- Muhammad Iqbal
Sir Allama Mohammad Iqbal
Full name Muhammad Iqbal Born November 9, 1877
Sialkot, Punjab, British India
Era 20 century Region Pakistan Main interests Urdu poetry, Persian poetry Notable ideas Two-Nation Theory, Conception of Pakistan Website allamaiqbal.com
Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: محمد اقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was a poet and philosopher born in Sialkot, British India (now in Pakistan), whose poetry in Urdu and Persian is considered to be among the greatest of the modern era. He is commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال, Allama lit. Scholar).
After studying in England and Germany, Iqbal established a law practice, but concentrated primarily on writing scholarly works on politics, economics, history, philosophy and religion. He is best known for his poetic works, including Asrar-e-Khudi—which brought a knighthood— Rumuz-e-Bekhudi, and the Bang-e-Dara, with its enduring patriotic song Tarana-e-Hind. In Afghanistan and Iran, where he is known as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī (اقبال لاهوری Iqbal of Lahore), he is highly regarded for his Persian works.
Iqbal was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilization across the world, but specifically in India; a series of famous lectures he delivered to this effect were published as The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. One of the most prominent leaders of the All-India Muslim League, Iqbal encouraged the creation of a "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims" in his 1930 presidential address. Iqbal encouraged and worked closely with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and he is known as Muffakir-e-Pakistan ("The Thinker of Pakistan"), Shair-e-Mashriq ("The Poet of the East"), and Hakeem-ul-Ummat ("The Sage of the Ummah"). He is officially recognised as the "national poet" in Pakistan. The anniversary of his birth (یوم ولادت محمد اقبال – Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl) on November 9 is a holiday in Pakistan.
Muhammad Iqbal was born on November 9, 1877 in Sialkot, India (now in Pakistan). During the reign of Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan—according to scholar Bruce Lawrence—Iqbal's Kashmiri Pandit ancestors from Kashmir had converted to Islam. According to some sources: "The family had migrated from Kashmir where Iqbal's Brahmin ancestors had been converted to Islam." Iqbal often wrote about his being "a son of Kashmiri-Brahmins but (being) acquainted with the wisdom of Rûm and Tabriz."
Iqbal's father, Nur Muhammad, was a tailor, who lacked formal education, but who had great devotion to Islam and Sufism and a "mystically tinged piety." Iqbal's mother was known in the family as a "wise, generous woman who quietly gave financial help to poor and needy women and arbitrated in neighbor's disputes." After his mother's death in 1914, Iqbal wrote an elegy for her:
Who would wait for me anxiously in my native place?
Who would display restlessness if my letter fails to arrive
I will visit thy grave with this complaint:
Who will now think of me in midnight prayers?
All thy life thy love served me with devotion—
When I became fit to serve thee, thou hast departed.
At the age of four, young Iqbal was sent regularly to a mosque, where he learned how to read the Qu'ran in Arabic. The following year, and for many years thereafter, Iqbal became a student of Syed Mir Hassan, who was then the head of the Madrassa in Sialkot, and later to become a widely known Muslim scholar. An advocate of secular European education for the Muslim's of British India—in the tradition of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan—Hassan convinced Iqbal's father to send him to Sialkot's Scotch Mission College, where Hassan was professor of Arabic. Two years later, in 1895, Iqbal obtained the Faculty of Arts diploma from the college.
That year Iqbal's family arranged for him to be married to Karim Bibi, the daughter of an affluent Gujrati physician. The couple had two children: a daughter, Mi'raj Begum (born 1895) and a son, Aftab (born 1898). Iqbal's third child, a son, died soon after birth. Husband and wife were unhappy in their marriage and eventually divorced in 1916.
Later the same year, Iqbal entered the Government College in Lahore where he studied philosophy, English literature and Arabic and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree, graduating cum laude. He won a gold medal for placing first in the examination in philosophy. While studying for his masters degree, Iqbal came under the influence of Sir Thomas Arnold, a scholar of Islam and modern philosophy at the college. Arnold exposed the young man to Western culture and ideas, and served as a bridge for Iqbal between the ideas of East and West. Iqbal was appointed to a readership in Arabic at the Oriental College in Lahore, and he published his first book in Urdu, The Knowledge of Economics in 1903. In 1905 Iqbal published the patriotic song, Tarana-e-Hind (Song of India).
