- Brazilian Navy
Marinha do Brasil
Brazilian Navy Seal
Active 1822 – today Country Brazil Branch Navy Type Navy Size 60,000 active personnel
100 ships, 89 aircraft
Part of Ministry of Defence
Headquarters Brasília/DF Patron Marquis of Tamandaré Colors Blue & White March Cisne Branco Engagements War of Independence(1821–1823)
Confederation of the Equator(1824)
War of Tatters(1835–1845)
World War I
World War II
U.N. peacekeeping missions
Commanders Commander-in-Chief President Dilma Rousseff Navy Commander Admiral Júlio Soares de Moura Neto Insignia Naval Ensign Naval Jack Aircraft flown Attack A-4 Skyhawk Helicopter SH-3 Sea King, AS-332 Super Puma, Super Lynx, Esquilo, Bell Jet Ranger, SH-60 Seahawk, Eurocopter EC725
The Brazilian Navy (Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil) is a branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces responsible for conducting naval operations. It is the largest navy in Latin America. It is equipped with a 32,800-ton aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly Foch of the French Navy), British-built frigates, locally built corvettes, coastal diesel-electric submarines and many other river and coastal patrol craft, among other vehicles.
- 1 History
- 2 Brazilian Navy today
- 3 Naval bases
- 4 Mission
- 5 Gallery
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
- 9 Videos
The origin of the weapon goes back to the Portuguese Navy, already existing since the 12th century. The transfer of the headquarters of the Kingdom of Portugal, to Brazil, in 1808, has led to here, was also transferred a large part of the structure, personnel and ships of the Portuguese Navy. These would be the core of the Navy of Brazil.
Before Pedro I of Brazil declared independence from Portugal in September 1822, he had already assembled a navy that then participated in the Brazilian Declaration of Independence, which had begun a year earlier. The navy would later fight in the Cisplatine War, the River Plate conflicts, the Paraguayan War, both World War I and World War II, as well as in the sporadic rebellions that would mark Brazil's history.
In the initial decades following independence, the country had maintained a good naval establishment. Most of the Portuguese Empire's naval forces reverted overnight to the newly-independent country. In 1860 the fleet consisted of eight paddle steamers, seven screw sloops, six frigates and corvettes, and 14 smaller vessels. During the Paraguayan War, Brazil purchased several ironclads from the United Kingdom, France and from the Navy's Imperial Arsenal in Rio de Janeiro.
After the losses of the 1893 naval rebellion, there was a hiatus in the development of the navy until 1905, when Brazil acquired two of the most powerful and advanced dreadnoughts of the day. These vessels, Minas Geraes and São Paulo, were the last battleships of the Brazilian Navy. Brazil also bought two cruisers in this period, Bahia and World War I and World War II, engaging in anti-submarine warfare in the two Battles of Atlantic.
The National Army (as the Brazilian Navy was called during the monarchy) came up with the Independence of the country. It consisted almost entirely of vessels, personnel, organizations and doctrines from the transmigration of the Royal Family of Portugal in 1808. Its members were a few native Brazilians (then almost all banned from serving), Portuguese who chose to join the cause of separation (and hence were naturalized Brazilian) and foreigners from various countries engaged as mercenaries. Also recovered were several bodies created by John VI of Portugal, such as the Department of the Navy, the Headquarters of the Quartermaster and Accounting, the Navy, the Royal Academy of Marine Guard, the Hospital, the Auditor, the Supreme Military Council, the Gunpowder Factory, the Cutting of Wood and others. As the first Minister of Marine was appointed Captain of the Brazilian born-and-Ocean War Luís Moreira da Cunha (future Vicomte de Cabo Frio) in October 28 in 1822 .
