- Indian Space Research Organisation
Infobox Space agency
name = Indian Space Research Organisation
acronym = ISRO
caption = ISRO logo
headquarters = Antariksh Bhavan, New BEL Road,
spaceport = TERLS, SRLS, BRLS
15th August, 1969
G. Madhavan Nair
Dr B N Suresh
budget = Rs.41 billion rupees (
URL = [http://www.isro.org ISRO homepage]
The Indian Space Research Organisation (
Hindi: भारतीय अन्तरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन "Bhāratīya Antarix Anusandhān Sangaṭn") or ISRO, ( Hindi: इसरो "Isarō") is India's national space agency. With its headquarters in Bangalore, the ISRO employs approximately 20,000 people, with a budget of around Rs. 41 billion (US$940 million at August 2008 exchange rates). Its mandate is the development of technologies related to space and their application to India's development. The current Chairman of ISRO is G. Madhavan Nair. In addition to domestic payloads, it offers international launch services. ISRO currently launches satellites using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicleand the GSLV for geostationarysatellites.
History of Indian space research
India's experience in rocketry began in ancient times when fireworks were first used in the country, a technology invented in neighboring
China, and which had an extensive two-way exchange of ideas and goods with India, connected by the Silk Road. Military use of rockets by Tipu Sultanduring the Mysore Waragainst the British inspired William Congreve to invent the Congreve rocket, predecessor of modern artillery rockets, in 1804. After India gained independence from British occupation in 1947, Indian scientists and politicians recognized the potential of rocket technology in both defence applications, and for research and development. Recognizing that a country as demographically large as India would require its own independent space capabilities, and recognising the early potential of satellites in the fields of remote sensing and communication, these visionaries set about establishing a space research organisation.
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai was the founding father of the Indian space program, and is considered a scientific visionary by many, as well as a national hero. After the launch of
Sputnikin 1957 he recognized the potential that satellites provided. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, who saw scientific development as an essential part of India's future, placed space research under the jurisdiction of the Department of Atomic Energy in 1961. The DAE director Homi Bhabha, who was father of India's atomic programme, then established the Indian National Committee for Space Research( INCOSPAR) with Dr. Sarabhai as Chairman in 1962.
The Indian Rohini programme continued to launch sounding rockets of greater size and complexity, and the space programme was expanded and eventually given its own government department, separate from the Department of Atomic Energy. On
August 15th 1969the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created from the INCOSPARprogramme under the DAE, continued under the Space Commission and finally the Department of Space, created in June 1972.
In the 1960s Sarabhai had taken part in an early study with
NASAregarding the feasibility of using satellites for applications as wide as direct television broadcasting, and this study had found that it was the most economical way of transmitting such broadcasts. Having recognized the benefits that satellites could bring to India from the very start, Sarabhai and the ISRO set about designing and creating an independent launch vehicle, capable of launching into orbit, and providing the valuable experience needed for the construction of larger launch vehicles in future. Recognizing the advanced capability India had in building solid motors with the Rohini series, and that other nations had favoured solid rockets for similar projects, the ISRO set about building the technology and infrastructure for the Satellite Launch Vehicle( SLV). Inspired by the American Scout rocket, the vehicle would be a four-stage all-solid vehicle.
;Aryabhata - India's first satelliteMeanwhile, India began developing satellite technology anticipating the remote sensing and communication needs of the future. India concentrated more on practical missions,directly beneficial to people instead of manned space programs or robotic space explorations. [ [http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1056/1 Space Review] The Aryabhata satellite, launched in 1975 from
Kapustin Yarusing a Soviet Cosmos-3Mlaunch vehicle, was India's first satellite. [cite web |url=http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1975-033A |title=Aryabhata - NSSDC ID: 1975-033A |publisher=NASA]
;SLV - India's first satellite launch vehicleBy 1979 the SLV was ready to be launched from a newly-established second launch site, the
Satish Dhawan Space Centre(SDSC). The first launch in 1979 was a failure, attributed to a control failure in the second stage. By 1980 this problem had been worked out. The first indigenous satellite launched by India was called Rohini-1.
