- Rio de Janeiro (state)
Infobox Brazilian State
name = State of Rio de Janeiro
anthem = November 15th
Rio de Janeiro
latd=22 |latm=54 |latNS=S |longd=43 |longm=12 |longEW=W
Rio de Janeiro
demonym = Fluminense
Sérgio Cabral Filho
leader_name2 = Luís Fernando de Sousa
area = 43,696.1
area_magnitude = 1 E10
area_rank = 24th
population_estimate = 15,561,720
population_estimate_rank = 3rd
population_estimate_year = 2006
population_census = 15,397,366
population_census_year = 2005
population_density = 356,1
population_density_rank = 2nd
GDP = R$ 246,936,000,000
GDP_rank = 2nd
GDP_year = 2005
GDP_per_capita = R$ 16,052
GDP_per_capita_rank = 3rd
HDI = 0.832
HDI_rank = 3rd
HDI_year = 2005
abbreviation = BR-RJ
time_zone = BRT
utc_offset = -3
time_zone_DST = BRST
utc_offset_DST = -2
Rio de Janeiro (pron. IPA2|ˈhiu dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu [The presented pronunciation is in
Brazilian Portuguesevariant spoken in Rio de Janeiro. Other possible pronunciations in Brazil are: IPA2|'ʁiu de ʒa'neʲɾu (Rio Grande do Sul), IPA2|'riu di ʒa'neɾu (São Paulo) and IPA2|'xiu di ʒa'neɾu (Northeast). The European Portuguesepronunciation is: /IPA|'ʁiu dɨ ʒɐ'nɐiɾu/.] ) is one of the 26 states of Brazil.
It is located in the Brazilian geopolitical region of the Southeast (assigned by
IBGE) and its boundaries, all of them with other Brazilian states in the Southeast region (Rio de Janeiro is the only state in the Southeast to share borders exclusively with other states in the same macroregion), are with Minas Gerais(N and NW), Espírito Santo(NE) and São Paulo (SW), and plus its shore line, in the Atlantic Ocean, to its Eastand South.
Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km² and its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, which was the capital of the Portuguese colony as of 1763 (the first capital being
Salvador da Bahia), capital of the United Kingdom of Brazil, Portugal and Algarves as of 1806 and the capital of independent Brazil from 1822 to 1960.
The state's most populous cities are
Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo, São João de Meriti, Campos dos Goytacazes, Petrópolisand Volta Redonda.
rivers are the Guandu River, the Piraí, the Paraíba do Sul, the Macaé and the Muriaé. Its climate is considered to be tropical.
Rio de Janeiro is made up of two distinct morphological areas: a
plain, known as "baixada", and a plateau, which are disposed in parallel fashion from the shoreline inland (towards Minas Gerais).
The state is part of the
Mata Atlântica biome, and its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountainsand the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara, Sepetiba, and Ilha Grande.
There are prominent
slopes near the ocean, featuring also diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays, lagoons and tropical forests.
Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeast macroregion and one of the smallest in Brazil. It has, however, the third longest coastline in the country (second only to
Bahia's and Maranhão's), extending 635 kilometers.
In the 17th century, cattle and sugar cane stimulated the city's progress which was definitively assured when the port started to export the extracted gold of
Minas Geraisin 18 century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the headquarters of the Colonial Brazil and the capital of the colony. With the change of the royal family for Brazil, in 1808, the region very was benefited with urban reforms to shelter the Portuguese. Inside of the promoted changes they are distinguished: the transference of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil- and the Imprensa Régia, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro. In following years had also appeared the Jardim Botânico, Academia Real Militar.
Thus, a process of cultural introduction, influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but also by the presence of European artists who had been hired to register the society and Brazilian nature. In this same time, was born the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios (The Royal School of Sciences, Arts, and Works).
The Neutral City
In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into neutral city, remaining as capital of the country, while the captainships passed to being provinces, with its headquarters in
Niterói, a neighbor city. In 1889, the city was changed into capital of the Republic, the neutral city in federal district and the province in State. With the change of the capital for Brasilia, in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became the State of Guanabara.
The new State of Rio de Janeiro
In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital. The symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeiro. It should be noted that European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502 under this name.
According to the
IBGEof 2007, there were 15,593,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 356,1 inh./km². Urbanization: 96.9% (2004); Population growth: 1.3% (1991-2000); Houses: 4.944.333 (2005).