In the absence of military experts who were born in Brazil, the committee composed by Luis Moreira Cunha and several officers tried to contact the Portuguese military serving in Brazil for them to join the newly created Brazilian Empire. Hundreds have accepted, and those who refused were given, together with their families, transportation to return to Portugal. However, fearful of possible consequences for sending combat ships manned mostly by Portuguese forces against the Lusitania, the committee recruited several mercenaries, indigenous if slaves. To control the Brazilian Navy has chosen the experienced Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane, British by birth, who received the title of "First Admiral". The fleet consisted of only a ship, four frigates, two corvettes, five brigs, six schooners and twenty small boats, a total of thirty-eight warships. The Minister of Finance Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada created a national subscription to raise funds and so the fleet retrofit, and Brazil were all sent contributions. Even the Emperor Pedro I of Brazil acquired at his own expense a merchant brig that was renamed "Caboclo" and donated to the State.
The National Armed headed then to the Bahia, where he attacked a convoy of Portuguese fleet consisting of more than seventy ships that went up to Maranhão. Only thirteen were able to achieve London after being prevented from reaching the northern coast of Brazil. The other ships were sunk or captured or incorporated and the Brazilian Navy. The British John Pascoe Grenfell, who commanded the brig Don Miguel, obtained the surrender of Belem do Para. Having overcome the opposition Lusitanian provinces of Bahia, Maranhão and Pará, the Brazilian fleet departed for the Cisplatin, where he achieved more success in this endeavor. Admiral Cochrane, released after a third of Brazil, received the Emperor Dom Pedro I himself the decoration of the Order of the Southern Cross and the noble title of Marquess of Maranhão. The participation in the conflict against Portugal was vital:With Independence, the Navy has become even more important because even though we had the good fortune of having a monarch as Pedro I, Brazil would have shattered a number of republics – as happened in Spanish America – if not his action was integrated. Certainly there are other factors, but that she was blocked, chased and won the Portuguese Police, allowing the union with the Rio de Janeiro".
After the suppression of the revolt of the Confederation of the Equator in 1824 and when you start the Cisplatine War (1825–1828), the Navy was no longer that small marine and weak. The thirty-eight vessels of 1822 became ninety-six modern warships of various types, with about 690 guns. The Brazilian fleet blocked the mouth of the Río de la Plata, making it impossible to connect the United Provinces of the rebels and cisplatin with the rest of the world. Several skirmishes occurred between ships from Brazil and Buenos Aires until the defeat of the enemy squadron, consisting of two corvettes, five brigs and a schooner, across the Santiago Island[disambiguation needed ] in 1827. To abdicate in 1831, Dom Pedro I left a powerful Armada comprising: two ships, ten frigates, twenty corvettes, brigs, schooners seventeen, two gunboats, twelve bombers, three steam boats, fourteen boats of various transport and large, totaling at least eighty warships in peacetime.
The long reign of fifty-eight years of Dom Pedro II would represent the end of the growth and flourishing of the National Armed Forces (and even then during the Republican period). was reorganized to the Ministry of the Navy, the Naval Arsenal and Chain, and also created the Imperial Marines Corps, formed by volunteers. This period was definitely adopted the steamship, with Brazil Squad rapidly modernized, acquiring and building vessels abroad in the other country, and also replacing the old smooth-bore cannons for new, rifled, with greater range and accuracy. Improvements were also made in arsenals and naval bases, being equipped with new workshops. warships were built in the arsenals of the Navy in Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Recife, Santos, Niterói and Pelotas. The Army acted in all the riots that occurred in Regency as Cabanagem, the Farringdon[disambiguation needed ], the Sabinada, among others. The Navy conducted the blockade of the provinces where the riots occurred and did most of the troop transports Imperial Army, from one region to another country, keeping them municiadas, supplied and equipped,.