Following the success of the SLV, ISRO was keen to begin construction of a satellite launch vehicle that would be able to put truly useful satellites into
polar orbits. Design of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle( PSLV) was soon underway. This vehicle would be designed as India's workhorselaunch system, taking advantage of both old technology with large reliable solid-stages, and new liquid engines. At the same time, it was decided by the ISRO management that it would be prudent to develop a smaller rocket, based on the SLV, that would serve as a testbed for many of the new technologies that would be used on the PSLV. The Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ( ASLV) would test technologies like strap-on boosters and new guidance systems, so that experience could be gained before the PSLV went into full production.
Eventually, the ASLV was flight tested in 1987, but this launch was a failure. After minor corrections, another launch was attempted in 1988, this launch again failed, and this time a full investigation was launched into the cause, providing valuable experience, specifically because the ASLV's failure had been one of control - the vehicle could not be adequately controlled on removal of the stabilizing fins that were present on the SLV, so extra measures like improved maneuvering thrusters and flight control system upgrades were added. The ASLV development had also proven useful in the development of strap-on motor technology.
It was not until 1992 that the first successful launch of the ASLV took place. At this point the launch vehicle, which could only put very small payloads into orbit, had achieved its objective. In 1993 the time had come for the maiden flight of the PSLV. The first launch was a failure. The first successful launch took place in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has become the workhorse launch vehicle - placing both remote sensing and communications satellites into orbit, creating the largest cluster in the world, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Continual performance upgrades have increased the payload capacity of the rocket significantly since then.
Glavkosmoshalted the transfer of the associated manufacturing and design technology to India. Until then, ISRO had not been affected by technology transfer restrictions thanks to the political foresight of Sarabhai in indigenizing technology. However, elements of the ISRO management cancelled indigenous cryogenic projects in anticipation of the Russian deal. Instead of canceling the deal, Russiaagreed to provide fully built engines instead, and India began developing an indigenous cryogenic engineto replace them, in the GSLV-II. There is still some controversy over the issue of the cryogenic engine acquisition, with many pointing to the decision to cancel indigenous projects as being a grave mistake - Indiawould have likely had a fully indigenous engine operating by the time the GSLV launched if indigenous development had started from day one. Despite this one uncharacteristic slip in an otherwise extremely successful programme, and the loss of potential payload capacity over the decade that occurred as a result, ISRO pressed on.
Currently the most powerful Indian launch vehicle in operation; the first development flight of the GSLV took place in 2001. The program’s benefits have been scrutinized due to frequent payload cutbacks and delays. The indigenous cryogenic engine for the GSLV's upper stage was tested in 2007. ISRO has reconsidered the effectiveness of the GSLV for the needs of the 2000-2010 decade and began development of an indigenous and new heavy launch vehicle,
GSLV III. The latter is not related to the GSLV-I/II and will be based around the proven format of liquid main stages and two solid strap-on boosters. It will resemble the Ariane 5and other modern launchers and will have sufficient payloadcapacity for manned spaceflight.. The inaugural flight is scheduled for 2008. Chandrayaan2008: ISRO intends to send a small robotic spacecraftinto lunar orbitmounted on a modified PSLV. It will survey the surface of the moon in greater detail than ever before and attempt to locate resources. Countries, including the US have expressed interest in attaching their own payloads to the mission. ISRO and NASAhave an agreement to carry two NASA probes as a payload.
Scramjet: This is a long-term project to develop a reusable launch vehicle ( RLV) restricted to the launch of satellites. Theoretically, AVATAR would be a cost effective launch vehicle for small satellites and therefore a commercially competitive launch system. A scaled-down technology demonstrator is scheduled to fly c.2008. Recently ISRO successfully tested a scramjet air breathing engine which produced Mach 6for seven seconds. ISRO will continue research related to using scramjets in RLVs after 2010.
ISRO has entered the lucrative market of launching payloads of other nations. Prominent among them are the launches of Israel Space Agency’s,
TecSARspy satellite, and Israeli Tauvex-IIsatellite module. The CARTOSAT-2, launched on the July 2006, carried a small Indonesianpayload of 56 kg.
