- Honolulu, Hawaii
official_name = Honolulu, Hawaii
nickname = Crossroads of the Pacific, Sheltered Bay
settlement_type = CDP
motto = Ha’aheo No ‘O Honolulu (Honolulu Pride)
image_caption =Aerial view of downtown from Honolulu Harbor
map_caption = Location in Honolulu County and the state of
pushpin_map_caption =Location in Hawaii
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
leader_title = Mayor
area_magnitude = 1 E8
unit_pref = Imperial
area_total_km2 = 272.1
area_land_km2 = 222.0
area_water_km2 = 50.1
area_total_sq_mi = 105
area_land_sq_mi = 85.7
area_water_sq_mi = 19.3
population_as_of = 2000
population_total = 371,657
population_metro = 909,863
Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time
utc_offset = -10
utc_offset_DST = -10
latd = 21
latm = 18
lats = 32
latNS = N
longd = 157
longm = 49
longs = 34
longEW = W
elevation_m = Sea Level 0
elevation_ft = 0
postal_code_type = Zip Code
postal_code = 96801-96825
area_code = 808
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 15-17000
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0366212
website = http://www.honolulu.gov/
Honolulu is the
capitaland most populous census-designated place(CDP) in the U.S. stateof Hawaii. Although "Honolulu" refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island, the city and the county are consolidated, known as the City and County of Honolulu, and the city and county is designated as the entire island of Oahu. The City and County of Honolulu is the only incorporated city in Hawaii, as all other local government entities are administered at the county level. The population of the census designated place was 371,657 at the 2000 census, while the population of the City and County was 909,863. In the Hawaiian language, "Honolulu" means "sheltered bay" or "place of shelter." It lies along the southeast coast of the island of Oahu and of the City & County of Honolulu.
It is not known when Honolulu was first settled by the original
Polynesian migrants to the archipelago. Oral histories and artifacts indicate that there was a settlement where Honolulu now stands in the 12th century. However, after Kamehameha Iconquered Ookinaahu in the Battle of Nuokinauanu at Nuokinauanu Pali, he moved his royal court from the Island of Hawaiokinai to Waikīkī in 1804. His court later relocated, in 1809, to what is now downtown Honolulu.
Captain William Brown of England was the first foreigner to sail, in 1794, into what is now Honolulu Harbor. More foreign ships would follow, making the port of Honolulu a focal point for merchant ships traveling between North America and Asia.
Kamehameha IIImoved the permanent capital of the Hawaiian Kingdom from Lahaina on Mauito Honolulu. He and the kings that followed him transformed Honolulu into a modern capital, erecting buildings such as St. Andrew's Cathedral, okinaIolani Palace, and Aliokinaiōlani Hale. At the same time, Honolulu became the center of commerce in the Islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing major businesses in downtown Honolulu.
Despite the turbulent history of the late 19th century and early 20th century, which saw the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, Hawaiokinai's subsequent annexation by the
United States, and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Honolulu would remain the capital, largest city, and main airport and seaport of the Hawaiian Islands.
An economic and tourism boom following statehood brought rapid economic growth to Honolulu and Hawaiokinai. Modern air travel would bring thousands, eventually millions (per annum) of visitors to the Islands. Today, Honolulu is a modern city with numerous high-rise buildings, and Waikīkī is the center of the tourism industry in Hawaiokinai, with thousands of hotel rooms.
Geography and climate
Honolulu is located at 21°18'32" North, 157°49'34" West (21.308950, -157.826182).GR|1 While the climate is clearly in the
tropics, the climate( temperatureand humidity) is moderated by the mid-ocean location and some cooling achieved by the California Currentthat passes through the islands much of the year. The average daily low and high temperatures in January are 65/80 °F (18/27 °C) and in July are 74/88 °F (23/31 °C). Temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) only rarely, with lows in the 50's °F (15 °C) occurring perhaps once or twice in a year. The hottest temperatureever recorded in Honolulu was 95 °F (35 °C) on September 19, 1994and the coldest temperatureever recorded was 53 °F (11.6 °C) on January 31, 1998, 1972 and 1948; January 20, 1969; February 1and February 2, 1976; February 9, 1981; and February 12, 1983.