In 1840, when Emperor Dom Pedro II was declared of age and assumed his constitutional prerogatives, the Navy had ninety warships: six frigates, seven corvettes, two brigs, eight brigs, sixteen gunboats, twelve schooners, seven patachos, six Steamboats, three plows, two luggers, two cutters and thirteen armed lanchões. New modernization occurred, this time, reorganizing the State Department, the Accounting Department of the Navy, the Headquarters and the Marine Academy. New vessels were purchased and the port authorities have been retooled. The Corps of Imperial Marines was finally settled and did the Marine Corps (instead of the Artillery Corps of the Navy that had been dissolved) as well as services to the disabled and also schools for the training of sailors and craftsmen.
The conflicts in La Plata region does not cease after the war in 1825, and then the Brazil was forced to send a fleet of seventeen warships (a nau, ten corvettes, and six steamships) headed by veteran Independence John Pascoe Grenfell to address the United Provinces of La Plata River in 1851. The Brazilian fleet managed to overcome the strong Argentine Toneleros under heavy shelling and made the transport of troops to the theater of operations ashore. More than a decade later, the navy was again modernized, and his old sailing ships gave way to steam forty ships with over 250 guns. Its officers consisted of no more foreigners, but only Brazilians (who were recruits at the time of the War of Independence). From his frame of military, left men like Joaquim Marques Lisboa Marquis de Tamandaré, da Silva Francisco Manuel Barroso Baron Amazon, Joaquim José Inácio de Barros Viscount Inhaúma, Luís Filipe de Saldanha da Gama, among others, who were all loyal to the monarchy.
In 1864 collaborated with the intervention in Uruguay and shortly therafter the Paraguayan War. In this conflict, twenty battleships and six river monitors were added to the fleet register, in addition to its commanders, and crews (and the vessels that were already in the theater of war) were better trained. These actions allowed the Navy to obtain a great victory in the Battle of Riachuelo against Paraguayan forces. Brazilian shipbuilders such as Napoleon Level Trajano de Carvalho and John Candido Brazil designed new plans for warships of the Navy that enabled the naval register to maintain competitiveness with other nations. With the end of the Paraguay War, the Brazilian government sought to repair the damaged vessels and retrofit the fleet, enabling Brazil to have the fourth most powerful navy world of that time.
During the 1870s, the Brazilian Empire sought to further strengthen its fleet in light of the a possibility of armed conflict with Argentina. Thus, the Navy acquired a gunboat and a corvette in 1873 as well as a battleship and a monitor in 1874, followed by two more cruisers and a monitor. The beginning of the 1880 saw the continued growth of the Navy as the Naval Arsenals of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Pernambuco Pará and Mato Grosso continued to build dozens of warships. Four destroyers were purchased, they created the Torpedo Training School for squares and took up a workshop for manufacturing and repair of electrical appliances and torpedoes in the Navy Arsenal January on November 30 of 1883. The same shipyard built the steam gunboats: Initiator, Carioca, Camocim, and Cabedelo Marajo beyond patach Apprentice, all iron and steel hulls without using wood in their construction, marking the first ship of that kind built in Brazil. However, the apex of the Imperial Navy was the incorporation of the battleships Riachuelo and Aquidabã, both equipped with torpedo tubes, in 1884 and 1885, respectively. Acquiring these vessels allowed Brazil to remain "among the naval powers of the universe." These two vessels epoch, because:We 'Europe bow to Brazil,' because the Riachuelo, to have the building completed in England in 1884, was regarded by the technicians of the earliest maritime nations as a model of its kind, such improvements that met ".