Leveraging its expertise in cryogenic technology to design
Hydrogen fuel cellsto store and handling of hydrogen; ISRO teamed up with Tatamotors to develop a prototypehydrogen passenger car for Indian market, expected to hit road by end of 2008
November 15 2007ISRO achieved a significant milestone through the successful test of indigenously developed Cryogenic Stage, to be employed as the upper stage of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle( GSLV). The test was conducted for its full flight duration of 720 seconds on November 15 2007at Liquid Propulsiontest facility at Mahendragiri, in Tamil Nadu. With this test, the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage has been fully qualified on the ground. The flight stage is getting ready for use in the next mission of GSLV(GSLV-D3) in 2008.
April 28 2008ISRO successfully launched 10 satellites in a single mission further boosting it's capabilities in space. [http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/apr/28sat.htm PSLV-C9 launched successfully with 10 satellites]
This includes 690 kg CARTOSTAT-2 and another 83 kg mini Indian satellite, IMS-1; and eight other nano satellites made by various universities; and research and development institutions in Canada and Germany offered at a subsidized price as part of a goodwill gesture by the Indian Department of Space.
ISRO Centres and Facilities
These centres are related to the Indian Space Research Organisation [ISRO] :
* Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SHAR) –
* Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) –
* Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) –
* Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) –
* ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) – Bangalore
* Raman Research Institute (RRI) – Bangalore
* Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) –
Antrix Corporation– Bangalore
* Master Control Facility (MCF) – Hassan
* Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) – Bangalore
* Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST) – Thiruvananthapuram
* National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) – Hyderabad
* ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) – Bangalore
* Space Applications Centre (SAC) –
* INSAT Master Control Facility (IMCF) –
* ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) – Thiruvananthapuram
* Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) – Ahmedabad
* Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL) –
* National Atmospheric Radar Laboratory (NARL)
* Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS)
* Aerospace Command of India (ACI)
* Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR)
* Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA)
* Indian Department of Space (IDS)
* Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSC)
* Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU)
* 1962: Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR); formed by the Department of Atomic Energy, and work on establishing
ThumbaEquatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) near Trivandrum began.
* 1963: First
sounding rocketlaunched from TERLS on November 21 1963.
* 1965: Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) established in Thumba.
* 1967: Satellite
Telecommunication EarthStation set up at Ahmedabad.
* 1972: Space Commission and Department of Space set up.
* 1975: First Indian Satellite, Aryabhata, launched (
April 19 1975).
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment(SITE) conducted.
Bhaskara-1, an experimental satellite launched. First experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini satellite on board failed.
* 1980: Second experimental launch of SLV-3 Rohini satellite successfully placed in orbit.
APPLE, an experimental geostationary communicationsatellite successfully launched on June 19.
Bhaskara-II launched on November 20.
* 1982: INSAT-1A launched (April); deactivated in September.
* 1983: Second launch of SLV-3. RS-D2 placed in orbit. INSAT-1B launched.
* 1984: Indo-Soviet manned space mission (April).
Rakesh Sharmabecame the first Indian to reach space.
ASLVwith SROSS-1 satellite on board launched.
* 1988: First Indian
remote sensingsatellite, IRS-1A launched. INSAT-1C launched (July). Abandoned in November.
* 1990: INSAT-1D launched successfully.
* 1991: Launch of second operational Remote Sensing satellite, IRS-1B (August).
* 1992: Third developmental launch of ASLV with SROCC-C on board (May). Satellite placed in orbit. First indigenously built satellite INSAT-2A launched successfully.
* 1993: INSAT-2B launched in July successfully. First developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-1E on board fails.
* 1994: Fourth developmental launch of ASLV successful (May). Second developmental launch of
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV) with IRS-P2 successfully (October).
* 1995: INSAT-2C launched in December. Third operational IRS (IRS) launched.
* 1996: Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P3 successful (March).
* 1997: INSAT-2D launched in June became inoperational in October.
