- Broadcast engineering
official_names= Broadcast engineer
* Broadcast Systems Engineer.
* Broadcast IT Engineer.
* Broadcast Network Engineer.
* Broadcast Maintenance Engineer.
* Studio Broadcast Engineer.
* Outside Broadcast Engineer.
competencies= Technical knowledge, Management skills, Professionalism
formation= see professional requirements
Radio, Television, Military
Technologist, RF engineer, Engineering technician, Technical Operator
Broadcast engineering is the field of
electrical engineering, and now to some extent computer engineering, which deals with radioand television broadcasting. Audio engineeringand RF engineeringare also essential parts of broadcast engineering, being their own subsets of electrical engineering.
Broadcast engineering involves both the
studioend and the transmitterend (the entire airchain), as well as remote broadcasts. Every station has a broadcast engineer, though one may now serve an entire station group in a city, or be a contractengineer who essentially freelances his services to several stations (often in small media markets) as needed. [ [http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/occupations/p/broadcst_sound.htm about.com - Broadcast Technician or Sound Engineering Technician: Career Information] ]
Broadcast Engineers may have varying titles depending on their level of expertise and field specialty. Some widely used titles include:
Modern duties of a broadcast engineer include maintaining
broadcast automationsystems for the studio and automatic transmission systems for the transmitter plant. There are also important duties regarding radio towers, which must be maintained with proper lightingand painting. Occasionally a station's engineer must deal with complaints of RF interference, particularly after a station has made changes to its transmission facilities [ [http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos109.htm U.S. Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics - Broadcast and Sound Engineering Technicians and Radio Operators] ] [ [http://www.skillset.org/tv/jobs/Studio_Broadcast/article_5477_1.asp skillset - Transmission Engineer - TV] ] .
Broadcast engineers may need to possess some or all of the following degrees, depending on the broadcast technical environment. If one of the formal qualifications is not present a related degree or equivalent professional experience is desirable.
Broadcast engineers are generally required to have knowledge in the following areas, from conventional video broadcast systems to modern Information Technology:
Baseband Video– Standard / High Definition.
Video compression- DV25, MPEG, DVB or ATSC.
* Broadcast studio
Television studios - Broadcast Cameras and lenses.
Production switchers (Vision Mixer).
* Digital server playout technologies. -
VDCP, Louth, Harris, control protocols.
* Disk storage –
RAID/ NAS / SAN technologies.
* Archives –
Tape archives or grid storagetechnologies.
Operating systems – Microsoft Windows/ Mac OS/ Linux/ RTOS.
Post production– Capture and Non-linear editing.
satellite uplinking – High powered amplifiers (HPA).
* RF satellite downlinking – Band detection, carrier detection and IRD tuning etc.
* Communications equipment - Talkbacks,
Occupational safety and health.
* Fire suppression systems like FM 200.
Above mentioned requirements vary from station to station.
Broadcast engineers must also have
skillsetand methodologyto problem solvingthat helps in making effective use of their knowledge base.
* Self motivated.
Enthusiasmto learn about emerging technologies, proprietary hardware/software and applications.
Logical approach to problem solving and troubleshooting
* Detail oriented.
* Quick thinking.
Calmunder high pressure situations.
* Good oral and written
business communications, negotiationand time managementskills.
Leadershipskills - Organizing and motivating a group of engineers.
* Drawing skills - To draw graphical Visio
workflow diagramsor CAD schematic drawings.
Trainingand mentoring skills - To train and mentor junior or fellow engineers or operational staff.
The conversion to
digitalbroadcasting means broadcast engineers must now be well-versed in digital televisionand digital radio, in addition to analogue principles. New equipment from the transmitter to the radio antennato the receiver may be encountered by engineers new to the field. Furthermore, modern techniques place a greater demand on an engineer's expertise, such as sharingtowers or antennas among different stations. Digital audioand digital videohave revolutionized broadcast engineering in many respects. [ [http://mhp-interactive.org/tutorial/dtv-intro/dtv-transmission.shtml Interactive TV Web. "Broadcast Engineering Basics"] ] Broadcast studios and control rooms are now already digital in large part, using non-linear editingand digital signal processingfor what used to take a great deal of time or money, if it was even possible at all. Mixing consoles for both audio and videoare continuing to become more digital in the 2000s, as is the computer storageused to keep digital media libraries. Effects processingand TV graphicscan now be done much more easily and professionally as well.
Other devices used in broadcast engineering are
telephone hybrids, broadcast delays, and dead air alarms. See the glossary of broadcast engineering termsfor further explanations.
Broadcast stations often call upon outside engineering services for certain needs. For example, because
structural engineeringis generally not a direct part of broadcast engineering, towercompanies usually designbroadcast towers.
Other companies specialize in both broadcast engineering and
broadcast law, which are both essential when making an application to a national broadcasting authority. This is especially critical in North America, where stations bear the entire burden of proving that their proposed facilities will not cause interference and are the best use ot the radio spectrum. Such companies now have special softwarethat can map projected radio propagationand terrain shielding, as well as lawyers that will defend the applications before the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission(CRTC), or the equivalent authorities in some other countries.
United States, many broadcast engineers belong to the Society of Broadcast Engineers(SBE). Some may also belong to the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers(SMPTE), or to organizations of related fields, like the Audio Engineering Societyor Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE).
public radio, the Association of Public Radio Engineerswas created in late May 2006.
* RF Engineer
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