In the last case of the monarchy the Secretary of the Navy, Admiral José da Costa Azevedo, Baron Ladário, left a large project that was about to be made for the reorganization of Navy personnel and institutions. In 1889, the Naval Battalion had 454 squares and the Imperial Marines, 3,218 squares. coup that brought the Republic in Brazil was not well accepted by the military of the Imperial Navy. Sailors were driven shot to give the Emperor alive when he was imprisoned in the Imperial Palace. The Marquis de Tamandaré begged his friend Dom Pedro II, who allowed it quell the coup, but denied this possibility. The old sailor and loyal, as to the nearing ninety years of age, was arrested by order of dictator Floriano Peixoto on charges of funding the monarchist military during the Federalist Revolution. " The Baron of Ladario remained in contact with the Imperial Family in exile seeking ways to restore the ousted regime, but was relegated ostracized by the Republican government. Admiral Saldanha da Gama led the Armed Revolt in order to resurrect the Empire and joined forces with other military royalists who were on the Rio Grande do Sul. All attempts were restorative crushed by the Republican government. Monarchist officers of high rank were arrested or shot or banned without due process of law, and his subordinates were subjected to "cruel." This thorough purge in the tables of the Navy explains how it was possible an institution traditionally loyal The monarchy to have suddenly become Republican.
With the military coup that led to the Proclamation of the Brazilian Republic (1889), accentuating the decline of shipbuilding in the country. For four decades, between 1890 and 1930 there were no releases of new media by floating Navy of Rio de Janeiro. The focus of republican governments is now equipping the army for the fight against internal uprisings, which has not been achieved satisfactorily because of the difficulties that the new regime faced in its early years. In addition, the Navy was perceived as a threat to the new republican regime, as had been constituted as an institution more loyal to the Empire and the Emperor D. Pedro II.
The situation had become precarious in just over a decade of Republican regime since the Naval Battalion had been reduced to 295 soldiers and Marines Imperial at 1,904 men. The equipment and vessels acquired were considered outdated by Navy officials, who criticized the complete abandonment of repair shops. Participation in two riots, known as Riots Navy, the second, avowedly monarchist, cost the officers loyal to the Brazilian Constitution of 1824 and the Emperor not only their careers as were also arrested, banned and shot, without even having been formed in the military justice process. The sailors who obeyed his orders and took part in the attempt to restore monarchy suffered cruel.
At the beginning of 20th century to force the Brazilian shipbuilding had become obsolete. In 1903, the marine engineer Italian, General Vittorio Cuniberti, had a series of articles published by the prestigious Jane's Fighting Ships, who advocated a revolutionary design of warships in the area lived. According to the author, the warships would be equipped only with big guns, developing high speeds (20 knots) and have massive armor (12 inches or 30.48 cm). At that time, these conceptions seemed utopian, but only two years later, in 1905, beat the keel of the Aki in Japan and the following year in 1906 in the HMS Dreadnought in Great Britain. With the construction of these vessels began weapons, mainly naval, race between industrialized powers, especially the German Empire, Japan, Britain and the United States.
In this context, in Brazil, for reasons of sovereignty, Baron of Rio Branco was the greatest advocate of maintaining a Navy that could match the most powerful nations. Thus, during the government of President Afonso Pena, Marshal Hermes da Fonseca, War Minister approved the project of modernization of the Brazilian fleet, which began in 1906. Thus, British shipyards were ordered to the "dreadnought battleships-" Minas Gerais, Chibata Revolt, organized movement of seamen by the abolition of physical punishment and improving working conditions in the institution. Although successful in just demands the repression that followed the participants was violent and ruthless.
After the declaration of war on the Central Powers in October 1917 The Brazilian Navy participated in the World War by sending in 1918 of Division Naval Warfare Operations (DNOG) in theater from the Mediterranean Sea and sending pilots to the front Frenchwere integrated into the Royal Air Force.
Second World War
Obsolete in terms of resources and unable to guarantee security on the Brazilian coast, in early 1942, with the outbreak of war the German Navy Submarine, aiming to isolate the United Kingdom and then Soviet Union supplies and materials necessary for the war effort from the American continent, Brazil's navy was forced to, among 1942 and 1944, guided by the United States Navy. During this period several naval bases were established in the North and Northeast of Brazil, where the headquarters of the Allied Command Atlantic South
Yet within their limitations and the refitting and reorganization promoted with the U.S. resources, the Brazilian Navy participated actively in the anti-submarine fight Waranti-submarine not only in South Atlantic, but also Central zone of the Atlantic, besides participating in the anti-submarine on the Caribbean and the train guard for the North Africa and Mediterranean Sea. Thus, it was responsible, between 1942 and 1945, conducting convoy operations 574 involving the protection of 3164 merchant ships of various nationalities. Of these, the enemy submarines managed to sink only three vessels. According to documentation from the German Navy, the Brazilian Navy made over sixty-six attacks against German submarines.
