- Global Hybrid Cooperation
Global Hybrid Cooperation (formerly called Advanced Hybrid System 2 or AHS2) is a set of
hybrid vehicletechnologies jointly developed by General Motors and what used to be DaimlerChrysler, with BMWjoining in 2005. It uses two sets of gears in an automatic transmission: One for the internal combustion engineand another to multiply the power of a pair of electric motors. General Motors has stopped using the "AHS2" name as of 2006, preferring to call it simply a "two-mode hybrid system". Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Driveis similar in that it also combines the power from a single engine and a pair of electric motors, although it uses only one planetary gearset. Honda's Integrated Motor Assistuses a more traditional ICE and transmission where the flywheel is replaced with an electric motor.
When GM and DaimlerChrysler engineers realized how similar their hybrid work was, they decided to join forces and share technology. The GM/DaimlerChrysler partnership was announced on
December 13, 2004with Dieter Zetscheof DaimlerChrysler joining Rick Wagonerof GM on stage with a prototype. The agreement was not signed until the following August, however.
GM is reportedly responsible for development of rear- and four-wheel drive truck and front wheel drive car systems while DaimlerChrysler is focused on a rear wheel drive luxury car application.
It was announced on
September 7, 2005that BMWwould also join the alliance, likely using archrival DaimlerChrysler's rear wheel drive system.
The three companies have formed an organization called Global Hybrid Cooperation with engineering and management centered at the GM, DaimlerChrysler and BMW Hybrid Development Center in
Troy, Michigan. Recent reports indicate that the three automakers will spend one billion US dollars between them on the development of the front- and rear-wheel drive hybrid transmissions. [cite web|url=http://autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060811/FREE/60811001/1024/LATESTNEWS|title=Spending to Go Green|work= AutoWeek|accessmonthday=August 11 |accessyear=2006]
The group touts its technology as "two-mode" to differentiate it from the
Toyota, Honda, and Ford "single-mode" systems. The two modes of operation are:
# Input-split mode — At low speeds, the vehicle can move with either the electric motor/generators, the internal combustion engine, or both, making it a so-called full hybrid. All accessories will still remain functioning on electric power, and the engine can restart instantly if needed. In this mode, one of the motor/generators (M/G 1) acts as a generator, while the other operates as a motor (M/G 2). This mode is operational using the first and second gear ratios of the transmission.
# Compound-split mode — At higher speeds or heavier loads, the internal combustion engine always runs, and the system uses advanced technologies like
Active Fuel Managementand late intake valve closing to optimize fuel efficiency. This mode begins at the point where one of the motor/generators reaches zero speed; at this point some clutches within the system engage while others disengage to alter the physical configuration of the transmission, and the velocity is Vshift. Immediately after the shift, both electric machines operate as motors and the first gear ratio is employed. At a given velocity above Vshift, the second gear ratio is employed, and M/G 2 begins to operate as a generator, while also slowing down its angular speed. When the angular speed of M/G 2 is zero, the third gear ratio is employed, and M/G 1 begins to operate again as a generator. As the vehicle velocity increases, the fourth gear ratio is employed, and M/G 1 begin to operate as a generator and M/G 2 as a motor again.
Although the transmission mechanically has only four conventional gear ratios, the electric motors allow it to function as a
continuously variable transmission. This variable ratio functions in addition to the torque multiplication of the planetary gears.
Despite the "two-mode" marketing pitch, however, it is the packaging of the first application of the system which is unique. A special
automatic transmissionincorporates two 100 kW (133 hp) three phase induction motors, two planetary gearsets, and two selectively-engaging friction clutches. This system amplifies the output of the electric motors similarly to the way in which a conventional transmission amplifies the torque of an internal combustion engine. It also transfers more of the engine's torqueto the wheels, making the transmission more efficient even without the electric motors in use. Finally, the whole system fits into the space of, and indeed appears as, a conventional 4L60-E automatic transmission.
