- Liaquat Ali Khan
For other people with the same or similar name, see Liaqat Ali (disambiguation)
Leader of the Nation
Liaquat Ali Khan
لیاقت علی خان
1st Prime Minister of Pakistan In office
14 August 1947 – 16 October 1951
Monarch George VI Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Preceded by Position established Succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin Majority Muslim League 1st Defence Minister of Pakistan In office
15 August, 1947 – 16 October, 1951
Preceded by Post established Succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin 1st Minister of Finance (India) In office
Prime Minister Clement Attlee Preceded by Post established Succeeded by R. K. Shanmukham Chetty Deputy President United Provinces Legislative Council In office
Constituency Muzaffarnagar district Personal details Born Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan
1 October 1895
Karnal, Punjab, British India
Died October 16, 1951
Rawalpindi, West-Pakistan, Dominion of Pakistan
Nationality British Indian Empire (1895-1947)
Political party Muslim League Spouse(s) Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan Alma mater Aligarh Muslim University
(B.Sc. and LLB)
Exeter College, Oxford
Occupation Legislator Profession Lawyer and Politician Religion Islam
Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (Liāqat Alī Khān) (Urdu: لیاقت علی خان) listen (help·info) (1 October 1895 – 16 October 1951) was a Pakistani statesman who became the 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan, Defence minister and Commonwealth, Kashmir Affairs. He was also the first Finance Minister of India in the interim government of British India prior to the independence of both India and Pakistan in 1946. Liaquat rose to political prominence as a member of the All India Muslim League. The Nawabzada played a vital role in the independence of India and Pakistan. In 1947, he became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. He is regarded as the right-hand man of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League and first Governor-General of Pakistan. Liaquat was given the titles of Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation), and posthumously Shaheed-e-Millat (Martyr of the Nation).
Liaquat was a graduate of Aligarh Muslim University, Oxford University and the Inner Temple, London. He rose into prominence within the Muslim League during the 1930s. Significantly, he is credited with persuading Jinnah to return to India, an event which marked the beginning of the Muslim League's ascendancy and paved the way for the Pakistan movement. Following the passage of the Pakistan Resolution in 1940, Liaquat assisted Jinnah in campaigning for the creation of a separate state for Indian Muslims. In 1947, British Raj was divided into the modern-day state of India and Pakistan (jointly, modern day states of Pakistan and Bangladesh).
Following independence, India and Pakistan came into conflict over the fate of Kashmir. Khan negotiated extensively with India's then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and pushed for the referral of the problem to the United Nations. During his tenure, Pakistan pursued close ties with the United Kingdom and the United States. The aftermath of Pakistan's independence also saw internal political unrest and even a foiled military coup against his government. After Jinnah's death, the Nawabzada assumed a more influential role in the government and passed the Objectives Resolution, a precursor to the Constitution of Pakistan. He was assassinated in 1951.
He was born in the town of Karnal in present-day Haryana, East Punjab, British India, on October 1, 1895, to a land-holding (Jagirdar) Sunni Muslim, Nosherwani Pathan family. His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, possessed the title of Ruken-ud-Daulah, Shamsher Jang and Nawab Bahadur. He was one of the few landlords whose property (300 Villages in total including the jagir of 60 villages in karnal) expanded across both eastern Punjab and the United Provinces. Liaquat's mother, Mahmoodah Begum, arranged for his lessons in the Qur'an and Ahadith at home before his formal schooling started.
He graduated with a B.Sc. in Political science and Bachelor of Law in 1918 from the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College (later Aligarh Muslim University), Aligarh, and married his cousin, Jehangira Begum, in 1918. After the death of his father, Khan went to England and was awarded a Master's degree in Law and Justice from Oxford University's Exeter College in 1921. While a student at Oxford, he was elected Honorary Treasurer of the Indian Majlis. Thereafter he joined the Inner Temple, one of the Inns of Court in London. He was called to the Bar in 1922.
On his return from Britain in 1923, Khan entered politics. In his early life, Liaquat believed in Indian nationalism. His views gradually changed. The Congress leaders asked him to join their party, but he refused and joined the Muslim League in 1923. Under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Muslim League held its annual session in May 1924 in Lahore. The aim of this session was to revive the League. Khan was among those who attended this conference.