About 1,100 Brazilians died in the Battle of the Atlantic, due to the sinking of 32 ships of the Merchant Navy of Brazil and a Navy ship. Among the 972 dead in sinking of merchant navy ships, 470 were crew and 502 passengers were civilians. Besides these, 99 sailors died Navy of Brazil in the sinking of theVital de Oliveira (ship)|Vital de Oliveira when he was attacked by German submarines, in addition to some 350 deaths in accidents that resulted in the sinking of the corvette Camaquã on July 21, 1944, 23 crew members died when the cruiser Bahia, which accidentally exploded and sank on July 4, 1945, killing 333 men.
Coup d'etat in Brazil in 1964
Although physical punishment in the institution was officially abolished since the Revolt of the Whip at the end of 1910, improvement in working conditions and career plans were still grounds for claims of troops in early 1960. The growing uncompromising by both sectors of officialdom inflated by high-media and conservative politicians on the right to hear the cry of the troops, as part of the sailors encouraged by leaders like Cape Anselmo, coupled with the lack of vision and inability of the general policy of the then president of the republic João Goulart to mediate and resolve Military coup of 1964 uprising of sailors#|cited the crisis without breaking the rank military (Brazil)|military hierarchy led to the most supportive of the Corps Commanders Coup d'état in Brazil in 1964 by act or omission.
The purges carried out later (not just the Navy but in all the Armed Forces), and the establishment of certain criteria for selecting its new members was a military term in the Brazilian tradition among its members openly harboring various currents of political thought.
2011 UNIFIL Maritime Task Force
On October 4, 2011 the Brazilian ministries of Defence and Foreign Relations informed that Brazil is going to send a Navy vessel with up to 300 crew members, equipped with an aircraft, to integrate the fleet of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (Unifil). The sending of the vessel, which is going to run the fleet, was authorized by the National Congress.
The main branches of the Brazilian Navy are:
- The "Comando de Operações Navais" (Naval Operations Command)
- The "Comando da Força de Superfície" (Surface Fleet Command)
- The "Comando da Força de Submarinos" (Submarine Fleet Command)
- The "Comando da Força Aeronaval" (Naval Aviation Command)
- The "Comando da 1ª Divisão da Esquadra" (1st Fleet Division Command)
- The "Comando da 2ª Divisão da Esquadra" (2nd Fleet Division Command)
- The "Comando Geral do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais" (Marine Corps General Command)
The Brazilian Navy operates four Tupi class and one Tikuna class Type 209 submarine. The Tupi class submarines will be upgraded by Lockheed Martin at a cost of $35 million. The modernization includes the replacement of existing torpedoes with new MK 48 torpedoes. On March 14, 2008, the Brazilian Navy purchased four Scorpène class submarines from France. The Brazilian Navy is currently developing its first nuclear submarine.
