Medieval technology


Medieval technology
Pumhart von Steyr, a 15th century supergun
Medieval port crane for mounting masts and lifting heavy cargo in the former Hanse town of Danzig[1]

Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian rule. After the Renaissance of the 12th century, medieval Europe saw a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth.[2] The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption of gunpowder, the invention of vertical windmills, spectacles, mechanical clocks, and greatly improved water mills, building techniques (Gothic style, medieval castle), agriculture in general (three-field crop rotation).

The development of water mills from its ancient origins was impressive, and extended from agriculture to sawmills both for timber and stone. By the time of the Domesday Book, most large villages had turnable mills, around 6,500 in England alone.[3] Water-power was also widely used in mining for raising ore from shafts, crushing ore, and even powering bellows.

European technical advancements in the 12th to 14th centuries were either built on long-established techniques in medieval Europe, originating from Roman and Byzantine antecedents, or adapted from cross-cultural exchanges through trading networks with the Islamic world, China, and India. Often, the revolutionary aspect lay not in the act of invention itself, but in its technological refinement and application to political and economic power. Though gunpowder had long been known to the Chinese, it was the Europeans who developed and perfected its military potential, precipitating European expansion and eventual imperialism in the Modern Era.

Also significant in this respect were advances in maritime technology. Advances in shipbuilding included the multi-masted ships with lateen sails, the sternpost-mounted rudder and the skeleton-first hull construction. Along with new navigational techniques such as the dry compass, the Jacob's staff and the astrolabe, these allowed economic and military control of all seas adjacent to Europe and enabled the global navigational achievements of the dawning Age of Exploration.

At the turn to the Renaissance, Gutenberg’s invention of mechanical printing made possible a dissemination of knowledge to a wider population, that would not only lead to a gradually more egalitarian society, but one more able to dominate other cultures, drawing from a vast reserve of knowledge and experience. The technical drawings of late medieval artist-engineers Guido da Vigevano and Villard de Honnecourt can be viewed as forerunners of later Renaissance works such as Taccola or da Vinci.

Contents

Civil technologies

In the following, a list of some important medieval technology. The approximate date or first mention of a technology in Medieval Europe is given. Technologies were often a matter of cultural exchange and date and place of first inventions are not listed here (see main links for a more complete history of each).

Agriculture

Heavy plough (5th->8th)

The heavy wheeled plough with a mouldboard first appears in the 5th century in Slavic lands, is then introduced into Northern Italy (the Po Valley) and by the 8th century it was used in the Rhineland. Essential in the efficient use of the rich, heavy, often wet soils of Northern Europe, its use allowed the area's forests and swamps to be brought under cultivation.

Hops (11th)

Added to beer, importance lay primarily in its ability to preserve beer and improve transportability for trade.

Horse collar (6th->9th)

Multiple evolutions from Classical Harness (Antiquity), to Breast Strap Harness (6th) to Horse collar (9th). Allowed more horse pulling power, such as with heavy ploughs.

Horseshoes (9th)

Allowed horse to adapt to non-grassland terrains in Europe (rocky terrain, mountains) and carry heavier loads. Possibly known to the Romans and Celts as early as 50 BC.

Wine press (12th)

First practical means of applying pressure on a plane surface. The principle later used for printing press.

Architecture and construction

Artesian well (1126)

A thin rod with a hard iron cutting edge is placed in the bore hole and repeatedly struck with a hammer, underground water pressure forces the water up the hole without pumping. Artesian wells are named after the town of Artois in France, where the first one was drilled by Carthusian monks in 1126.

Central heating through underfloor channels (9th century AD)

In the early medieval Alpine upland, a simpler central heating system where heat travelled through underfloor channels from the furnace room replaced the Roman hypocaust at some places. In Reichenau Abbey a network of interconnected underfloor channels heated the 300 m² large assembly room of the monks during the winter months. The degree of efficiency of the system has been calculated at 90%.[4]

Rib vault (12th)

Essential element for the rise of Gothic architecture. Allowed vaults to be built for the first time over rectangles of unequal lengths. Also greatly facilitated scaffolding. Largely replaced older groin vault.