The closest location on the mainland to Honolulu is the
Point Arena, California Lighthouse, at 2,045 nautical miles(2,353 statute miles) or 3,787 kilometers. [Microsoft Streets and Trips 2007 Software, Copyright 2006 by Microsoft Corp. et al. Kilometers converted to nautical and statute miles by figures given in The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007, Copyright World Alamnac Education Group, p.350-353] (Nautical vessels require some additional distance to circumnavigate Makapu'u Point.) However, part of the Aleutian Islandsof Alaskaare slightly closer than California.Infobox Weather
location= Honolulu, HI, USA
Jan_Hi_°F = 80.4 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F = 88
Feb_Hi_°F = 80.7 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F = 88
Mar_Hi_°F = 81.7 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F = 88
Apr_Hi_°F = 83.1 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F = 91
May_Hi_°F = 84.9 |May_REC_Hi_°F = 93
Jun_Hi_°F = 86.9 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F = 92
Jul_Hi_°F = 87.8 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F = 94
Aug_Hi_°F = 88.9 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F = 93
Sep_Hi_°F = 88.9 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F = 95
Oct_Hi_°F = 87.2 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F = 94
Nov_Hi_°F = 84.3 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F = 93
Dec_Hi_°F = 81.7 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F = 89
Year_Hi_°F = 85 |Year_REC_Hi_°F = 95
Jan_Lo_°F = 65.7 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F = 53
Feb_Lo_°F = 65.4 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F = 53
Mar_Lo_°F = 66.9 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F = 55
Apr_Lo_°F = 68.2 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F = 57
May_Lo_°F = 69.6 |May_REC_Lo_°F = 60
Jun_Lo_°F = 72.1 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F = 65
Jul_Lo_°F = 73.8 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F = 66
Aug_Lo_°F = 74.7 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F = 67
Sep_Lo_°F = 74.2 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F = 66
Oct_Lo_°F = 73.2 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F = 61
Nov_Lo_°F = 71.1 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F = 57
Dec_Lo_°F = 67.8 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F = 54
Year_Lo_°F = 70 |Year_REC_Lo_°F = 53
Jan_Precip_inch = 2.73
Feb_Precip_inch = 2.35
Mar_Precip_inch = 1.89
Apr_Precip_inch = 1.11
May_Precip_inch = 0.78
Jun_Precip_inch = 0.43
Jul_Precip_inch = 0.50
Aug_Precip_inch = 0.46
Sep_Precip_inch = 0.74
Oct_Precip_inch = 2.18
Nov_Precip_inch = 2.27
Dec_Precip_inch = 2.85
Year_Precip_inch = 18.29
source = The Weather Channel [cite web|url=http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USHI0026?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared |title=Monthly Averages for Honolulu, HI |accessdate=2008-09-19 |date=2008 |publisher=
The Weather Channel]
Honolulu is administered under a
consolidated city-countyform of government employing a strong mayor-council system. The Mayor of Honoluluholds executive privilegesmdashas opposed to mayors with only ceremonial powersmdashand the Honolulu City Councilserves as the legislature. Mufi Hannemanncurrently serves as Mayor of Honolulu. His term ends January 2, 2010.
One of the largest municipal governments in the United States, the city and county works with an annual operating budget of over
USD1 billion. Fact|date=September 2008 The Honolulu Fire Departmentand Honolulu Police Departmentare administered by the mayor and city council through appointed officials.
fullwidth = 2000
fullheight = 152
caption = Panorama of Honolulu's waterfront.
height = 152
The Honolulu District is located on the southeast coast of Oahu between
Makapuuand Halawa. The District boundary follows the Koolau crestline, so Makapuu Beach is in the Koolaupoko District. On the west, the district boundary follows Halawa Stream, then crosses Red Hill and runs just west of Aliamanu Crater, so that Aloha Stadium, Pearl Harbor(with the USS Arizona Memorial), and Hickam Air Force Baseare actually all located in the island's Ewa District.