Current major ships in commission:
- Type 209 submarine (5)
- Tupi (S30)
- Tamoio (S31)
- Timbira (S32)
- Tapajó (S33)
- Tikuna (S34)
- Niteroi class frigate (6)
- Niterói (F40)
- Defensora (F41)
- Constituição (F42)
- Liberal (F43)
- Independência (F44)
- União (F45)
- Type 22 frigate (3)
- Inhaúma class corvette (4)
- Inhaúma (V30)
- Jaceguai (V31)
- Júlio de Noronha (V32)
- Frontin (V33)
- Barroso class corvette (1)
- Barroso (V34)
- Tank landing ship (3)
- Dock landing ship (2)
- Aratu-class (6)
- Aratu (M15)
- Anhatomirim (M16)
- Atalaia (M17)
- Araçatuba (M18)
- Abrolhos (M19)
- Albardão (M20)
- Cape class patrol boat (6)
- Piratini (P10)
- Pirajá (P11)
- Pampeiro (P12)
- Paratí (P13)
- Penedo (P14)
- Potí (P15)
- Pedro Teixeira class (2)
- Pedro Teixeira (P20)
- Raposo Tavares (P21)
- Roraima class (3)
- Roraima (P30)
- Rondônia (P31)
- Amapá (P32)
- Grajaú class (12)
- Grajaú (P40)
- Guaíba (P41)
- Graúna (P42)
- Goiana (P43)
- Guajará (P44)
- Guaporé (P45)
- Gurupá (P46)
- Gurupi (P47)
- Guanabara (P48)
- Guarujá (P49)
- Guaratuba (P50)
- Gravataí (P51)
- River-class minesweeper (4)
- Bracuí (P60)
- Benevente (P61)
- Bocaína (P62)
- Babitonga (P63)
- Imperial Marinheiro class (2)
- Imperial Marinheiro (V15)
- Caboclo (V19)
- Macaé class (2)
- Macaé (P70)
- Macau (P71)
Auxiliaries (38 in service)
- 2 Troopship
- 3 Tanker ship
- 6 Lightvessel
- 6 Oceanographic research vessel
- 6 Salvage and rescue ship
- 1 Submarine rescue ship
- 2 Icebreaker
- 5 Auxiliary ship
- 1 River monitor
- 1 School ship
- 1 Sailing frigate
- 4 Hospital ship
Current aircraft in service:
- 23 attack aircraft (A-4 Skyhawk)/ 12 (9 A-4 + 3 TA-4) will be upgraded (AF-1 (A-4) and AF-1A (TA-4))
- 2 attack helicopters SH-3 Sea King (SH-3)
- 12 attack helicopters Super Lynx (HA11)
- 5 transport helicopters (Eurocopter AS332) (HU14)
- 2 transport helicopters (Eurocopter AS532) (HU14)
- 1 transport helicopters (Eurocopter EC725) (HU15) (16+ Ordered)
- 18 scout helicopters (Eurocopter AS350) (HU12)
- 8 scout helicopters (Eurocopter AS355) (HU13)
- 17 training helicopters (Bell 206) (HI6)
- 8 carrier onboard delivery (C-1 Trader) (Ordered)
- 6 multimission helicopters S70B (SH60) Seahawk (MH16) (Ordered)
As of 2009, the main naval bases in use are:
- "Base Naval Almirante Castro e Silva", submarine base
- "Base Naval do Rio de Janeiro", main naval base
- "Arsenal da Marinha do Rio de Janeiro", naval shipyard
- "Base Aérea Naval de São Pedro da Aldeia", naval aviation base
- "Base de Fuzileiros Navais da Ilha do Governador", marine corps base
- "Base de Fuzileiros Navais da Ilha das Flores", marine corps base
- "Base de Fuzileiros Navais do Rio Meriti", marine corps base
- "Base Naval de Aratu", naval base and repair facility
- "Base Naval de Natal", naval base
- "Base Naval Almirante Ary Parreiras", naval base and repair facility
- "Base Naval de Val-de-Cães", naval base and repair facility
- "Base Fluvial de Ladário", riverine naval aviation base, riverine naval base and repair facility
- "Estação Naval do Rio Negro", riverine naval base and repair facility
- "Estação Naval do Rio Grande", naval base
In addition to the roles of a traditional navy, the Brazilian Navy also carries out the role of organizing the merchant navy and other operational safety missions traditionally conducted by a coast guard. Other roles include:
- conduct of national policies vis-à-vis the sea;
- Implementing and enforcing laws and regulations with respect to the sea and inland waters.