Chimney (12th century)

The earliest true chimneys appeared in Northern Europe during the 12th century, and with them came the first true fireplaces.

Segmental arch bridge (1345)

The Ponte Vecchio in Florence is considered medieval Europe's first stone segmental arch bridge.

Treadwheel crane

Treadwheel crane (1220s)

Earliest reference to a treadwheel in archival literature in France about 1225,[5] followed by an illuminated depiction in a manuscript of probably also French origin dating to 1240.[6] Apart from tread-drums, windlasses and occasionally cranks were employed for powering cranes.[7]

Stationary harbor crane (1244)

Stationary harbor cranes are considered a new development of the Middle Ages, its earliest use being documented for Utrecht in 1244.[8] The typical harbor crane was a pivoting structure equipped with double treadwheels. There were two types: wooden gantry cranes pivoting on a central vertical axle and stone tower cranes which housed the windlass and treadwheels with only jib arm and roof rotating.[1] These cranes were placed docksides for the loading and unloading of cargo where they replaced or complemented older lifting methods like see-saws, winches and yards.[8] Slewing cranes which allowed a rotation of the load and were thus particularly suited for dockside work appeared as early as 1340.[9]

Floating crane

Beside the stationary cranes, floating cranes which could be flexibly deployed in the whole port basin came into use by the 14th century.[1]

Mast crane

Some harbour cranes were specialised at mounting masts to newly built sailing ships, such as in Danzig, Cologne and Bremen.[1]

Wheelbarrow (1170s)

Proved useful in building construction, mining operations, and agriculture. Literary evidence for the use of wheelbarrows appeared between 1170 and 1250 in North-western Europe. First depiction in a drawing by Matthew Paris in the middle of the 13th century.

Art

Portrait of a Man in a Turban, oil painting by Jan van Eyck (1433)

Oil paint (ca. 1410)

As early as the 13th century, oil was used to add details to tempera paintings. Major breakthrough by Flemish painter Jan van Eyck around 1410 who is credited with introducing a stable oil mixture.

Clocks

Hourglass (1338)

Reasonably dependable, affordable and accurate measure of time. Unlike water in a clepsydra, the rate of flow of sand is independent of the depth in the upper reservoir, and the instrument is not liable to freeze. Hourglasses are a medieval innovation (first documented in Siena, Italy).

Mechanical clocks (13th->14th)

A European innovation, these weight-driven clocks were used primarily in clock towers.

Mechanics

Compound crank

The Italian physician Guido da Vigevano combines in his 1335 Texaurus, a collection of war machines intended for the recapture of the Holy Land, two simple cranks to form a compound crank for manually powering war carriages and paddle wheel boats. The devices were fitted directly to the vehicle's axle respectively to the shafts turning the paddle wheels.[10]

Metallurgy

Blast furnace (1150–1350)

European cast iron first appears in Middle Europe (for instance Lapphyttan in Sweden, Dürstel in Switzerland and the Märkische Sauerland in Germany) around 1150,[11] in some places according to recent research even before 1100.[12] Technique considered to be an independent European development.[13]

Milling

Paper mill (13th)

The first certain of a water-powered paper mill, evidence for which is elusive in both Chinese[14][15] and Muslim papermaking,[16] dates to 1282.[17]

Rolling mill (15th)

Used on producing metal sheet of even thickness. First used on soft, malleable metals, such as lead, gold and tin. Leonardo da Vinci described rolling mill for wrought iron.