Khan began his parliamentary career as an elected member of the United Provinces Legislative Council from the rural Muslim constituency of Muzzaffarnagar in 1926. In 1932, he was unanimously elected Deputy President of UP Legislative Council. He remained a member of the UP Legislative Council until 1940, when he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly. He participated actively in legislative affairs. He was one of the members of the Muslim League delegation that attended the National Convention held at Calcutta to discuss the Nehru Report in December 1928.
When Muhammad Ali Jinnah returned to India, he started to reorganise the Muslim League. In 1936, the annual session of the League met in Bombay. In the open session on 12 April 1936, Jinnah moved a resolution proposing Khan as the Honorary General Secretary. The resolution was unanimously adopted and he held the office till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. In 1940, Khan was made the deputy leader of the Muslim League Parliamentary party. Jinnah was not able to take active part in the proceedings of the Assembly on account of his heavy political work. It was Khan who stood in his place. During this period, Khan was also the Honorary General Secretary of the Muslim League, the deputy leader of their party, Convenor of the Action Committee of the Muslim League, Chairman of the Central Parliamentary Board and the managing director of the newspaper Dawn.
The Pakistan Resolution was adopted in 1940 at the Lahore session of the Muslim League. The same year elections were held for the central legislative assembly which were contested by Khan from the Barielly constituency. He was elected without contest. When the twenty-eighth session of the League met in Madras on 12 April 1941, Jinnah told party members that the ultimate aim was to obtain Pakistan. In this session, Khan moved a resolution incorporating the objectives of the Pakistan Resolution in the aims and objectives of the Muslim League. The resolution was seconded and passed unanimously.
In 1945-46, mass elections were held in India and Khan won the Central Legislature election from the Meerut Constituency in the United Provinces. He was also elected Chairman of the League's Central Parliamentary Board. The Muslim League won 87% of seats reserved for Muslims of British India. He assisted Jinnah in his negotiations with the members of the Cabinet Mission and the leaders of the Congress during the final phases of the Freedom Movement and it was decided that an interim government would be formed consisting of members of the Congress, the Muslim League and minority leaders. When the Government asked the Muslim League to send five nominees for representation in the interim government, Khan was asked to lead the League group in the cabinet. He was given the portfolio of finance. The other four men nominated by the League were Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar, Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Abdur Rab Nishtar, and Jogendra Nath Mandal. By this point, the British government and the Indian National Congress had both accepted the idea of Pakistan and therefore on 14 August 1947, Pakistan came into existence.
After independence, the Nawabzada was appointed the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. The new Dominion of Pakistan faced a number of difficulties in its early days. Liaquat and Jinnah were determined to stop the riots and refugee problems and to set up an effective administrative system for the country. Liaquat established the groundwork for Pakistan's foreign policy. He also took steps towards the formulation of the constitution. He presented The Objectives Resolution, a prelude to future constitutions, in the Legislative Assembly. The house passed it on 12 March 1949. It has been described as the "Magna Carta" of Pakistan's constitutional history. Khan called it "the most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance, only to the achievement of independence". Under his leadership a team also drafted the first report of the Basic Principle Committee and work began on the second report.
During his tenure, India and Pakistan agreed to resolve the dispute of Kashmir in a peaceful manner through the efforts of the United Nations. According to this agreement a ceasefire was effected in Kashmir on January 1, 1949. It was decided that a free and impartial plebiscite would be held under the supervision of the UN.
After the death of Jinnah, the problem of religious minorities flared during late 1949 and early 1950, and observers feared that India and Pakistan were about to fight their second war in the first three years of their independence. At this time, Khan met Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to sign the Liaquat-Nehru Pact in 1950. The pact was an effort to improve relations and reduce tension between India and Pakistan, and to protect the religious minorities on both sides of the border. In May 1950, Liaquat visited the United States after being persuaded to snap ties with the Soviet Union and set the course of Pakistan's foreign policy towards closer ties with the West. An important event during his premiership was the establishment of National Bank of Pakistan in November 1949, and the installation of a paper currency mill in Karachi.
