- Armenian calendar
The Armenian calendar is the traditional calendar of Armenia. It is a solar calendar based on the same system as the ancient Egyptian model, having an invariant 365-day year with no leap year rule. As a result, the correspondence between it and the Julian calendar slowly changes over time (such as year 769 on AD 1320 January 1, year 770 on AD 1320 December 31, and year 1032 on AD 1582 October 27 = Gregorian November 6). Some references report that the first month of the year, Navasard, corresponds to the start of Spring in the northern hemisphere, but that was only true from the 9th through 10th centuries. The currrent year, 1461, is the last of the great Armenian cycle of 1,461 wandering years which equal 1,460 Julian years. (See Sothic cycle). Next year, 1462, begins on 24 July 2012 (Gregorian), 11 July (Julian). Year 1 began on 11 July AD 552 (Julian).
The year consists of twelve months of 30 days each, plus five extra days (epagomenê) that belong to no month.
Years are given in the Armenian alphabet by the letters ԹՎ t’v, a siglum for t’vin "in the year" followed by one to four letters of the Armenian alphabet, each of which stands for an Armenian numeral. For example, "in the year 1455 [AD 2006]" would be written ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ.
The Armenian month names show influence of the Zoroastrian calendar, and, as noted by Antoine Meillet, Kartvelian influence in two cases. There are different systems for transliterating the names; the forms below are transliterated according to Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste system:
1 նաւասարդ nawasard Avestan *nava sarəδa "new year" 2 հոռի hoṙi ori "two" 3 սահմի sahmi sami "three" 4 տրէ trē Zoroastrian Tïr 5 քաղոց kʿałocʿ "month of crops"; Zoroastrian Ameretat (the deity Ameretat was also considered a protector of plants) 6 արաց aracʿ 7 մեհեկան mehekan Iranian *mihrakān- ("festival of Mithra", from Zoroastrian Mitrō) 8 արեգ areg "sun month"; Zoroastrian Āvān 9 ահեկան ahekan Iranian *āhrakān- "fire festival" from Zoroastrian Ātarō 10 մարերի mareri Avestan maiδyaīrya "mid-year"; Zoroastrian Dīn 11 մարգաց margacʿ Zoroastrian Vohūman 12 հրոտից hroticʿ Pahlavi *fravartakān "epagomenal days (days of the Fravashi)"; Zoroastrian Spendarmat̰
The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them, a peculiarity also found in the Avestan calendars. Zoroastrian influence is evident in at least five names. The names are 1. Areg "sun", 2. Hrand, 3. Aram, 4. Margar "prophet", 5. Ahrank’ "half-burned", 6. Mazdeł, 7. Astłik "Venus", 8. Mihr (Mithra), 9. Jopaber, 10. Murç "triumph", 11. Erezhan "hermit", 12. Ani, 13. Parxar, 14. Vanat, 15. Aramazd (Ahura Mazda), 16. Mani "beginning", 17. Asak "beginningless", 18. Masis (Mount Ararat), 19. Anahit (Anahita), 20. Aragac, 21. Gorgor, 22. Kordi (a district of Ancient Armenia considered the homeland of the Kurds), 23. Cmak "east wind", 24. Lusnak "half-moon", 25. C̣rōn "dispersion", 26.Npat (Apam Napat), 27. Vahagn (Zoroastrian Vahrām from Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day), 28. Sēin "mountain", 29. Varag, 30. Gišeravar "evening star". The five epagomenal days are called Aveleacʿ "superfluous".
Correlation with Egyptian calendar
The Armenian calendar is a derivative of Zoroastrian changes to Egyptian dates. The first month Navasard is equivalent to the month Choiak (Koyak), however its first day falls on Koyak 4 so that the first of the five epagum days falls on Egyptian Hatyr 27. This is in contrast to the Zoroastrian calendar where the first month Furvurdeen begins on Koyak 6 because its epagum (Gatha days) begin on Egyptian Koyak 1 as of 388 BC. The month Tir is equal to Egyptian Phamenoth (7th month) as Egyptian midyear; but it is of biblical interest that Armenian midyear (Mareri /Deh) is Egyptian new year month Thoth as if to imply it was at one time the 7th month, in regard of the computation of the Jubilee, and the biblical explanation of how to begin the novel age following the entering into the promised land. Two cycles of 1460 years goes back to August 11 of 2369 BC.
Prior to borrowing the Egyptian calendar, the ancient Armenians had a lunar calendar based on a lunation of 28 days.
Together with these alien Zoroastrian, Egyptian, Julian, Gregorian, and ecclesiastical dating schemes, some Armenians still retain the old native calendar usage in which the new year begins at the spring equinox. In the numbering scheme of this solar calendar, the year 1 reckons out to 5818-5817 BCE. Hence March 20/21, 2011 CE marks the start of the Armenian year 7829.