Most of the city's commercial and industrial developments are located on a narrow but relatively flat coastal plain, while numerous ridges and valleys located inland of the coastal plain divide Honolulu's residential areas into distinct neighborhoods: some spread along valley floors (like Manoa in Manoa Valley) and others climb the interfluvial ridges. Within Honolulu proper can be found several
volcanic cones: Punchbowl, Diamond Head, Koko Head(includes Hanauma Bay), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and Aliamanu being the most conspicuous.
Neighborhoods and special districts
Downtown Honoluluis the financial, commercial, and governmental center of Hawaii. On the waterfront is Aloha Tower, which for many years was the tallest building in Hawaii. Currently the tallest building is the convert|438|ft|m|0|sing=on-tall First Hawaiian Center, located on King and Bishop Streets.
The Arts District Honoluluin downtown/Chinatown is on the eastern edge of Chinatown. It is a 12-block area bounded by Bethel & Smith Streets and Nimitz Highway and Beretania Street - home to numerous arts and cultural institutions. It is located within the Chinatown Historic District. [http://www.artsdistricthonolulu.com]
* The Capitol District is the eastern part of Downtown Honolulu. It is the current and historic center of Hawaii's state government, incorporating the
Hawaii State Capitol, Iolani Palace, Honolulu Hale(City Hall), State Library, and the statue of King Kamehameha I, along with numerous government buildings.
* Kakaokinaako is a light-industrial district between Downtown and Waikīkī that has seen a large-scale redevelopment effort in the past decade. It is home to two major shopping areas,
Ward Warehouseand Ward Centre. The John A. Burns School of Medicine, part of the University of Hawaiokinai at Manoa is also located there. A Memorial to the "Ehime Maru" Incident victims is built at Kakaako Waterfront Park.
* Waikīkī is the world famous tourist district of Honolulu, located between the
Ala Wai Canaland the Pacific Oceannext to Diamond Head. Numerous hotels, shops, and nightlife opportunities are located along Kalakaua and Kuhio Avenues. World-famous Waikīkī Beach attracts millions of visitors a year. Just west of Waikīkī is Ala Moana Center, the world's largest open-air shopping center. A majority of the hotel rooms on Oahu are located in Waikīkī.
Manoaand Makikiare residential neighborhoods located in adjacent valleys just inland of downtown and Waikīkī. Manoa Valley is home to the main campus of the University of Hawaiokinai.
* Nuokinauanu and
Pauoaare upper-middle-class residential districts located inland of downtown Honolulu. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacificis located in Punchbowl Craterfronting Pauoa Valley.
* Palolo and Kaimuki are neighborhoods east of Manoa and Makiki, inland from Diamond Head. Palolo Valley parallels Manoa and is a residential neighborhood. Kaimuki is primarily a residential neighborhood with a commercial strip centered on Waialae Avenue running behind Diamond Head. Chaminade University is located in Kaimuki.
* Waialae and Kahala are the upper-class districts of Honolulu located directly east of Diamond Head, where there are many high-priced homes. Also found in these neighborhoods are the
Waialae Country Cluband The Kahala Hotel & Resort.
* East Honolulu includes the residential communities of okinaĀina Haina, Niu Valley, and Hawaiokinai Kai. These are considered upper-middle-class neighborhoods. The upscale gated communities of Waiokinaalae okinaiki and Hawaiokinai Loa Ridge are also located here.
* Kalihi and Palama are working-class neighborhoods with a number of government housing developments. Lower Kalihi, toward the ocean, is a light-industrial district.
* Salt Lake and Aliamanu are (mostly) residential areas built in extinct tuff cones along the western end of the Honolulu District, not far from the
Honolulu International Airport.
Moanaluais two neighborhoods and a valley at the western end of Honolulu, and home to Tripler Army Medical Center.
As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 371,657 people, 140,337 households, and 87,429 families residing in the CDP. The population densitywas 4,336.6 people per square mile (1,674.4/km²). There were 158,663 housing units at an average density of 1,851.3/sq mi (714.8/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 19.67% White, 1.62% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 55.85% Asian, 6.85% Pacific Islander, 0.89% from other races; and 14.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.37% of the population.
There were 140,337 households out of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size is 3.23.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,112, and the median income for a family was $56,311. Males had a median income of $36,631 versus $29,930 for females. The
per capita incomefor the CDP was $24,191. About 7.9% of families and 11.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.5% of those 65 and older.