Brazilian Navy submarine Tikuna (S 34) enters Mayport Basin during a visit to a U.S. Navy base in Florida.
- Armed Forces of the Empire of Brazil
- Brazilian Marine Corps
- Brazilian Naval Aviation
- Brazilian Army
- Brazilian Air Force
- Military history of Brazil
- Military ranks of Brazil
- Brazil and weapons of mass destruction
- ^ Comandante da Marinha confirma nova esquadra no Nordeste Marinha do Brasil. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. (Portuguese)
- ^ Brazil uses its national flag as an ensign.
- ^ Oceanographic and Meteorological Data Buoys Hydro International. Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
- ^ Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. General History of Brazilian Civilization: The Decline and Fall of the Empire (2nd ed .). São Paulo: Dissemination of European Paper, 1974. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire (2nd ed .). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975.
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire (2nd ed .). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975. p. 58-61.
- ^ Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. General History of Brazilian Civilization: The Decline and Fall of the Empire (2nd ed.). São Paulo: Dissemination of European Paper, 1974. p. 261.
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire (2nd ed .). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975. p. 54-57.
- ^ Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. General History of Brazilian Civilization: The Decline and Fall of the Empire (2nd ed .). São Paulo: Dissemination of European Paper, 1974. p. 261.
- ^ HOLLAND, Sérgio Buarque de. General History of Brazilian Civilization: The Decline and Fall of the Empire (2nd ed .). São Paulo: Dissemination of European Paper, 1974. p. 262-263.
- ^ a b Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de . Brasileira General History of Civilization: The Decline and Fall of the Empire. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Dissemination of European Paper, 1974, pg.272
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire (2nd ed .). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975. p. 133-135.
- ^ a b c Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. General History of Brazilian Civilization: The Decline and Fall of the Empire (2nd ed .). São Paulo: Dissemination of European Paper, 1974. p. 264.
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire (2nd ed .). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975. p. 216.
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire (2nd ed .). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975. p. 205-206.
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975, pg.210
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975
- ^ JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes Monaco. The Subversivos Republic. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986, pg.207 and 208
- ^ DORATIOTO Francisco. Cursed War: New War history of Paraguay. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002, pg.481
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975, pg.219
- ^ Doratioto Francisco, author of "Bloody War". "As Open Veins of South America". http://www.universia.com.br/noticia/materia_dentrodocampus.jsp?not=6398.
- ^ DORATIOTO Francisco. Cursed War: New War history of Paraguay. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002, pg.466
- ^ a b MAIA Prado, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975, pg.225
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975, pg.221
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975, pg.221 and 227
- ^ MAIA, Prado. The Navy of Brazil in the Colony and the Empire. 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975, pg.216
- ^ a b JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes Monaco. The Subversivos Republic. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986, pg.208
- ^ DORATIOTO Francisco. Cursed War: New War history of Paraguay. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002, pg.78
- ^ Calmon, Pedro. Story D. Pedro II. J. Olympio, 1975, pg.1603
- ^ JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes Monaco. Subversivos The Republic. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986, pg.66
- ^ JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes Monaco. Subversivos The Republic. São Paulo : Brasiliense, 1986, pg.209
- ^ JANOTTI, Maria de Lourdes Monaco. Subversivos The Republic. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986 pg .53
- ^ JANOTTI, Mary of Lourdes. The Subversivos Republic. Brasiliense, 1986. Note however, that the question directly involved in the revolt was confined to the text of Brazilian Constitution of 1891 regarding the vacancy of the President.
- '^ BENEDICT, Claudio Moreira (1995). Participation of the Armed Forces and Merchant Navy of Brazil in World War II (1942–1945 )". Gazette. Volta Redonda, RJ. 