The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census resulted in the following numbers: 8,513,778 White people (54.6%), 5,145,690
Pardo(Brown) people (33.0%), 1,871,160 Black people (12.0%), 62,000 Asian or Amerindian people (0.4%). [cite book|url=ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Indicadores_Sociais/Sintese_de_Indicadores_Sociais_2007/Tabelas|title=Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007|publisher= IBGE|location=State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|format=PDF|isbn=85-240-3919-1|accessdate=2007-07-18|year=2007|language=Portuguese]
People of Portuguese ancestry predominate in most of the state. Other
European ethnic groups, such as Swiss and Germans settled mostly in the mountainous areas ( Nova Friburgo, Petrópolis, etc) and in the capital. Italians and Spaniards are also present in the capital as well as in the surrounding cities. [ [http://www.multirio.rj.gov.br/historia/modulo02/colonia_suica.html A Colônia Suíça de Nova Friburgo ] ] [ [http://www.luteranos.com.br/202/160_anos/colonizacao.html A colonização alemã em Petrópolis ] ]
industrial sectoris the largest component of GDPat 51.6%, followed by the service sectorat 47.8%. Agriculturerepresents 0.6% of GDP(2004). Rio de Janeiro (state) exports: petroleum44.8%, fuel17.5%, siderurgy13%, chemicals3.6%, not ferrous metals 2.8%, vehicles2.1% (2002).
Participation in the Brazilian economy: 12.6% (2004). [cite book|url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Brazilian_states_by_GDP_participation|title=List of Brazilian states by GDP|publisher=
IBGE|location=State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|format=PDF|isbn=85-240-3919-1|accessdate=2007-07-18|year=2004|language=Portuguese]
Vehicles: 3.915.724 (jan./2006); Mobile phones: 10 million (2006); Telephones: 5.3 million (2006). Cities: 92 (2006). Area: The state of Rio de Janeiro is more than double the size of: El Salvador, Slovenia, Chechnya, Hawaii (USA). It is slightly larger than: Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland. The state is slightly smaller than: Estonia, Dominican Republic, Slovakia.
Colleges and Universities
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro(UFRJ) (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro);
* Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME);
* Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO) (Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro);
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro(PUC-Rio);
* Universidade do Grande Rio (UNIGRANRIO) (University of Great Rio);
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro(UERJ) (University of State of Rio de Janeiro);
* Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF) (State University of North Fluminense);
Universidade Federal Fluminense(UFF) (Fluminense Federal University);
* Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro);
* and many others.
It is the great explosion of joy in Rio. A party uniting emotions, creativity, plasticity, colours, sounds and much
fantasy. It is the greatest popular party in the world. A unique record of the rich cultural melting pot typical of Brazil.
New Year’s Eve
Rio de Janeiro, New Year’s Eve celebration involves the whole city population. Local inhabitants and visitors join to celebrate taken by the same euphoria: to be in Rio. The party, one of the most famous in the world, is held on the famous beach of Copacabana, gathering thousands of people to enjoy musical performances and fireworks – increasingly exuberant year after year.
Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to
Brazil. According to data from the official Brazilian travel bureau, Embratur, nearly 40% of foreign tourists who visit Brazil choose Rio as their gateway, meaning Galeão Airport. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to more than 18 countries. It can handle up to 15 million users a year in two passenger terminals. Located only 20 kilometers from downtown Rio, the international airport is served by several quick access routes, such as the Linha Vermelha and Linha Amarela freeways and Avenida Brasil, thus conveniently serving residents of the city’s southern, northern and western zones. There are special shuttle buses linking Galeão to Santos-Dumont, and bus and taxi service to the rest of the city. The airport complex also has Brazil’s longest runway at 4.240 meters, and one of South America’s largest and best equipped cargo logistics terminals.
BR-101, BR-116, BR-040,BR-354, BR-356, BR-393,BR-465, BR-493,BR-495.
More notable sports events in Rio include the
MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prixand the World Beach volleyballfinals. Jacarepaguáwas the place of Formula One Brazilian Grand Prixinto 1978-1990 and the Champ Carevent into 1996-1999. WCT/WQS Surfchampionships were contested on the beaches from 1985-2001. The city has built a new stadiumnear the Maracanã, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex- FIFApresident João Havelange. Sports are a very popular pastime in Rio de Janeiro. The most popular is "futebol" (soccer). Rio de Janeiro is home to four traditional Brazilian football clubs:Botafogo, Flamengo, Fluminense and Vasco. Rio de Janeirois one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazilis the only South American bidder.
In the foreground of the state flag, an
eagle, symbol of Brazil's royal family, appears. In the background, the rock formation "Dedo de Deus" ("The Finger of God"), which is visible from the city of Rio de Janeiro in a clear day. The outer part of the coat of arms represents the state's agricultural richness, sugarcane(left) and coffee(right).
List of municipalities in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil
List of Governors of Rio de Janeiro
* [http://www.governo.rj.gov.br Official Website] pt icon/en icon
* [http://www.braziltour.com/site/gb/home/index.php Brazilian Tourism Portal]
* [http://www.tj.rj.gov.br State Judiciary] pt icon
* [http://www.alerj.rj.gov.br State Assembly] pt icon
* [http://www.uerj.br State University] pt icon/en icon
* [http://www.uenf.br Northern State University] pt icon
* [http://www.pge.rj.gov.br State Attornery Office] pt icon
* [http://www.sedec.rj.gov.br State Civil Defence] pt icon
* [http://www.policiamilitar.rj.gov.br State Military Police] pt icon
* [http://www.policiacivil.rj.gov.br State Civil Police] pt icon
* [http://www.fotolog.com/riodejaneiro_br Group Fotolog - Rio de Janeiro] pt icon
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