- Malayalam calendar
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There are many theories about the origin of the calendar. Some say that it was founded by the ruler of Venad Udaya Marthanda Varma (a feudatory with capital at Kollam) or by the Hindu philosopher Adi Shankara or simply it is a derivation of the Saptarshi Era. But, it's generally agreed among the scholars that it was started with the reopening of the natural disaster destroyed city of Kollam on the Malabar coast.
There is also a possibility that it was in the honor of philosopher Adi Shankara's death, a new calendar was adopted in Kerala. This date is ascertained with reference to Kali Dina Samkhya "Aachaarya Vaagbhadaa" as mentioned by "Paralpperu" or Katapayadi.
The Malayalam months are named after the Signs of the Zodiac. Thus Chingam (from Simham or Lion) is named after the constellation Leo and so on. The following are the months of the astronomical Malayalam calendar:
Comparative table showing corresponding months of other calendars Months in Malayalam Era In Malayalam Gregorian Calendar Tamil calendar Saka era Sign of Zodiac Chingam ചിങ്ങം August–September Aavani Sravan–Bhadrapada Leo Kanni കന്നി September–October Purattasi Bhadrapada–Asvina Virgo Thulam തുലാം October–November Aippasi Asvina–Kartika Libra Vrishchikam വൃശ്ചികം November–December Karthigai Kartika–Agrahayana Scorpio Dhanu ധനു December–January Margazhi Agrahayana–Pausa Sagittarius Makaram മകരം January–February Thai Pausa–Magha Capricon Kumbham കുംഭം February–March Maasi Magha–Phalguna Aquarius Meenam മീനം March–April Panguni Phalguna–Chaitra Pisces Medam മേടം April–May Chithirai Chaitra– Vaisakha Aries Edavam ഇടവം May–June Vaikasi Vaisakha–Jyaistha Taurus Midtunam മിഥുനം June–July Aani Jyaistha–Asada Gemini Karkadakam കര്ക്കടകം July–August Aadi Asada–Sravana Cancer
The days of the week in the Malayalam calendar are suffixed with Azhcha (ആഴ്ച - week).
Comparative table showing corresponding weekdays Malayalam മലയാളം English Hindi njayar ഞായര് Sunday Ravivar thinkal തിങ്കള് Monday Somvar chouwa ചൊവ്വ Tuesday Mangalvar budhan ബുധന് Wednesday Budhvar vyazham വ്യാഴം Thursday Guruvar velli വെള്ളി Friday Sukravar shani ശനി Saturday Shanivar
Like the months above, there are twenty seven stars starting from Aswathi (Ashvinī in Sanskrit) and ending in Revatī. The 365 days of the year are divided into groups of fourteen days called Njattuvela, each one bearing the name of a star.
The festivals Antupirapp (ആണ്ടുപിറപ്പ് - new year, more commonly called Antupiravi (ആണ്ടുപിറവി) or puthuvarsham (പുതുവര്ഷം)), celebrated on the 1st of Medam, Vishu (വിഷു - astronomical new year), and Onam (ഓണം), celebrated on the star [tiruʋoːɳəm] in the month of Chingam, are two of the major festivals, the greatest of them being Onam (ഓണം).
The Makaravilakku festival is celebrated in the Ayyappa Temple at Sabarimala on the 1st day of month Makaram. This marks the grand finale of the two-month period to the Sabarimala pilgrimage. The 1st of Makaram marks the Winter Solstice (Uttarayanan) and the 1st of Karkadakam marks the Summer Solstice (Dakshinayanam) according to the Malayalam calendar. (According to the astronomical calendar the Summer solstice is on June 21, and the Winter solstice on December 21.)
Formerly the New Year in the Malabar region was on the 1st of Kanni and that in the Travancore region was on the 1st of Chingam. When the Government of Kerala adopted Kolla Varsham as the Regional Calendar the 1st of Chingam was accepted as the Malayalam New Year.Medom is the first month according to the astronomical calendar; it is identical with Chaitram of the Saka Varsha. The first of these months are supposed to mark the Vernal Equinox. Astronomically the calendars need to be corrected to coincide with actual Vernal Equinox which falls on the 21st of March. (Chaitram 1 usually falls on March 20, and Medom 1 falls on April 14.)
Many events in Kerala are related to the dates in the Malayalam calendar.
The agricultural activities of Kerala are centred around the seasons. The Southwest monsoon which starts around June 1 is known as Edavappathi, meaning mid-Edavam. The North east monsoon which starts during mid October is called thulavarsham (rain in the month of thulam). The two harvests of paddy are called Kannikkoythu and Makarakkoythu (harvests in the months kanni and makaram) respectively.
- Malayalam Calendar 2010 2010 Malayalam Calendar with both Malayalam dates and English dates.
- 111 Years Malayalam Calendar Malayalam Calendar for Kolla Varsham 1076-1186 (1900-2010 A.D.) showing important festivals, events and date conversion to Gregorian format.
- Maps of India: Malayalam Calendar
Calendars (list) Wide use Selected useAkan · Armenian · Assyrian · Aztec (Tonalpohualli · Xiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Bulgar · Burmese · Byzantine · Celtic · Coptic Ethiopian · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu (Indian · Malayalam · Tamil) · Igbo · Inca · Iranian (Zoroastrian, Medieval (Jalali), Modern (Hijri)) · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Korean · Kurdish · Lithuanian · Maya (Haab' · Tzolk'in) · Minguo · Mongolian · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad · Rapa Nui · Thai (Lunar · Solar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese · Xhosa · Yoruba
Calendar types: Runic · Mesoamerican (Long Count · Calendar round)
Christian variants: Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year · Revised Julian calendar
Rarely used Historical Martian Alternative New Age Displays and
Proposed calendarsThe World Calendar · 13-month calendar Year numbering Fictional
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