Arabsat1C, since renamed INSAT-2DT, acquired in November. First operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D successful (September).
* 1998: INSAT system capacity augmented with the readiness of INSAT-2DT acquired from
* 1999: INSAT-2E the last satellite in the multi-purpose INSAT-2 series, launched by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana (
April 3 1999). IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT), launched by Polar Satellite launch vehicle (PSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German DLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikota ( 26 May 1999).
* 2000: INSAT-3B was launched on
22 March 2000.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-D1 (GSLV-D1), the first developmental launch of GSLV with GSAT-1 onboard partially successful.
* 2002: INSAT-3C launched successfully by Arianespace (January), PSLV-C4 launches KALPANA-1 (September).
* 2003: GSLV-D2, the second developmental launch of GSLV with
GSAT-2 successful (May).
* 2004: First operational flight of GSLV (F01) successfully launches
* 2005: Launch of
CARTOSATand HAMSATby PSLV-C6 from the second launch pad (Universal Launch Pad) (May). INSAT 4A Launched successfully by the European Ariane-5G.
* 2006: Second operational flight of GSLV (F02) unsuccessful
July 10 2006. GSLV-F02 was carrying INSAT-4C.
* 2007: Successful launch of
CARTOSAT-2, SRE-1, LAPAN-TUBSAT and PEHUENSAT-1 on PSLV C7 on January 10 2007.
* 2007: SRE-1 splashed down in the
Bay of Bengalon January 22 2007and was successfully recovered by the Indian Coast Guard and Indian Navy, making Indiaone of the few countries to have re-entry technology.
* 2007: INSAT-4B successfully launched by
Arianespaceon March 12. [ [http://www.isro.org/mileston.htm Official Website of ISRO] ]
* 2007: PSLV-C8 successfully places an Italian satellite, AGILE into its orbit on April 23. This was ISRO's first commercial launch of a foreign satellite.
* 2007: INSAT-4CR was successfully placed in orbit, on the
2 September 2007, 6.21pm from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, on a GSLV-F04 rocket. [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200709021921.htm The Hindu News Update Service ] ] It is the first INSATsatellite which was successfully launched from India.
* 2008: PSLV in its stripped-down version places the
Israelisatellite Tecsar(a.k.a Polaris ) on its orbit . This is the second commercial launch of a foreign satellite by India. (January 21)
*2008: PSLV-C9 (stripped-down version) successfully places 10 satellite in a single launch. Two of it were Indian satellites and the remaining 8 micro satellites from various research bodies from Europe and Canada. Cartosat-2A, IMS-1, CanX-2, Cute-1.7+APD II, Delfi C3, AAUSAT-II, COMPASS-1, SEEDS-2, CanX-6 and RUBIN-8 were successfully launched on 28 April 2008
Since its formation, ISRO has launched numerous satellites; they include the IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) satellite series, the INSAT (Indian National Satellite) series (in Geo-Stationary orbit), the GSAT series (launched using GSLV) and METSAT 1 (launched by PSLV). As of 2007, the total number of satellites of all varieties built by ISRO is 45.
: "Main article
Indian National Satellite System"The Insat series of satellites includes the 1 (A, B, C, D), 2 (A, B, C, D,E), 3 (A, B, C, E) and 4 (A, B, C) series. They provide Communication and Television relay services all over India. Most of these satellites were launched by the Arianespacefor ISRO. But, the latest in the series, the INSAT-4CR, was launched on September 2 2007from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota with India’s own Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, GSLV-F04,. This was the fifth flight of GSLV.
: "Main article
Indian Remote Sensing satellite"The IRS series provide remote sensing services and are composed of the 1 (A, B, C, D). The future versions are named based on their area of application including OceanSat, CartoSat, ResourceSat. Some of the satellites have alternate designations based on the launch number and vehicle.