Tidal Mills (6th)

The earliest tide mills were excavated on the Irish coast where watermillers knew and employed the two main waterwheel types: a 6th century tide mill at Killoteran near Waterford was powered by a vertical waterwheel,[18] while the tide changes at Little Island were exploited by a twin-flume horizontal-wheeled mill (c. 630) and a vertical undershot waterwheel alongside it.[19][20] Another early example is the Nendrum Monastery mill from 787 which is estimated to have developed 7–8 HP at its peak.[21][22]

Vertical windmills (1180s)

Invented in Europe as the pivotable post mill, first surviving mention of one comes from Yorkshire in England in 1185. Efficient at grinding grain or draining water. Later also as the stationary tower mill.

Water hammer (12th latest)

Used in metallurgy on forging the metal blooms from bloomeries and Catalan forges. Replaced manual hammerwork. Eventually superseded by steam hammers in the 19th century.

Navigation

Dry Compass (12th)

The first mention of the directional compass is in Alexander Neckam's On the Natures of Things, written in Paris around 1190.[23] Either transmitted from China or the Arabs or an independent European innovation. Dry compass invented in the Mediterranean around 1300.[24]

Astronomical compass (1269)

The French scholar Pierre de Maricourt describes in his experimental study Epistola de magnete (1269) three different compass designs he has devised for the purpose of astronomical observation.[25]

Scheme of a sternpost-mounted medieval rudder

Stern-mounted rudders (1180s)

First depiction of a pintle-and gudgeon rudder on church carvings dating to around 1180. First appeared with cogs in the North and Baltic Sea, quickly spread to Mediterranean. The iron hinge system was the first stern rudder permanently attached to the ship hull and made a vital contribution to the navigation achievements of the age of discovery and thereafter.[26]

Printing, paper and reading

Movable type printing press (1440s)

Invented by Johannes Gutenberg. His great innovation was not the printing itself, but instead of using readily-carved plates as before, he used separate letters (types) from which the printing plates for pages were made up. This meant the types were recyclable and a page cast could be made up far faster than with readily-carved plates.

Paper (13th)

Invented in China, transmitted through Islamic Spain to Europe in the 13th century where the papermaking processes were mechanized by water-powered mills and paper presses (see paper mill).

Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466)

Spectacles (1280s)

European innovation. Florence, Italy. Convex lenses, of help only to the far-sighted. Concave lenses were not developed prior to the 15th century.

Watermark (1282)

Medieval innovation to mark paper products and to discourage counterfeiting. First introduced in Bologna, Italy.

Science and learning

Arabic Numerals (13th c.)

First recorded mention in Europe 976, first widely published in 1202 by Fibonacci with his Liber Abaci.

University

The first medieval universities were founded between the 11th and 13th century leading to a rise in literacy and learning. By 1500, the institution had spread throughout most of Europe and played a key role in the Scientific Revolution. Today, the educational concept and institution has been globally adopted.[27]

Textile industry and garments

Functional button (13th)

Buttons with buttonholes used to fasten or close garment, being the most convenient method before the introduction of the zipper, appear in the 13th century Germany as indigenous innovation.[28] Became soon widespread with the rise of snug-fitting clothing.

Horizontal loom (11th)

Horizontal and operated by foot-treadles, faster and more efficient.

Silk (6th)

Manufacture of silk began in Eastern Europe in the 6th, in Western Europe in the 11th or 12th centuries. Imported over the Silk Road since antiquity. Technnology of "silk throwing" mastered in Tuscany in the 13th century. The silk works used waterpower and some regard these as the first mechanized textile mills.

Spinning wheel (13th)

Brought to Europe probably from India.

Miscellaneous

Knights Templar playing chess, Libro de los juegos (1283)

Chess (1450)

The earliest predecessors of the game originated in 6th century AD India and spread via Persia and the Muslim world to Europe. Here the game evolved into its current form in the 15th century (see History of chess).

Forest glass (ca. 1000)

Type of glass which uses wood ash and sand as the main raw materials and is characterised by a variety of greenish-yellow colours.