In January 1951, Liaquat appointed General Ayub Khan as the first Pakistani commander-in-chief of the army with the retirement of the British commander, General Sir Douglas Gracey. In the same year, an attempted coup was launched against the government by senior military leaders and prominent socialist. General Akbar Khan, chief of general staff, was arrested along with 14 other army officers for plotting the coup. The Rawalpindi Conspiracy, as it became known, was the first attempted coup in Pakistan's history. The arrested conspirators were tried in secret and given lengthy jail sentences.
Assassination and Death
On 16 October 1951, Khan was shot twice in the chest during a public meeting of the Muslim City League at Company Bagh (Company Gardens), Rawalpindi. The police immediately shot the assassin who was later identified as Saad Akbar Babrak. Khan was rushed to a hospital and given a blood transfusion, but he succumbed to his injuries. The exact motive behind the assassination has never been fully revealed. Saad Akbar Babrak was an Afghan national and a professional assassin from Hazara. He was known to the police prior to the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan. His assassination is still a very big question mark , it was never investigated properly. The evidence was destroyed in a plane crash soon after the assassination. Unofficially it is known to be the refusal of air base allotment in Pakistan to USA Army against USSR, the weapon of assassination was a brand of American Army and utilized by the special forces of USA and associates to carry out special assignments like this. The main evidence the contract killer was immediately shoot dead by a local police officer. Soon after the officer was promoted instead of legal trial.
Another story told by the staff of the American Embassy in Pakistan states that the 17th Oct was marked as a holiday on the desk diary of the higher office before the date (16th, October) of assassination of the Prime Minister. The official holiday was declared on 17th, Oct 1951 due to the death of Liyakat Ali in the evening of 16th, Oct shootout.
Upon his death, Khan was given the honorific title of "Shaheed-e-Millat", or "Martyr of the Nation". He was buried in the same tomb as Jinnah. The Municipal Park, where he was assassinated, was renamed Liaquat Bagh (Bagh means park) in his honor. It is the same location where ex-Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007.
Liaquat Ali khan was according to some not able to play an effective role for a few weeks when the Kashmir crisis was at its peak as he was variously reported to be suffering from a peptic ulcer or Heart attack. That is according to the book by Mrs. M.D. Taseer on Sheikh Abdullah. Mrs. Taseer was the mother of slain Punjab governor Salman Taseer.
Criticism and legacy
There are some historical references like the book "from martial law to martial law" which speak of Liaquat Ali khan's ambassador to Iran asking him to finalize a summit in Iran with Egypt's ruler also to attend the same. This meant a course opposite to the British foreign policy.
There are also statements of junior staff of Liaquat Ali khan which mention that Liaquat usually referred the British representative in Pakistan to meet Chaudry Muhammed Ali rather than grant audience himself.
There are also references and sources which describe that he had very little money left, some putting figure at 80000 Rupees which had dwindled to some few thousand by his death and he did not mint any money and rather lost all.
Khan has received criticism from the left wing in Pakistan for his pro-Western foreign policies and the restrictions placed on the Communist Party of Pakistan. At the time of his death, the extreme leftist press, such as the Communist Swadhinata, stated: "Liaquat's death only reflects inevitable disaster that overtakes policy of playing lackey to Anglo-American Powers." He was further criticised for not visiting the Soviet Union, whereas he did go the United States. This was perceived as a rebuff to Moscow, and has been traced to profound adverse consequences, including Soviet help to India, most prominently in the 1971 war which ultimately led to the separation of Bangladesh.
Others argue that Khan had wanted Pakistan to remain neutral in the Cold War, as declared three days after Pakistan's independence when he declared that Pakistan would take no sides in the conflict of ideologies between the nations. Former serviceman Shahid M. Amin has argued that the Soviets themselves could not settle convenient dates for a visit, and that, even during his visit to the United States, Liaquat had declared his intention to visit the Soviet Union. Amin also notes that "Failure to visit a country in response to its invitations has hardly ever become the cause of long-term estrangement.
In Pakistan, Khan is regarded as Jinnah's “right hand man” and heir apparent. His role in filling in the vacuum created by Jinnah’s death is seen as decisive in tackling critical problems during Pakistan’s fledgling years and in devising measures for the consolidation of Pakistan. His face is printed on postage stamps across the country.