Located on the western end of Honolulu proper,
Honolulu International Airport(HNL) is the principal aviation gateway to the state of Hawaii.
freeways serve Honolulu:
Interstate H-1, which, coming into the city from the west, passes Hickam Air Force Baseand Honolulu International Airport, runs just north of Downtown and continues eastward through Makiki and Kaimuki, ending at Waialae/Kahala. H-1 connects to Interstate H-2from Wahiawaand Interstate H-3from Kaneohe, west of the city proper.
Interstate H-201—also known as the Moanalua Freeway and formerly numbered Hawaii State Rte. 78—connects two points along H-1: at Aloha Stadiumand Fort Shafter. Close to H-1 and Aloha Stadium, H-2 has an exchange with the western terminus of Interstate H-3to the windward side of Oahu (Kaneohe). This complex of connecting ramps, some directly between H-1 and H-3, is in Halawa.
Interstate H-2runs from Pearl City, through Waipioand Mililani, to Wahiawaand dissolves into a highway (Wilikina Drive) near the military base, U.S. Army base Schofield Barracksand Army Airfield Wheeler. The interstate is a convenient way to get to the island's North Shore.
Interstate H-3is also known as the John A. Burns Freeway, and runs from the H-1 in Honolulu to the community of Kane'ohe.
Other major highways that link Honolulu proper with other parts of the Island of Oahu are:
Pali Highway, State Rte. 61, crosses north over the Koolau range via the Pali Tunnels to connect to Kailua and Kaneohe on the windward side of the Island.
Likelike Highway, State Rte. 63, also crosses the Koolau to Kaneohe via the Wilson Tunnels.
* Kalanianaole Highway, State Rte. 72, runs eastward from Waialae/Kahala to Hawaii Kai and around the east end of the island to Waimanalo Beach.
Kamehameha Highway, State Rte. 99, runs westward from near Hickam Air Force Baseto Aiea and beyond, eventually running through the center of the island and ending in Kaneohe.
Like most major American cities, the Honolulu metropolitan area experiences heavy traffic congestion during rush hours, especially to and from the western suburbs of Kapolei, Ewa,
Aiea, Pearl City, Waipahu, and Mililani. Land for expanding road capacity is at a premium everywhere on Oahu.
Established by former Mayor
Frank F. Fasi, Honolulu's public transitsystem has been twice honored by the American Public Transportation Associationbestowing the title of "America's Best Transit System" for 1994–1995 and 2000–2001. Oahu Transit Services' " TheBus" operates 107 routes with a fleet of 525 buses.
In 2004, construction had started on a
bus rapid transit(BRT) system using dedicated rights-of-way for buses. The system, proposed by then Mayor Jeremy Harris, was expected to link the Iwilei neighborhood with Waikiki. Fact|date=October 2008 However, current Mayor Mufi Hannemannhas largely dismantled the BRT system and deployed its buses along other express bus routes. Fact|date=October 2008
Currently, there is no railway system in Honolulu. The last major attempt was called the Honolulu Area Rail Rapid Transit project. Popularly known as HART, the twenty-one station rail system almost came to fruition before Mayor
Eileen Andersoncancelled the project in 1981 and returned grants and funding to their sources, [cite news
coauthors = William D. Middleton
title = Honolulu: trains at last?
publisher = "
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1215/is_n11_v191/ai_9205644/pg_1
accessdate = 2008-01-19] [cite news
coauthors = William D. Middleton
title = Honolulu's mayor ends proposal for rail line in downtown area
publisher = "
New York Times"
June 28, 1981
url = http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20612F83A5C0C7B8EDDAF0894D9484D81
accessdate = 2008-01-20] arguing the project would break her vow of fiscal responsibility.cite book
last = Leavitt
first = Judith A.
title = American Women Managers and Administrators
year = 1985
pages = pp. 8-9
isbn = 0313237484]
Several attempts had been made since Anderson's cancellation of HART to construct a fixed rail mass transit system. All attempts stalled in Honolulu City Council hearings. In 2004, the city, county and state approved development of an action plan for a system to be built in several phases. The initial line proposed linking Kapolei in West Oahu to the
University of Hawaii at Manoa. However, on December 22, 2006the city council approved a fixed-guideway system meant to accommodate either rail or buses, running from Kapolei in West Oahu to Ala Moana, with spurs into Waikikiand Manoa.
