- Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, and calendars and communications issued by the Government of India.
The term may also ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar, and the Saka era is commonly used by different calendars as well.
Month (Sanskrit) Length Start date (Gregorian) Tropical Zodiac 1 Chaitra 30/31 March 22* Aries 2 Vaishākha 31 April 21 Taurus 3 Jyaishtha 31 May 22 Gemini 4 Āshādha 31 June 22 Cancer 5 Shrāvana 31 July 23 Leo 6 Bhādrapada 31 August 23 Virgo 7 Āshvini 30 September 23 Libra 8 Kārtika 30 October 23 Scorpio 9 Agrahayana 30 November 22 Sagitarius 10 Pausha 30 December 22 Capricorn 11 Māgha 30 January 21 Aquarius 12 Phālguna 30 February 20 Pisces
In leap years, Chaitra has 31 days and starts on March 21 instead. The months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.
Years are counted in the Saka Era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year - if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar, then the Saka year is a leap year as well. Its structure is like the Persian calendar.
The calendar was introduced by the Calendar Reform Committee in 1957, as part of the Indian Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, which also contained other astronomical data, as well as timings and formulae for preparing Hindu religious calendars, in an attempt to harmonise this practice. Despite this effort, local variations based on older sources such as the Surya Siddhanta may still exist.
Usage officially started at Chaitra 1, 1879 Saka Era, or March 22, 1957. However, government officials seem to largely ignore the New Year's Day of this calendar in favour of the religious calendar.
- Hindu calendar
- Saka era
- Bengali calendar, a related Indic calendar
- Persian calendar
- Indian New Year's days
- Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History by E.G. Richards (ISBN 0-19-282065-7), 1998, pp. 184–185.
- Calendars and their History (by L.E. Doggett)
- Indian Calendars (by Leow Choon Lian, pdf, 1.22mb)
- Positional astronomy in India
- Indian National Calendar abstract
Calendars (list) Wide use Selected useAkan · Armenian · Assyrian · Aztec (Tonalpohualli · Xiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Bulgar · Burmese · Byzantine · Celtic · Coptic Ethiopian · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu (Indian · Malayalam · Tamil) · Igbo · Inca · Iranian (Zoroastrian, Medieval (Jalali), Modern (Hijri)) · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Korean · Kurdish · Lithuanian · Maya (Haab' · Tzolk'in) · Minguo · Mongolian · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad · Rapa Nui · Thai (Lunar · Solar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese · Xhosa · Yoruba
Calendar types: Runic · Mesoamerican (Long Count · Calendar round)
Christian variants: Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year · Revised Julian calendar
Rarely used Historical Martian Alternative New Age Displays and
Proposed calendarsThe World Calendar · 13-month calendar Year numbering Fictional
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