- China National Space Administration
China National Space Administration
Owner China Established 22 April 1993 Headquarters Beijing, China Primary spaceport Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center Administrator Chen Qiufa Budget US$500 million (official); US$1.3 billion (Euroconsult) Website www.cnsa.gov.cn China National Space Administration Traditional Chinese 國家航天局 Simplified Chinese 国家航天局 Cantonese Jyutping Gwok3 Gaa1 Hong4 Tin1 Guk6 Cantonese Yale Gwo Jya Hang Tyan Jyu Hanyu Pinyin Guó Jiā Háng Tiān Jú Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Guó Jiā Háng Tiān Jú - Wade–Giles Kuo Chia Hang T'ien Chü - IPA [kwɔ̌ tɕjá xɑ̌ŋ tʰjɛ́ntɕy̌] Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping Gwok3 Gaa1 Hong4 Tin1 Guk6 - IPA [kʷɔ̄ːk.gáː.hɔ̭ːŋ.tīn.kùːk] - Yale Romanization Gwo Jya Hang Tyan Jyu
The China National Space Administration (CNSA, Chinese: 国家航天局; pinyin: Guó Jiā Háng Tiān Jú, literally "National Astronautics Department") is the national space agency of the People's Republic of China responsible for the national space program. It is responsible for planning and development of space activities. CNSA and China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) assumed the authority over space development efforts previously held by the Ministry of Aerospace Industry.
Although China's space program has existed since 1956, CNSA is a relatively new agency created in 1993 when the Ministry of Aerospace Industry was split into CNSA and the China Aerospace Corporation (CASC). The former was to be responsible for policy, while the latter was to be responsible for execution. This arrangement proved somewhat unsatisfactory, as these two agencies were, in effect, one large agency, sharing both personnel and management.
As part of a massive restructuring, in 1998, CASC was split into a number of smaller state-owned companies. The intention appeared to have been to create a system similar to that characteristic of Western defense procurement in which entities which are government agencies, setting operational policy, would then contract out their operational requirements to entities which were government-owned, but not government-managed.
CNSA was established as a government institution to develop and fulfill China's due international obligations, with the approval by the Eighth National People's Congress of China (NPC). The Ninth NPC assigned CNSA as an internal structure of the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND). CNSA assumes the following main responsibilities: signing governmental agreements in the space area on behalf of organizations, inter-governmental scientific and technical exchanges; and also being in charge of the enforcement of national space policies and managing the national space science, technology and industry.
Up to now, China has signed governmental space cooperation agreements with Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, India, Italy, Pakistan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States and some other countries. Significant achievements have been scored in the bilateral and multilateral and technology exchanges and cooperation.
Administrators of CNSA are appointed by the State Council.
- Tiangong 1 : 9.4 ton "space laboratory module" launched in 2011.
- Yinghuo 1 : un-manned Mars probe scheduled for launch in 2011. The Russian sample return mission Phobos-Grunt will be sent together with Yinghuo 1.
As of 2011, six Chinese nationals have traveled in space (alphabetical order) :
The current administrator is Chen Qiufa, appointed in 2010. Jin Zhuanglong and Luo Ge were appointed as vice-administrators in 2005.
List of Administrators
- April 1993: Liu Jiyuan
- April 1998: Luan Enjie
- 2004: Sun Laiyan
- 2010: Chen Qiufa
There are four departments under the CNSA:
- Department of General Planning
- Department of System Engineering
- Department of Science, Technology and Quality Control
- Department of Foreign Affairs
CNSA's logo is a similar design to that of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation. The arrow in middle has a similar shape as the Chinese character 人 which means 'human' or 'people', to state that human is the center of all space explorations. The three concentric ellipses stand for three Escape Velocity (minimum speed needed to move around earth, to escape earth system and to escape the solar system) which are milestones of space explorations. The second ring is drawn with a bold line, to state that China has passed the first stage of exploration (earth system) and is undergoing second stage exploration (within the solar system). The 人 character stands above the three rings to emphasize on humanity's capability to escape and explore. Olive branches were added to state that China's space exploration is peaceful.
China National Space Administration (CNSA) Robotic programsPastCurrentIn development Human spaceflight
Past missionsShuguang · Piloted FSW · Project 863 Spaceports PeopleScientistsAstronauts Chinese space facilities and organizations CentersSpace citiesDongfeng space city · Beijing space city · Wenchang space city · Shanghai space city · Yantai space city · Guizhou Aerospace Industrial ParkMonitoring and
Launch sitesSuborbital launch sitesNanhui Launch Site · Base 603Orbital launch sites Manned spacecraft
organizationsUniversities and institutesCAS Key Laboratory of high-temperature gas dynamics · China Aerodynamics Research & Development Center · Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics · School of Aeronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology · School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University · China's Space Medical InstituteMinistries and agenciesChina Ministry of Aerospace Industry · China National Space Administration · China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation · China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology · Fifth Academy of the Defence Ministry · China Aerospace Corporation
Public sector space agencies AfricaNorth AfricaSub-SaharanNASRDA · SANSA AmericasNorth AmericaSouth America AsiaEast AsiaSoutheast AsiaSouth AsiaSouthwest AsiaCentral Asia Europe Oceania World
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