METSAT or Meteorological Satellite, is the first satellite built by ISRO to provide meteorological information and data. In 2003, METSAT was renamed as "Kalpana" in honour of the late astronaut
Kalpana Chawla. METSAT 2/Kalpana 2 is expected to be launched by 2007
Technology Experiment Satellite
As the name suggests, Technology Experiment Satellite is an experimental satellite aimed primarily at fulfilling the role of
spy satellite. The satellite has an image resolution of 1m or less, making India the only country after US to offer such high-resolution images commercially ref|TES. The Kargil Warprompted the rapid inclusion of a dedicated espionage satellite. It was first used to produce images of Iraqi military installations that were destroyed after US invasion in 2003.
ISRO is nearing the completion of the development of the first mission to the
Moon, named Chandrayaan-1. The launch is now expected in the third week of October 2008. It will be India's first step towards exploration of deep space. In 2005 the Indian government approved Rs.364 crore(3,640,000,000) Indian rupees for the planned moon mission expected to be launched by 2008. Apart from ISRO made instruments, Chandrayaan carries science instruments from NASAand ESAas opportunity payloads free of cost and with the understanding of sharing the data from the instruments. If the mission goes as planned, ISRO would be the sixth space agency in the world, after the Soviet Union, NASA, Japan, European Space Agency and China, to have sent an unmanned mission to the Moon.
ISRO is also planning a second version of Chandrayaan named Chandrayaan-2. According to the ISRO Chairman
G. Madhavan Nair, "The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) hopes to land a motorised rover on the moon in 2010 or 2011, as a part of its second Chandrayaan mission". An agreement for this mission was signed with Russia's Federal Space Agency recently. According to the release on ISRO's website [http://www.isro.org/pressrelease/Nov14_2007.htm] , ISRO will have the prime responsibility for the Orbiter and Roskosmos will be responsible for the Lander/Rover. An orbiter to Mars is also under discussion [http://www.ddinews.gov.in/Sci-Tech/dfdfd.htm] , though no concrete funding decisions for such a mission have been made yet.
ISRO also plans to undertake a totally indigenous manned space exploration in the next decade by planning to send a person to space by 2014. [http://www.ndtv.com/template/template.asp?template=sciencetech&slug=ISRO+plans+manned+space+mission+by+2014&id=95965&callid=1&category=National] . Some technologies needed for a manned mission are already under development and ISRO has already setup a
Deep Space Networkin Byalaluvillage near Bangalore. Indian Deep Space Networkcomprises mainly of two powerful dish antennas measuring 32-metre and 18-metre diameter to track all its future space missions. A third antenna measuring 11-meter diameter will be also erected for ASTROSATmission. [http://www.isro.gov.in/chandrayaan/htmls/ground_segment_spacenetwork.htm] [http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/17/stories/2006121702881200.htm] [http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/159257.html]
ISRO has started the development of the next launch vehicle version, known as the GSLV Mark-III, with an indigenous
cryogenic enginecapable of launching satellites weighing up to 6 tons in the final configuration. ISRO will be launching various satellites for European and Russian space programs including Agile and the GLONASSseries of navigation satellites. In December 2005, during the annual Indo-Russian summit in Moscow, the two states agreed on joint development of the GLONASS-Kseries, which will be launched by Indian launchers. ISRO also plans to launch payloads SRE-1, RISAT-1, ASTROSAT, OCEANSATseries, INSATseries, CARTOSATseries, and GSATseries over the next couple of years. The RLV-TD, a technology demonstrator of possible scramjet launch technology, will fly around 2008. ref|ISRO ISRO's most advance earth observation satellite under-development is CARTOSAT-3, which will have a resolution of 0.30 metre. [http://www.gisa.ru/43187.html] [http://www.livemint.com/2008/01/15232830/Isro-plans-satellite-series-fo.html]
The ISRO decade plan includes the following launch schedule:
*2006-2007 - Three
GSLVlaunches, (GSLV-D3, F2, F3). Launch of OCEANSAT-2, GSAT-4, INSAT-4D.
*2007-2008 - Three
PSLVlaunches, (PSLV-C9, C10, C11), two GSLVlaunches (GSLV-F4, F5), and one GSLV-III launch (GSLV-III-D1). Launch of CHANDRAYAAN, ASTROSAT, RISAT-1, GSAT (MK III), INSAT-3D and INSAT-4E.