Grindstones (834)

Rough stone, usually sandstone, used to sharpen iron. The first rotary grindstone (turned with a leveraged handle) occurs in the Utrecht Psalter, illustrated between 816 and 834.[29] According to Hägermann, the pen drawing is a copy of a late antique manuscript.[30] A second crank which was mounted on the other end of the axle is depicted in the Luttrell Psalter from around 1340.[31]

Liquor (12th)

Alcohol distillation by way of Islamic alchemists, initially used as medicinal elixir. Popular remedy for the Black Death during the 14th century; "national" drinks like vodka, gin, brandy come into form.

Magnets (12th)

First reference in the Roman d'Enéas, composed between 1155 and 1160.

Mirrors (1180)

First mention of "glass" mirror in 1180 by Alexander Neckham who said "Take away the lead which is behind the glass and there will be no image of the one looking in."

Illustrated surgical atlas (1345)

Guido da Vigevano (ca. 1280−1349) was the first author to add illustrations to his anatomical descriptions. His Anathomia provides pictures of neuroanatomical structures and techniques such as the dissection of the head by means of trephination, and depictions of the meninges, cerebrum, and spinal cord.[32]

Quarantine (1377)

Initially a 40-day-period, the Quarantine was introduced by the Republic of Ragusa as measure of disease prevention related to the Black Death. Later adopted by Venice from where the practice spread all around in Europe.

Rat traps (1170s)

First mention of a rat trap in the medieval romance Yvain, the Knight of the Lion by Chrétien de Troyes.

Soap (9th)

Soap came into widespread European use in the 9th century in semi-liquid form, with hard soap perfected by the Arabs in the 12th century.

Military technologies

Armour

Jousting armor commissioned by Maximilian I in 1494

Plate armour (14th, late)

Apex of pre-industrial personal armour in terms of body protection and metallurgical skills involved. Large and complete full plates of armour appear by the end of the 14th century.

Cavalry

Arched saddle (1050s)

Enabled mounted knights to wield lance underarm and prevent the charge turning into an unintentional pole-vault. This innovation gave birth to true shock cavalry, enabling the knights to charge on full gallop, thus exceeding the shock value of the cataphracts.

Spurs (11th)

Invented by the Normans, appearing at the same time as cantled saddle. Enabled the knight to control his horse with his feet instead of hands, replacing the whip and leaving his arms free. Rowel spurs familiar from cowboy films were already known in the 13th century. Gilded spurs were the ultimate symbol of the knighthood - even today someone is said to "earn his spurs" by proving his or her worthiness.

Stirrup (6th)

Invented by the steppe nomads in what is today Mongolia and northern China in the 4th century and transmitted west. Appeared in Byzantium in the 6th, in the Carolingian Empire in the 8th century. Allowed mounted knight to wield sword and strike from a distance leading to a great advantage for mounted cavalry.

Gunpowder weapons

Cannon (1324)

Cannons are first recorded in Europe at the siege of Metz in 1324. In 1350 Petrarch wrote "these instruments which discharge balls of metal with most tremendous noise and flashes of fire...were a few years ago very rare and were viewed with greatest astonishment and admiration, but now they are become as common and familiar as any other kinds of arms."

Volley gun

See Ribauldequin.

Corned gunpowder (14th, late)

First practiced in Western Europe, corning the black powder allowed for more powerful and faster ignition of cannon. Also facilitated storage and transportation to operational area, thus constituting a crucial step in the evolution of gunpowder warfare.

Scottish bombard Mons Meg

Supergun (14th, late)

Extant examples include the wrought-iron Pumhart von Steyr, Dulle Griet and Mons Meg as well as the cast-bronze Faule Mette and Faule Grete (all 15th century).

Mechanical artillery

Counterweight trebuchet (12th)

Powered solely by the force of gravity, these catapults revolutionized medieval siege warfare and construction of fortifications by hurling huge stones unprecedented distances. Originating somewhere in the eastern Mediterranean basin, counterweight trebuchets were introduced in the Crusader states by the 1120s, Byzantium by the 1130s and in the Latin West by the second half of the century.[33]

Missile weapons

Longbow with massed, disciplined archery (13th)

Having a high rate of fire and penetration power, the longbow contributed to the eventual demise of the medieval knight class. Used particularly by the English to great effect against the French cavalry during the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

Steel crossbow (14th, late)

European innovation. Came with several different cocking aids to enhance draw power, making the weapons also the first hand-held mechanical crossbows.