- ^ http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/cabinet-test/infoservices/qmlk.pdf
- ^ S A Aiyar. "Jaswant pays price for telling the truth : India : S A Aiyar : TOI Blogs". Blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Swaminomics/entry/jaswant_pays_price_for_telling. Retrieved 2010-05-01. [dead link]
- ^ a b c d Liaquat Ali Khan: A worthy successor to the Quaid, Prof Dr M Yakub Mughal, The News International Special Edition. Retrieved on 31 December 2006.
- ^ "" Liaquat Ali Khan [1895-1951""]. http://www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P010&Pg=1. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- ^ a b "" Liaquat Ali Khan [1895-1951: Political career""]. http://www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P010&Pg=2. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- ^ ""Begum Rana Liaquat Ali Khan"". http://www.jazbah.org/raanak.php. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- ^ Rizwana Zahid Ahmad, Pakistan: The real picture, pg. 161, ISBN 969-0-01801-9
- ^ a b Rizwana Zahid Ahmad, Pakistan: The real picture, pg. 162, ISBN 969-0-01801-9
- ^ Farooq Naseem Bajwa, Pakistan: A Historical and contemporary look, pg. 130, ISBN 0195798430
- ^ "" Liaquat Ali Khan (1895-1951)"". http://pakavenue.com/webdigest/history/freedom_fighter_006.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- ^ The Leader - Government of Pakistan
- ^ ""Pakistan at fifty-five: From Jinnah to Musharraf"" (PDF). http://www.eias.org/publications/briefing/2002/bp23pakistan.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- ^ "" RESOLUTION 47 (1948) ON THE INDIA-PAKISTAN QUESTION"". http://www.kashmiri-cc.ca/un/sc21apr48.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- ^ "" P Liaquat - Nehru Pact"". http://therepublicofrumi.com/50.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-25. [dead link]
- ^ Lacey, Michael James (1991). The Truman Presidency. Cambridge University Press. p. 358. ISBN 0521407737.
- ^ "" Liaquat Ali Khan: The Prime minister 2"". http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A134&Pg=2. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- ^ Farooq Naseem Bajwa, Pakistan: A historical and contemporary look, pg. 154-55, ISBN 0195798430
- ^ Ahmed, Ashfaq (2009-07-07). "Key moment for Pakistan". Gulfnews. http://www.gulfnews.com/opinion/columns/world/10329078.html. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- ^ "Manto, on murder :". Khalidhasan.net. 1951-10-23. http://www.khalidhasan.net/manto-on-murder. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_28-9-2004_pg7_47. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- ^ "" The Assassination of the prime minister of Pakistan". http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/pakistan/liaquatcia18oct1951.htm.
- ^ "Doctor relives father's fate after Bhutto attack". Reuters. 2007-12-30. http://in.reuters.com/article/topNews/idINIndia-31172420071230. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
- ^ "" Restricted Telegram from Consulate General, Calcutta, Oct. 19, 1951"". http://www.icdc.com/~paulwolf/pakistan/liaquat19oct1951.jpg. Retrieved 2006-10-25.
- ^ New York Times 18 August 1947, cited by S.M. Burke, pg. 147.
- ^ Shahid M. Amin, Pakistan's Foreign Policy: A Reappraisal, pg. 41, ISBN 0-19-579801-5
- ^ Shahid M. Amin, Pakistan's Foreign Policy: A Reappraisal, pg. 42, ISBN 0-19-579801-5
- ^ "Jinnah (1998)". http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0183306/. Retrieved 2007-01-25.
- Shaheed-e-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, builder of Pakistan by Z. A Suleri
- Liaquat Ali Khan: His Life and Times by Muhammad Reza Kazimi
- Liaquat Ali Khan and the freedom movement by Muhammad Raza Kazmi
- Pictures of Liaquat Ali Khan's Visit to the USA—type Pakistan in the search bar.