At Sir Thomas's encouragement, Iqbal travelled to Europe and spent many years studying there. Before leaving for London he visited the Dargah of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya in Delhi and wrote a famous poem to acknowledge the great Sufi and by doing so he confirmed his own lifelong association with Sufism. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree from Trinity College at Cambridge in 1907, while simultaneously studying law at Lincoln's Inn, from where he qualified as a barrister in 1908. In Europe, he started writing his poetry in Persian as well. Throughout his life, Iqbal would prefer writing in Persian as he believed it allowed him to fully express philosophical concepts, and it gave him a wider audience. It was while in England that he first participated in politics. Following the formation of the All-India Muslim League in 1906, Iqbal was elected to the executive committee of its British chapter in 1908. Together with two other politicians, Syed Hassan Bilgrami and Syed Ameer Ali, Iqbal sat on the subcommittee which drafted the constitution of the League. In 1907, Iqbal travelled to Germany to pursue a doctorate from the Faculty of Philosophy of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität at Munich. Working under the supervision of Friedrich Hommel, Iqbal published a thesis titled: The Development of Metaphysics in Persia.Cite error: Closing
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Works in Persian
Iqbal's poetic works are written primarily in Persian rather than Urdu. Among his 12,000 verses of poetry, about 7,000 verses are in Persian. In 1915, he published his first collection of poetry, the Asrar-e-Khudi (Secrets of the Self) in Persian. The poems emphasise the spirit and self from a religious, spiritual perspective. Many critics have called this Iqbal's finest poetic work In Asrar-e-Khudi, Iqbal explains his philosophy of "Khudi," or "Self." Iqbal's use of the term "Khudi" is synonymous with the word "Rooh" mentioned in the Quran. "Rooh" is that divine spark which is present in every human being, and was present in Adam, for which God ordered all of the angels to prostrate in front of Adam. One has to make a great journey of transformation to realize that divine spark which Iqbal calls "Khudi".
A similitude of this journey can be understood by the relationship between fragrance and seed. Every seed has the potential for fragrance within it, but to reach its fragrance the seed must go through all the different changes and stages: First breaking out of its shell. Then breaking the ground to come into the light, developing roots at the same time. Then fighting against the elements to develop leaves and flowers. Finally reaching its pinnacle by attaining the fragrance that was hidden within it. Similarly, in order to reach one's khudi or rooh, one needs to go through the multiple spiritual stages which Iqbal himself went through, and encourages others to travel. Not all seeds reach the level of fragrance; many die along the way – incomplete. In this same way, only a few people can climb this Mount Everest of spirituality; most get consumed along the way by materialism.
The same concept was used by Farid ud Din Attar in his "Mantaq-ul-Tair". He proves by various means that the whole universe obeys the will of the "Self." Iqbal condemns self-destruction. For him, the aim of life is self-realization and self-knowledge. He charts the stages through which the "Self" has to pass before finally arriving at its point of perfection, enabling the knower of the "Self" to become a viceregent of God.
In his Rumuz-e-Bekhudi (Hints of Selflessness), Iqbal seeks to prove the Islamic way of life is the best code of conduct for a nation's viability. A person must keep his individual characteristics intact, but once this is achieved he should sacrifice his personal ambitions for the needs of the nation. Man cannot realise the "Self" outside of society. Also in Persian and published in 1917, this group of poems has as its main themes the ideal community, Islamic ethical and social principles, and the relationship between the individual and society. Although he is true throughout to Islam, Iqbal also recognises the positive analogous aspects of other religions. The Rumuz-e-Bekhudi complements the emphasis on the self in the Asrar-e-Khudi and the two collections are often put in the same volume under the title Asrar-e-Rumuz (Hinting Secrets). It is addressed to the world's Muslims.
Iqbal sees the individual and his community as reflections of each other. The individual needs to be strengthened before he can be integrated into the community, whose development in turn depends on the preservation of the communal ego. It is through contact with others that an ego learns to accept the limitations of its own freedom and the meaning of love. Muslim communities must ensure order in life and must therefore preserve their communal tradition. It is in this context that Iqbal sees the vital role of women, who as mothers are directly responsible for inculcating values in their children.