A 300 volt battery pack is housed elsewhere in the vehicle to store energy. Most applications will also include 120 volt AC power outlets as on the 2004
Chevrolet SilveradoPHT hybrid.
The two-mode transmission seems to resemble at least some, if not most, aspects of the [http://www.tu-chemnitz.de/mb/MaschElem/SEL.php SEL Transmission] , researched and documented by TU Chemnitz under a public research grant, in July 2000.
The system was first used in the New Flyer transit
buses deployed in 2001.
* City bus system by
Albuquerque, New Mexico ABQ RIDE(74 New Flyerbuses announced December 21, 2004(12 buses), February 2007 (6 buses), and October 2007 (58 buses))
Indianapolis, Indiana IndyGo(two buses announced January 24, 2005)
Yosemite National Park National Park Service(18 Gilligbuses announced April 25, 2005)
Kelownaand Victoria, British Columbia(6 New Flyerbuses announced May 5, 2005)
Shreveport, Louisiana SporTran(one bus announced June 9, 2005)
Charlotte, North Carolina Charlotte Area Transit System(2 buses announced June 9, 2005)
Springfield, Massachusetts Pioneer Valley Transit Authority(one bus announced October 14, 2005)
Aspen, Colorado Roaring Fork Transportation Authority(seven buses announced December 9, 2005)
** Consortium (led by
San Joaquin RTD) of 10 transit agencies in Californiaand Nevada(157 Gilligbuses announced March 20, 2006).
***Note: ABQ RIDE of Albuquerque, New Mexico was formerly a member of this consortium, but instead chose to order
New Flyerbuses on their own instead.
Madison, Wisconsin Madison Metro(5 Gilligbuses announced September 11, 2007, with 10 more planned for purchase in the next few years)
The longitudinal system for light trucks from General Motors will be manufactured at
Baltimore Transmissionby GM's Allison Transmissiondivision. The nickel-metal hydridebatteries will be manufactured by Panasonic EVof Japan.
The system was to be introduced for the 2007 model year in the full-sized GM SUVs, but these were delayed for one year for unspecified reasons. Instead, GM will reportedly [cite web|url=http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=116373|title=GM To Debut Hybrid Full-Sized Trucks in Fall '07|work=Edmunds.com|accessmonthday=August 3 |accessyear=2006] launch the system in the full-size
GMT900pickup trucks in the Fall of 2007.
Rear wheel drivetruck system
GMC Graphyte HybridSUV concept (shown at the 2005 NAIAS)
Dodge Durango/ Chrysler Aspen— Auto L|5.7 "Hemi" V8 with MDS
Front wheel drivecar system
Opel Astra Dieselhybrid concept (shown at the 2005 NAIAS)
** 2009 Saturn Vue Green Line SUV, 45% improvement over
Mild hybridversion according to GMhttp://www.gm.com/company/gmability/adv_tech/100_news/hybrid-2008-113006.html]
All wheel drivecar system
** 2010 Saturn Vue Green Line SUV 45% improvement over
Mild hybridversion according to GM
March 1, 2007, BMW and DaimlerChrysler announced that they are expanding their partnership and moving quickly to develop a mild hybridmodule for rear wheel drive premium cars. They plan to roll out the new system within the next three years on BMW and Mercedes-Benz vehicles produced.
GM is not part of this expanded partnership, and has not announced plans to develop a hybrid RWD system for cars. [ [http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/News/articleId=119805 BMW and DaimlerChrysler Rev Up Development of Premium Hybrid Cars ] ]
Hybrid Synergy Drive
* [http://www.MixedPower.com Hybrid Cars and Vehicles — MixedPower.com]
* [http://www.engin.umd.umich.edu/vi/w4_workshops/Miller_W04.pdf Comparative Assessment of Hybrid Vehicle Power Split Transmissions]
* [http://appft1.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PG01&s1=20060111213&OS=20060111213&RS=20060111213 Electrically variable transmission having two planetary gear sets with one fixed interconnection, US Patent Application 2006/0111213 A1]
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