Miscellaneous

Combined arms tactics (1333)

The battle of Halidon Hill 1333 was the first battle where intentional and disciplined combined arms infantry tactics were employed. The English men-at-arms dismounted aside the archers, combining thus the staying power of super-heavy infantry and striking power of their two-handed weapons with the missiles and mobility of the archers. Combining dismounted knights and men-at-arms with archers was the archetypal Western Medieval battle tactics until the battle of Flodden 1513 and final emergence of firearms.

Gallery

Renaissance technology

In the 15th century, the pace of technical advancements quickens with such diverse innovations like the printing press, linear perspectivity, patent law, double shell domes or bastions.

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d Matheus 1996, p. 346
  2. ^ Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in his The Measure of Reality : Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600 and other major historians of technology have also noted it.
  3. ^ Holt 1988, pp. 7–8, 11
  4. ^ Hägermann & Schneider 1997, pp. 456–459
  5. ^ Matthies 1992, p. 515
  6. ^ Matthies 1992, p. 526
  7. ^ Hall 1979, p. 48
  8. ^ a b Matheus 1996, p. 345
  9. ^ Matthies 1992, p. 534
  10. ^ White, Jr. 1962, p. 112; Hall 1979, p. 80
  11. ^ Archaeological Investigations on the Beginning of Blast Furnace-Technology in Central Europe
  12. ^ Radomir Pleiner: Vom Rennfeuer zum Hochofen. "Die Entwicklung der Eisenverhüttung", 9.-14. Jh., in: Uta Lindgren (ed.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800-1400, Berlin 2001 (4th ed.), pp. 249-256 (255) ISBN 3-7861-1748-9
  13. ^ Karl-Heinz Ludwig, Volker Schmidtchen: Propyläen Technikgeschichte. Metalle und Macht 1000-1600, Berlin 1997, p.389f. ISBN 3-549-05633-8
  14. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin 1985, pp. 68−73
  15. ^ Lucas 2005, p. 28, fn. 70
  16. ^ Burns 1996, pp. 414f.; Thompson 1978, p. 169
  17. ^ Burns 1996, p. 418
  18. ^ Murphy 2005
  19. ^ Wikander 1985, pp. 155–157
  20. ^ Rynne 2000, pp. 17, 49
  21. ^ McErlean & Crothers 2007
  22. ^ Nendrum Monastery mill
  23. ^ Barbara M. Kreutz, “Mediterranean Contributions to the Medieval Mariner's Compass,” Technology and Culture, Vol. 14, No. 3. (Jul., 1973), p.368
  24. ^ Frederic C. Lane, “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass,” The American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 3. (Apr., 1963), p.615ff.
  25. ^ Taylor 1951, pp. 2ff.
  26. ^ Lawrence V. Mott, The Development of the Rudder, A.D. 100-1600: A Technological Tale, Thesis May 1991, Texas A&M University
  27. ^ Makdisi 1970, p. 264
  28. ^ Lynn White: "The Act of Invention: Causes, Contexts, Continuities and Consequences", Technology and Culture, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Autumn, 1962), pp. 486-500 (497f. & 500)
  29. ^ White, Jr. 1962, p. 110
  30. ^ Hägermann & Schneider 1997, pp. 425f.
  31. ^ White, Jr. 1962, p. 111
  32. ^ Di Ieva 2007, pp. 1–4
  33. ^ Paul E. Chevedden, "The Invention of the Counterweight Trebuchet: A Study in Cultural Diffusion", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, No. 54 (2000), pp.71-116 (104f.)