*2006-2012 - Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS)
The Satellite Launch Vehicle was mainly used for the launching of experimental Rohini Satellites, and was a technology bridge. The Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle was mainly used for the launching of Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS) satellites, and also served as a technology bridge. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle serves as a small-medium satellite launching workhorse for the ISRO. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle serves as a medium lifter. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III will be a medium-heavy lifter. The Reusable Launch Vehicle project is intended as a cheap way of launching small satellites.
RH-75[ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rh75.htm RH-75 Chronology] ]
RH-125[ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rh125.htm RH-125 Chronology] ]
RH-200[ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rh200.htm RH-200 Chronology] ]
RH-300[ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rh300.htm RH-300 Chronology] ]
RH-300 Mk II[ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rh300mkii.htm RH-300 Mk II Chronology] ]
RH-560[ [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/rh560.htm RH-560 Chronology] ]
atellite launch vehicles
* Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) - an all-solid four-stage satellite launch vehicle. The SLV can place 40 kg into
low earth orbit.
* Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) - an all-solid five-stage satellite launch vehicle. The ASLV can place 150 kg into
low earth orbit.
* Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) - a four-stage rocket with liquid and solid stages. The PSLV can place 1600 kg into polar sun synchronous orbit.
* Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark I/II (GSLV-I/II) - a three-stage rocket with solid, liquid and cryo stages. The GSLV can place 2200 kg into
geostationary transfer orbit.
* Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV-III) - a three-stage rocket with solid, liquid and cryo stages. The GSLV can place 4000-6000 kg into
geostationary transfer orbit.
* Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) - a small remote-piloted scramjet vehicle called AVATAR. The RLV will place small satellites into LEO and can be reused for at least 100 launches reducing the cost of launching satellites.
* ISRO Chairman Madhavan Nair has been quoted as saying India is planning to launch a reusable spacecraft for the first time in 2010 and to send an umanned mission to Mars as early as 2012. [ [http://en.rian.ru/world/20070813/71203530.html] ]
ISRO operates 3 launch stations:
Thumba(TERLS - Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station/ Vikram SarabhaiSpace Center, Kerala),
* Shriharikota (SRLS - Shriharikota Rocket Launching Station/
Satish DhawanSpace Center, Andhra Pradesh).
Balasore(BRLS - Balasore Rocket Launching Station, Orissa).
The Shriharikota range is used for launch of satellites and multi-stage rockets. The launch station has two launch pads including the newest Universal Launch Pad. The two launch pads allow the station to hold up to 6 launches per year. The other two launch facilities are capable of launching sounding rockets, and other small rockets that don't produce spent stages.
Opinions and analysis
The government of India established [http://www.antrix.gov.in Antrix Corporation ] as the commercial wing of ISRO in 1992. ISRO has been involved in selling launch services, remote sensing data and transponders through Antrix corporation. The exact revenue earned by Antrix corp. is not available to the public.
Question of crewed missions
India sent its first
cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma, into space as part of the Soviet Intercosmosprogram aboard the Soyuz T-11capsule on April 2, 1984. The question of sending a human independently has been raised.
The question of having a manned space programme in future was first substantially raised in November 2006 in the form of a proposal. It outlined a goal which would be to design, develop and launch an Indian human spacecraft, a two-seat space capsule, which would be used to send an Indian into space by 2015 [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1942873,0008.htm] ] . The vehicle would be launched by India’s successful
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle(GSLV-Mk II) [ [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/NEWS/newsrf.php?newsid=8287 :: Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Military News Headlines :: ] ] .
The first signs of having a manned space programme was the 600-kg
Space Capsule Recovery Experiment(SRE), launched using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV) rocket, and safely returned to earth 12 days later. This demonstrates India's capability to develop heat resistant materials necessary for re-entry technology.