- Armenian numerals
- Calendar of Saints (Armenian Apostolic Church)
- Zoroastrian calendar
- Iranian calendar
- ^ Sarkis Shmavonian (UCLA). Archaic Armenian Perfects: Archaic Armenian Statics
- V. Bănăţeanu, “Le calendrier arménien et les anciens noms des mois”, in: Studia et Acta Orientalia 10, 1980, pp. 33–46
- Edouard Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne technique et historique (1859), 2001 reprint ISBN 978-0543966476.
- Jost Gippert, Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems in The Annual of The Society for The Study of Caucasia“, 1, 1989, 3-12.
- Louis H. Gray, On Certain Persian and Armenian Month-Names as Influenced by the Avesta Calendar, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1907)
- P'. Ingoroq'va, “Jvel-kartuli c'armartuli k'alendari” (“The Old Georgian pagan calendar”), in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe (“Messenger of the Museum of Georgia”), 6, 1929–30, pp. 373–446 and 7, 1931–32, pp. 260–336
- K'. K'ek'elije, “Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi” (“The Old Georgian year”), in: St'alinis saxelobis Tbilisis Saxelmc'ipo Universit'et'is šromebi (“Working papers of the Tbilisi State University by the name of Stalin”) 18, 1941, reprinted in the author's “Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan” (“Studies in the history of Old Georgian literature”) 1, 1956, pp. 99–124.
Calendars (list) Wide use Selected useAkan · Armenian · Assyrian · Aztec (Tonalpohualli · Xiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Bulgar · Burmese · Byzantine · Celtic · Coptic Ethiopian · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu (Indian · Malayalam · Tamil) · Igbo · Inca · Iranian (Zoroastrian, Medieval (Jalali), Modern (Hijri)) · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Korean · Kurdish · Lithuanian · Maya (Haab' · Tzolk'in) · Minguo · Mongolian · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad · Rapa Nui · Thai (Lunar · Solar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese · Xhosa · Yoruba
Calendar types: Runic · Mesoamerican (Long Count · Calendar round)
Christian variants: Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year · Revised Julian calendar
Rarely used Historical Martian Alternative New Age Displays and
Proposed calendarsThe World Calendar · 13-month calendar Year numbering Fictional
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Armenian Apostolic Church — One Holy Universal Apostolic Orthodox Armenian Church Official standard of the Catholicos of All Armenians of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Founder The Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus … Wikipedia
Calendar (film) — Infobox Film name = Calendar image size = caption = director = Atom Egoyan producer = Atom Egoyan Arsinée Khanjian Robert Lantos writer = Atom Egoyan starring = Arsinée Khanjian Ashot Adamyan Atom Egoyan music = Eve Egoyan Djivan Gasparian… … Wikipedia
Calendar era — A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era (the Coptic and Ethiopic churches have their own Christian eras, see below). The instant, date, or… … Wikipedia
Armenian alphabet — Infobox Writing system name=Armenian alphabet Հայկական Այբուբեն type=Alphabet languages=Armenian time=405 to the present fam1=modeled on Greek fam2=possible Pahlavi and Syriac influences creator=Saint Mesrob, Vramshapuh the king of Armenia at… … Wikipedia
Calendar of Saints (Armenian Apostolic Church) — Days of observance 2007= January*1 Third Day of the Fast of the Nativity *2 Fourth Day of the Fast of the Nativity *3 Fifth Day of the Fast of the Nativity *4 Sixth Day of the Fast of the Nativity *5 Eve of the Nativity and Theophany of our Lord… … Wikipedia
Calendar — For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation). For the Gregorian calendar for this year, see Common year starting on Saturday. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial,… … Wikipedia
Armenian Air Force — Infobox Military Unit unit name= Armenian Air ForceՀայաստանի Ռազմաօդային Ուժեր caption=Armenian Independence Day air display dates= August 1992 country= Flag|Armenia allegiance= branch= type= role= size= command structure= garrison= garrison… … Wikipedia
Armenian Distance Learning Network — Infobox Website name = Armenian Distance Learning Network url = http://www.e courses.am/ commercial = Yes type = Electronic learning, Distance education registration = owner = Adena Ltd, Republic of Armenia author = Albert Poghosyan Armenian… … Wikipedia
Calendar of 2001 — ▪ 2002 January America has never been united by blood or birth or soil. We are bound by ideals that move us beyond our backgrounds, lift us above our interests and teach us what it means to be citizens. Every child must be taught these principles … Universalium
Calendar of 1998 — ▪ 1999 January January 1 At the stroke of the new year, the Russian ruble is worth a thousand times less than before as three zeros are removed from its value; about six new rubles equal one U.S. dollar. Foreign Minister David Levy… … Universalium