See also

References

  • Andrews, Francis B. The Medieval Builder and His Methods. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1973. Medieval construction technique, with a brief chapter on tools.
  • Blair, John, and Nigel Ramsay, editors. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products London: Hambledon Press. 1991. ISBN 1-85285-326-3
  • Burns, Robert I. (1996), "Paper comes to the West, 800−1400", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 413–422, ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  • Crosby, Alfred. The Measure of Reality : Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • Di Ieva, Antonio et al. (2007), "The Neuroanatomical Plates of Guido da Vigevano", Neurosurgical Focus 23 (1): 1–4, doi:10.3171/FOC-07/07/E15, http://thejns.org/doi/pdfplus/10.3171/FOC-07/07/E15 
  • Gies, Frances and Joseph. Cathedral, Forge, and Waterwheel: Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages. New York: Harper Collins, 1994. ISBN 0-06-092581-7
  • Gimpel, Jean. The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages. London: Pimlico, (2nd ed. 1992) ISBN 0-14-004514-7
  • Hägermann, Dieter; Schneider, Helmuth (1997), Propyläen Technikgeschichte. Landbau und Handwerk, 750 v. Chr. bis 1000 n. Chr. (2nd ed.), Berlin, ISBN 3-549-05632-X 
  • Hall, Bert S. (1979), The Technological Illustrations of the So-Called "Anonymous of the Hussite Wars". Codex Latinus Monacensis 197, Part 1, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-920153-93-6 
  • Holt, Richard (1988), The Mills of Medieval England, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 978-0631156925 
  • Long, Pamela O.,editor. Science and Technology in Medieval Society. in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol 441 New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1985 ISBN 0-89766-277-6 A series of papers on highly specific topics.
  • Lucas, Adam Robert (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30, doi:10.1353/tech.2005.0026 
  • Makdisi, George (1970), "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica 32: 255–264 
  • Matheus, Michael (1996), "Mittelalterliche Hafenkräne", in Lindgren, Uta, Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation (4th ed.), Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, pp. 345–348, ISBN 3-7861-1748-9 
  • Matthies, Andrea (1992), "Medieval Treadwheels. Artists' Views of Building Construction", Technology and Culture 33 (3): 510–547, doi:10.2307/3106635, JSTOR 3106635 
  • McErlean, Thomas; Crothers, Norman (2007), Harnessing the Tides: The Early Medieval Tide Mills at Nendrum Monastery, Strangford Lough, Belfast: Stationery Office Books, ISBN 978-0-337-08877-3 
  • Murphy, Donald (2005), Excavations of a Mill at Killoteran, Co. Waterford as Part of the N-25 Waterford By-Pass Project, Estuarine/ Alluvial Archaeology in Ireland. Towards Best Practice, University College Dublin and National Roads Authority, http://www.acsltd.ie/cms/uploads/02_02_kiloteran_mill_-_ucd.pdf 
  • Rynne, Colin (2000), "Waterpower in Medieval Ireland", in Squatriti, Paolo, Working with Water in Medieval Europe, Technology and Change in History, 3, Leiden: Brill, pp. 1–50, ISBN 90-04-10680-4 
  • Singer, Charles, editor. History of Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1954. Volumes II and III cover the Middle Ages with great scope and detail. This is the standard work.
  • Taylor, E. G. R. (1951), "The South-Pointing Needle", Imago Mundi 8: 1–7, doi:10.1080/03085695108591973 
  • Thompson, Susan (1978), "Paper Manufacturing and Early Books", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 314: 167–176, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1978.tb47791.x 
  • White, Jr., Lynn (1962), Medieval Technology and Social Change, Oxford: At the Clarendon Press 
  • White, Lynn, Jr., "The Study of Medieval Technology, 1924-1974: Personal Reflections" Technology and Culture 16.4 (October 1975), pp. 519–530. A chronology and basic bibliography of landmark studies.
  • Wikander, Örjan (1985), "Archaeological Evidence for Early Water-Mills. An Interim Report", History of Technology 10: 151–179 

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