- ^ Comandante da Marinha confirma nova esquadra no Nordeste Brazilian Navy. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. (Portuguese)
- ^ Navios da Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy. Retrieved on 2009-06-10. (Portuguese)
- ^ Asas Sobre os Mares Rudnei Cunha. Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
- ^ Comandantes da Marinha Brazilian Navy. Retrieved on June 10, 2009. (Portuguese)
- ^ http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/sala-de-imprensa/notas-a-imprensa/participacao-brasileira-na-unifil
- ^ http://anba.achanoticias.com.br/noticia_diplomacia.kmf?cod=12471054
- ^ Estrutura de Comando Defesa Brasil. Retrieved on 2009-06-10. (Portuguese)
- ^ Uma nova agenda militar Época. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. (Portuguese)
- ^ Brazil seeks to modernize submarine Force Mercopress. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
- ^ Lockheed Martin Awarded $35 Million Contract to Modernize Brazilian Navy Submarine Force CNN.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
- ^ Brazil To Start With Scorpene Strategy Page. Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
- ^ Brazil to get nuclear sub technology from France CNN. Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
- ^ Incorporação da Corveta Barroso Brazilian Navy. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. (Portuguese)
- ^ Navio Mais Barato Istoé. Retrieved on 2008-08-14. (Portuguese)
- ^ The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World Eric Wertheim. Published by Naval Institute Press, 2007. ISBN 159114955X, ISBN 9781591149552. Retrieved on 2009-10-06.
- Brazilian Navy Official website (Portuguese)
- Poder Naval Brazilian warships and naval aviation (Portuguese)
- Official histories of Brazilian ships (Portuguese)
- Global Security Brazilian Navy profile
- History of World's Navy's Ships of the Brazilian Navy
- History of VF-1 "Falcões" (Hawks) in the Brazilian Navy
- Brazilian naval flags
- Base Militar Web Magazine's Brazilian military aircraft data base
- Military Orders and Medals from Brazil (Portuguese)
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Ships of the Brazilian Navy — The Brazilian Navy has 95 ships in commission, and others in construction, process of acquisition, and modernization in 2007.! style= text align: left; background: #aacccc; |Vessel! style= text align: left; background: #aacccc; |Origin! style=… … Wikipedia
List of aircraft of the Brazilian Navy — The naval aviation arm of the Brazilian Navy operated 111 aircraft in 2007, with all but the A 4 Skyhawks being helicopters.! style= text align: left; background: #aacccc; |Aircraft! style= text align: left; background: #aacccc; |Origin! style=… … Wikipedia
Brazilian Armed Forces — Forças Armadas Brasileiras Parade of cadets of Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras in ceremony of the Marlins to new graduates. Service branches … Wikipedia
Brazilian Expeditionary Force — shoulder sleeve insignia (Army component) Active 1943–1945 Country … Wikipedia
Brazilian Marine Corps — Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais Active 1797 present Country Brazil Branch … Wikipedia
Brazilian Army — Exército Brasileiro Brazilian Army Seal Active 1822 today Co … Wikipedia
Brazilian Integralism — ( pt. Integralismo brasileiro) was a Brazilian political movement created in October 1932. Founded and led by Plínio Salgado, a literary figure who was relatively famous during the 1922 Modern Art Week, the movement had adopted some… … Wikipedia
Brazilian submarine Humaita (S20) — was an Oberon class submarine in the Brazilian Navy.It was ordered May 22, 1970 and commissioned June 1973. ee also* Ships of the Brazilian NavyReferencesExternal links* [http://www.submarineheritage.com/gallery brazil.html The Submarine Heritage … Wikipedia
Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes — For the aircraft carrier, see Brazilian aircraft carrier Minas Gerais. Minas Geraes at sea, probably in 1909 Career (Brazil) … Wikipedia
Brazilian aircraft carrier Minas Gerais — For the battleship, see Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes. Minas Gerais Career (Brazil) … Wikipedia