Established in 1900, the
Honolulu Symphonyis the oldest US symphony orchestra west of the Rocky Mountains. Other classical music ensembles include the Hawaii Opera Theatre. Honolulu is also a center for Hawaiian music. The main music venues include the Neal Blaisdell CenterConcert Hall, the Waikiki Shell, and the Hawaii Theatre.
Honolulu also includes several venues for live
theater, including the Diamond Head Theatre.
There are various institutions supported by the state and private entities for the advancement of the visual arts. The
Honolulu Academy of Artsis endowed with the largest collection of Asian and Western art in Hawaii. It also has the largest collection of Islamic art, housed at the Shangri La estate. The academy hosts a film and video program dedicated to arthouse and world cinema in the museum's Doris Duke Theatre, named for the academy's historic patroness Doris Duke.
Contemporary Museumis the only contemporary art museumin the state. It has two locations: main campus in Makikiand a multi-level gallery in downtown Honoluluat the First Hawaiian Center.
Hawaii State Art Museumis also located in downtown Honolulu at No. 1 Capitol District Building and boasts a collection of art pieces created by local artists as well as traditional Hawaiian art. The museum is administered by the Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts.
Recognized internationally as the premier cultural institution of Hawaii, the
Bishop Museumis the largest of Honolulu's museums. It is endowed with the state's largest collection of natural history specimens and the world's largest collection of Hawaiiana and Pacific culture artifacts. The Honolulu Zoois the main zoological institution in Hawaii while the Waikiki Aquariumis a working marine biologylaboratory. The Waikiki Aquarium is partnered with the University of Hawaiiand other universities worldwide. Established for appreciation and botany, Honolulu is home to several gardens: Foster Botanical Garden, Liliuokalani Botanical Garden, Walker Estate, among others.
Currently, Honolulu has no professional sports teams. However, Honolulu hosts the NFL's annual
Pro Bowleach February in addition to the NCAA football Hawaii Bowl. Honolulu also supports the Hawaii Winter League annually from late September to late November, hosting minor league players from MLB, NPB, and Korea. Games are hosted at Les Murakami and Hans L'Orange Park. Fans of spectator sports in Honolulu generally support the football, volleyball, basketball, and baseballprograms of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. High school sporting events, especially football, are especially popular. Venues for spectator sports in Honolulu include:
Aloha Stadium(football and soccer)
Les Murakami Stadiumat UH-Manoa ( baseball)
Stan Sheriff Centerat UH-Manoa ( basketballand volleyball)
Neal Blaisdell CenterArena ( basketball)
Honolulu's mild climate lends itself to year-round fitness activities as well. In 2004, "
Men's Fitness" magazine named Honolulu the fittest city in the U.S. Honolulu is also home to three large road races:
Great Aloha Runis held annually on Presidents' Day.
Honolulu Marathon, held annually on the second Sunday in December, draws more than 20,000 participants each year, about half to two thirds of them from Japan.
Honolulu Triathlonis an Olympic distance triathlonevent governed by USA Triathlon. Held annually in May since 2004, there is an absence of a sprint course.
Former professional franchises
Hawaii Islanders( Pacific Coast League, 1961-1987)
Hawaiian Islanders( af2, 2002-2004)
Team Hawaii( North American Soccer League, 1977)
The Hawaiians( World Football League, 1974-1975)
Honolulu is home to numerous forms media including newspapers, magazines, radio and television.
Honolulu Academy of Arts
National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
USS Arizona Memorial
Colleges & universities
Honolulu currently has 24 sister cities. [ [http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/HI] , List of Sister Cities for the state of Hawaii, including Honolulu, from
Sister Cities International] They are:
# [http://www.HONOLULUADVERTISER.com/localnews/ "Honolulu Advertiser"] , Section B. Monday, June 7, 2004. Estimated student body size and annual tuition for selected colleges on Oahu.
* [http://www.honolulu.gov City & County of Honolulu] official site
* [http://www.gohawaii.com/ Hawaii Vistors and Convention Bureau]
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