- Chronicles Of Pakistan
- Assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan: Documents from the U.S. National Archives
- Story of Pakistan
Political offices New office Minister of Finance of India
Prime Minister of Pakistan
Minister of Defence of Pakistan
Prime Ministers of Pakistan (List)
L.A. Khan · K. Nazimuddin · M.A. Bogra · C.M. Ali · H.S. Suhrawardy · I.I. Chundrigar · F.K. Noon · N. Amin · Z.A. Bhutto · M.K. Junejo · B. Bhutto · G.M. Jatoi · N. Sharif · B.S. Mazari (Caretaker) · N. Sharif · M.A. Qureshi (Caretaker) · B. Bhutto · M.M. Khalid (Caretaker) · N. Sharif · Z.K. Jamali · C.S. Hussain · S. Aziz · M.M. Soomro (Caretaker) · Y.R. Gillani
Pakistan Movement HistoryEast India Company · Indian Rebellion of 1857 · Aligarh Movement · Urdu movement · Partition of Bengal · Lucknow Pact · Khilafat Movement · Nehru Report · Fourteen Points of Jinnah · Allahabad Address · Now or Never pamphlet · Two-Nation Theory · Round Table Conferences · Lahore Resolution · Direct Action Day · Indian Muslim nationalism · Cabinet Mission · Indian Independence Act · Radcliffe Line · Pakistan · Objectives Resolution · Independence · Republic Day · Kashmir Freedom Movement · Pakistani nationalism Organisations LeadersSyed Ahmed Khan · Muhammad Iqbal · Muhammad Ali Jinnah · Ghulam Bhik Nairang · Liaquat Ali Khan · Bahadur Yar Jung · G. M. Syed · Abdur Rab Nishtar · Fatima Jinnah · Choudhary Rahmat Ali · Muhammad Ali Jouhar · Shaukat Ali · A.K. Fazlul Huq · Sikandar Hayat Khan · Zafar Ali Khan · Khawaja Nazimuddin · Abdul Qayyum Khan · Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy · Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan · more Activists
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Liaquat Ali Khan — (Urdu لیاقت علی خان; * 2. Oktober 1896 in Karnal, Britisch Indien; † 16. Oktober 1951 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan) war ein pakistanischer Politiker und erster Premierminister des unabhängigen Pakistan … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liaquat Ali Khan — est un homme politique pakistanais, né le 1er octobre 1896 à Karnal (Raj britannique) et assassiné par Saad Akbar le 16 octobre 1951 à Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Il fut le premier ministre du Pakistan du 14 août 1947 au 16 octobre 1951. Voir… … Wikipédia en Français
Liaquat Ali Khan — ▪ prime minister of Pakistan born Oct. 1, 1895, Karnal, India died Oct. 16, 1951, Rawalpindi, Pak. first prime minister of Pakistan (1947–51). Born the son of a landowner, Liaquat was educated at Aligarh, Allahabad, and Exeter College, Oxford… … Universalium
Begum Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan — (Urdu: رعنا لیاقت علی خان) (née Sheila Irene Pant) (1905 June 13, 1990) was born in a Kumauni brahmin family at Almora in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. However, her grandfather, a Hindu had converted to Christianity. She was educated at… … Wikipedia
Rana Liaquat Ali Khan Government College of Home Economics — is situated at Stadium Road in Gulshan e Iqbal in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.The RLAK Government College was founded by Begum Rana Liaquat Ali Khan wife of first Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawab Liaquat Ali Khan.ee alsoExternal links*… … Wikipedia
Ali Khan — ist der Name folgende Personen: Ali Akbar Khan (1922–2009), indischer Musiker und Komponist Ali Murad Khan († 1785), Schah der Zanddynastie Liaquat Ali Khan (1896–1951), erster Premierminister des unabhängigen Pakistan Lotf Ali Khan (1769–1794),… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zafar Ali Khan — Maulana Zafar Ali Khan Born 1873 Sialkot, Punjab Pakistan Died 1956 Lahore, Punjab … Wikipedia
Liakat Ali Khan — Liakat Ạli Khan, Liaquat Ạli Khan, indisch pakistanischer Politiker, * Karnal (Pandschab) 1. 10. 1895, ✝ (ermordet) Rawalpindi 16. 10. 1951; Rechtsanwalt, eines der führenden Mitglieder der Muslimliga; neben M. A. Jinnah einflussreicher… … Universal-Lexikon
Khan (name) — Khan (Nasta liq: خان) is a surname from Asia. The name dates back to the 10th century CE. It can have one of several connotations, all related to some extent to the title of Khan, historically granted to Muslim rulers. Aryanisation of South Asia… … Wikipedia
Khan (Familienname) — Khan ist ein Familienname. Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z … Deutsch Wikipedia