ISRO has submitted a project report for cabinet consideration with plans to launch a crewed mission in 2015. The projected budget is Rs. 10 000 crores over a five-six year period. [ [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/008200804271121.htm Mission to space may not be a 'manned' one: ISRO] ] [ [http://www.ptinews.com/pti%5Cptisite.nsf/0/E99C3FD936A878356525745A004D853F?OpenDocument ISRO to launch man mission in seven years] ]
Indian Deep Space Network
* Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)
* Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
* List Of Space Agencies
Defence Research and Development Organization
National Aerospace Laboratories
Asia's Space Race
List of aerospace engineering topics
Notes and references
* [http://www.isro.org/decade_plan.htm ISRO's decade plan]
* [http://www.skyrocket.de/space/index_frame.htm?http://www.skyrocket.de/space/doc_sdat/metsat-1.htm Information regarding METSAT]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1679321.stm BBC News article on the spy satellite]
* [http://www.newscientist.com/special/india/mg18524871.000 New Scientist article on the relevance of the ISRO]
* [http://www.livemint.com/2008/01/15232830/Isro-plans-satellite-series-fo.html Isro is building Cartosat-3]
* [http://www.thespacereview.com/article/768/1 The other rising Asian space power] , by Jeff Foust
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7374714.stm India's growing strides in space] , by Pallava Bagla
* [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/067089950X Reach for the Stars: The Evolution of India's Rocket Programme - Gopal Raj]
* [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1852331992 The Japanese and Indian Space Programmes: Two Roads into Space - Brian Harvey]
* [http://www.easternbookcorporation.com/moreinfo.php?txt_searchstring=11846 Space: The Frontiers of Modern Defence - Squadron Leader KK Nair]
* [http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_full_story.php?content_id=151077 Seeking a cryogenic flight]
* [http://www.isro.org/ Official ISRO website]
* [http://www.narl.gov.in/ Official NARL website]
* [http://www.fas.org/spp/guide/india/agency/isro.html FAS article on ISRO]
* [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/SPACE/ Bharat-Rakshak website on the Indian Space Programme]
* [http://www.indianembassy.org/dydemo/science.htm Article on India's space program]
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Indian Space Research Organisation — Logo de भारतीय अन्तरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन, Indian Space Research Organisation Nom officiel भारतीय अन्तरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन, Indian Space Research Organisation Nom en français Organisation indienne pour la recherche spatiale Siège social Bangalore … Wikipédia en Français
Indian Space Research Organisation — Logo der ISRO Die Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ist die Raumfahrtbehörde Indiens mit Hauptsitz in Bangalore. Sie wird von Sri Madhavan Nair geleitet. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
Indian Space Research Organisation Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network — The Indian Space Research Organisation Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) provides mission support to near earth satellites and launch vehicle missions for the Indian space program (ISRO). ISTRAC has a network of ground stations at… … Wikipedia
Indian Space Research Organisation Satellite Centre — The ISRO Satellite centre (ISAC) (Hindi: इसरो उपग्रह केंद्र) is the lead ISRO centre for technology testing and spacecraft assembly integration in India. [ [http://www.isac.ernet.in ISRO Satellite Centre website] ] Situated in Bangalore, the… … Wikipedia
Indian Space Research Organization — Logo der ISRO Die Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) ist die Raumfahrtbehörde Indiens mit Hauptsitz in Bangalore. Es wird von Sri Madhavan Nair geleitet. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Überblick 2 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization — The Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization is the highest ranked official of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), the space agency of the India. The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was found in 1962… … Wikipedia
Indian Space Shuttle Program — The Indian Space Shuttle Program is aimed to design an indigeneous Reusable Space Vehicle. [http://en.rian.ru/world/20070813/71203530.html India plans to launch first space shuttle in 2010] ,RIA Novosti] . India has already successfully tested a… … Wikipedia
Indian Armed Forces — भारतीय सशस्त्र सेनाएं Emblem of India Service branches … Wikipedia
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur — Motto तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय (tamaso mā jyotirgamaya) (Sanskrit) Motto in English Lead me from darkness to light Established … Wikipedia
Indian Remote Sensing satellite — Indian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, mostly built, launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation of India as part of the Indian space program. The IRS series provides remote sensing… … Wikipedia