael A. Jackson
- Ivar Jacobson
- Craig Larman
- James Martin
- Bertrand Meyer
- David Parnas
- Winston W. Royce
- Colette Rolland
- James Rumbaugh
- Niklaus Wirth
- Edward Yourdon
- Victor Basili
Related fields Major fields of computer science Mathematical foundations Theory of computation Algorithms, data structures Programming languages, compilers Concurrent, parallel, distributed systems Software engineering System architecture Telecommunication, networking Databases Artificial intelligence Computer graphics Human–computer interaction Scientific computing Note: Computer science can also be divided into different topics or fields according to the ACM Computing Classification System.
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