- Hybrid electric bus
- This article deals with hybrid combustion / battery hybrid buses. For alternately powered buses, see dual-mode bus; for fuel cell hybrids see fuel cell bus; for all-electric buses, see electric bus.
A hybrid electric bus combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. These type of buses normally use a diesel-electric powertrain and are also known as hybrid diesel-electric buses.
- 1 Air Pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
- 2 Manufacturers
- 3 Transit
- 4 Tribrid Bus
- 5 Plug-in hybrid electric bus
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Air Pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
A report prepared by Purdue University suggests introducing more hybrid diesel-electric buses and a fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel (BD20) would further reduce greenhouse emissions and petroleum consumption.
Current manufacturers of diesel-electric hybrid buses include Alexander Dennis Limited (ADL), Azure Dynamics Corporation, Ebus, Eletra (Brazil), New Flyer Industries, Gillig, ISE Corporation[disambiguation needed ], Motor Coach Industries, Orion Bus Industries, North American Bus Industries, Daimler AG's Mitsubishi Fuso, MAN, Designline, BAE Systems, Volvo Buses, Wrightbus, Castrosua and many more.
In the United Kingdom, Wrightbus has introduced a development of the London 'Double-Decker', a new interpretation of the traditional red buses that are a feature of the extreme traffic density in London. The Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV bus uses a small diesel engine with electric storage through a lithium ion battery pack. The use of a 1.9-litre diesel instead of the typical 7.0-litre engine in a traditional bus demonstrates the possible advantages of serial hybrids in extremely traffic-dense environments. Based on a London test cycle, a reduction in CO2 emissions of 31% and fuel savings in the range of 40% have been demonstrated, compared with a modern 'Euro-4' compliant bus.
Also in 2005 GE introduced its hybrid electric shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 GM started to tour with hybrid electric buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the US. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005. Mitsubishi Fuso have developed a diesel engine hybrid bus using lithium batteries in 2002, and this model has since seen limited service in several Japanese cities.
Since 1999, Hybrid electric buses with gas turbine generators have been developed by several manufacturers in the US and New Zealand, with the most successful design being the buses made by Designline of New Zealand. The first model went into commercial service in Christchurch (NZ) since 1999, and later models now operates daily service in Tokyo, Auckland (NZ), Hong Kong, and Newcastle upon Tyne (UK).
New Flyer, Gillig, North American Bus Industries, and Nova Bus produce hybrid electric buses using either ISE Corporation ThunderVolt, BAE System's HybriDrive, or Allison Transmission GM's electric drive system.
The Whispering Wheel bus is another HEV.
Transit authorities that use hybrid electric buses:
Federal fundings generally comes from the federal Diesel Emissions Reduction Act.
- ABQ RIDE (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
- Ann Arbor Transportation Authority (AATA) (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
- Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses (San Juan, Puerto Rico)
- Bee-Line Bus System (Westchester County, New York)
- Berks Area Reading Transportation Authority (Berks County, Pennsylvania)
- Bloomington Transit (Bloomington, Indiana)
- Broome County Transit (Broome County, New York)
- Capital Area Transportation Authority (Lansing, Michigan)
- Capital District Transportation Authority (Albany, New York)
- Central New York Regional Transportation Authority (Syracuse, New York)
- Charlotte Area Transit System (Charlotte, North Carolina)
- Chatham Area Transit (Savannah, Georgia)
- Chicago Transit Authority
- Citibus (Lubbock).
- Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, Ohio)
- Citilink (Fort Wayne, Indiana)
- CVTD Cache Valley Transit District (Logan, Utah)
- DART First State (Delaware)
- Durham Area Transit Authority (Durham, North Carolina)
- Eureka Transit Service (Eureka, California)
- Greater Lafayette Public Transportation Corporation (Lafayette, IN)
- Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (Hillsborough County, Florida)
- Howard Transit, (Howard County, Maryland)
- Kanawha Valley Regional Transportation Authority
- King County Metro Transit Authority (Seattle, Washington)
- Lane Transit District (Lane County, Oregon)
- Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, California)
- LACMTA (Los Angeles, California)
- Madison Metro Transit (Wisconsin)
- Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Boston, MA)
- MATBUS - Metro Area Transit (Fargo, ND - Moorhead, MN)
- Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (Houston, Texas)
- Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metro Transit
- MTA Maryland (Baltimore, Maryland)
- Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority
- New York City Transit Authority
- Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (Buffalo, New York)
- North County Transit District (North San Diego County, California)
- Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange County, California)
- Port Authority of Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
- Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada/Citizens Area Transit (Las Vegas, Nevada)
- Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (Providence, Rhode Island)
- Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Aspen, Colorado)
- San Diego Metropolitan Transit System/San Diego Transit (San Diego, California)
- San Francisco MUNI (San Francisco, California)
- San Joaquin Regional Transit District (Stockton, California)
- Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (Santa Clara County, California)
- Santa Rosa CityBus (Santa Rosa, California)
- Sarasota County Area Transit (Sarasota County, Florida)
- Sound Transit (Puget Sound, Washington)
- Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
- Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (Cincinnati, Ohio)
- Spokane Transit Authority (Spokane, Washington)
- TheBus (Honolulu, Hawaii)
- TriMet (Portland, Oregon): two vehicles.
- Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, Utah)
- Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
- Transit Windsor (Windsor, Ontario)
- Edmonton Transit System (Edmonton, Alberta)
- Hamilton Street Railway (Hamilton, Ontario)
- OC Transpo (Ottawa, Ontario)
- RTC (Quebec City, Quebec) [Currently only one Novabus LFS HEV in service]
- STM (Montréal, Québec) [Currently owns four Novabus LFS HEVs, testing for larger orders]
- STO (Gatineau, Québec)
- St. Catharines Transit Commission (St. Catharines, Ontario)
- Toronto Transit Commission (Toronto, Ontario)
- Coast Mountain Bus Company (Vancouver, British Columbia)
- BC Transit (Kelowna, British Columbia).
- Beijing Public Transport
- Kunming Bus
- Shenzhen Bus Group
- Shenzhen Eastern Bus
- Shenzhen Western Bus
The Green Bus Fund is a fund which is supporting bus companies and local authorities in England to help them buy new electric buses.:
- London Buses, London. This is the largest fleet in the UK, with over 50 vehicles in use.
- Newcastle upon Tyne
- QuayLink (Tyne and Wear)
- Stagecoach, Manchester, Oxford, Sheffield
- Oxford Bus Company, Oxfordshire
- FirstGroup, Bath, Somerset, Bristol, Manchester Metroshuttle
- Reading Buses
- Lothian Buses
- Barcelona (MAN Lion's City Hybrid)
- Empresa Municipal de Transportes, Madrid
- Figueres, within the Electrobus Project, IDAE
Other European Countries
- Jönköpings Länstrafik, Jönköping, Sweden. The used model is MAN Lion's City Hybrid
- Ljubljanski potniški promet (5 Kutsenits Hydra City II/III Hybrid's), Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Paris: RATP is using a hybrid electric bus outfitted with ultracapacitors; the model used is the MAN Lion's City Hybrid.
- Milan, Italy
- Team Trafikk, Trondheim, Norway, with 10 Volvo B5L
- Vienna, Austria
- PostAuto, Switzerland: one vehicle is being tested since April 2010; the test will continue for three years.
- Tribrid buses have been developed by the University of Glamorgan, Wales. They are powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells, batteries and ultracapacitors.
Plug-in hybrid electric bus
The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop, test, and deploy plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) school buses. The project aims to deploy 60 vehicles for a three-year period in school bus fleets across the nation. The vehicles will be capable of running in either electric-only or hybrid modes and will be recharged from a standard electrical outlet. Because electricity will be their primary fuel, they will consume less petroleum than standard vehicles. To develop the PHEV school bus, Navistar will examine a range of hybrid architectures and evaluate advanced energy storage devices, with the goal of developing a vehicle with a 40-mile (64 km) electric range. Travel beyond the 40-mile (64 km) range will be facilitated by a clean diesel engine capable of running on renewable fuels. The DOE funding will cover up to half of the project's cost and will be provided over three years, subject to annual appropriations.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies (HEVT) makes conversions of new and used vehicles (aftermarket and retrofit conversions), from combustion buses and conventional hybrid electric buses into plug-in buses.
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- ^ "ISE". Isecorp.com. http://www.isecorp.com/. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "Munich starts using the first MAN hybrid city bus | Frontier India Aerospace, Land and Marine". Frontierindia.net. 2010-05-25. http://frontierindia.net/alm/munich-starts-using-the-first-man-hybrid-city-bus/1090/. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "Castrosua.com". Castrosua.com. http://www.castrosua.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "Analysis of electric drive technologies for transit applications: Battery-electric, hybrid-electric, and fuel cells" (PDF). 2005. http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/Electric_Drive_Bus_Analysis.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
- ^ Jibreel Riley (2010-07-20). "COTA: Hybrid Bus Purchase". Theotherpaper.com. http://www.theotherpaper.com/articles/2010/07/15/front/doc4c3f2bbe88007493930885.txt. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "Citilink: Hybrid Bus Demonstration". Fwcitilink.com. http://fwcitilink.com/news.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority". go Metro. 2009-04-21. http://www.go-metro.com/hybrid.html. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ "Hybrid Electric Bus". Transitbc.com. 2005-05-04. http://www.transitbc.com/regions/kel/news/hybrid_electric.cfm. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ^ a b "BUSportal - Viac ako 30 percent nižšie CO2:". Busportal.sk. http://www.busportal.sk/modules.php?name=article&sid=6667. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
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- ^ "Hybrid Bus in the City: A Prototype with a Future". Physorg.com. 2007-08-20. http://www.physorg.com/news106841346.html. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
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- ^ Navarro, Xavier (2009-04-15). "Paris tests a new hybrid bus that uses ultracapacitors — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. http://green.autoblog.com/2009/04/15/paris-tests-a-new-hybrid-bus-that-uses-ultracapacitors/. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
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