Iqbal's 1924 publication, the Payam-e-Mashriq (The Message of the East) is closely connected to the West-östlicher Diwan by the famous German poet Goethe. Goethe bemoans the West having become too materialistic in outlook, and expects the East will provide a message of hope to resuscitate spiritual values. Iqbal styles his work as a reminder to the West of the importance of morality, religion and civilization by underlining the need for cultivating feeling, ardour and dynamism. He explains that an individual can never aspire to higher dimensions unless he learns of the nature of spirituality. In his first visit to Afghanistan, he presented his book "Payam-e Mashreq" to King Amanullah Khan in which he admired the liberal movements of Afghanistan against the British Empire. In 1933, he was officially invited to Afghanistan to join the meetings regarding the establishment of Kabul University.
The Zabur-e-Ajam (Persian Psalms), published in 1927, includes the poems Gulshan-e-Raz-e-Jadeed (Garden of New Secrets) and Bandagi Nama (Book of Slavery). In Gulshan-e-Raz-e-Jadeed, Iqbal first poses questions, then answers them with the help of ancient and modern insight, showing how it affects and concerns the world of action. Bandagi Nama denounces slavery by attempting to explain the spirit behind the fine arts of enslaved societies. Here as in other books, Iqbal insists on remembering the past, doing well in the present and preparing for the future, while emphasising love, enthusiasm and energy to fulfill the ideal life.
Iqbal's 1932 work, the Javed Nama (Book of Javed) is named after and in a manner addressed to his son, who is featured in the poems. It follows the examples of the works of Ibn Arabi and Dante's The Divine Comedy, through mystical and exaggerated depictions across time. Iqbal depicts himself as Zinda Rud ("A stream full of life") guided by Rumi, "the master," through various heavens and spheres, and has the honour of approaching divinity and coming in contact with divine illuminations. In a passage re-living a historical period, Iqbal condemns the Muslim who were instrumental in the defeat and death of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula of Bengal and Tipu Sultan of Mysore respectively by betraying them for the benefit of the British colonists, and thus delivering their country to the shackles of slavery. At the end, by addressing his son Javid, he speaks to the young people at large, and provides guidance to the "new generation."
His love of the Persian language is evident in his works and poetry. He says in one of his poems:
گرچہ اردو در عذوبت شکر است
garche Urdū dar uzūbat shekkar ast
طرز گفتار دري شيرين تر است
tarz-e goftar-e Dari shirin tar ast
Works in Urdu
Iqbal's first work published in Urdu, the Bang-e-Dara (The Call of the Marching Bell) of 1924, was a collection of poetry written by him in three distinct phases of his life. The poems he wrote up to 1905, the year Iqbal left for England imbibe patriotism and imagery of landscape, and includes the Tarana-e-Hind (The Song of India), popularly known as Saare Jahan Se Achcha and another poem Tarana-e-Milli (Anthem of the (Muslim) Community), which was composed in the same metre and rhyme scheme as Saare Jahan Se Achcha. The second set of poems date from between 1905 and 1908 when Iqbal studied in Europe and dwell upon the nature of European society, which he emphasized had lost spiritual and religious values. This inspired Iqbal to write poems on the historical and cultural heritage of Islamic culture and Muslim people, not from an Indian but a global perspective. Iqbal urges the global community of Muslims, addressed as the Ummah to define personal, social and political existence by the values and teachings of Islam. Poems such as Tulu'i Islam (Dawn of Islam) and Khizr-e-Rah (Guide of the Path) are especially acclaimed.
Iqbal preferred to work mainly in Persian for a predominant period of his career, but after 1930, his works were mainly in Urdu. The works of this period were often specifically directed at the Muslim masses of India, with an even stronger emphasis on Islam, and Muslim spiritual and political reawakening. Published in 1935, the Bal-e-Jibril (Wings of Gabriel) is considered by many critics as the finest of Iqbal's Urdu poetry, and was inspired by his visit to Spain, where he visited the monuments and legacy of the kingdom of the Moors. It consists of ghazals, poems, quatrains, epigrams and carries a strong sense religious passion.
The Pas Cheh Bayed Kard ai Aqwam-e-Sharq (What are we to do, O Nations of the East?) includes the poem Musafir (Traveler). Again, Iqbal depicts Rumi as a character and an exposition of the mysteries of Islamic laws and Sufi perceptions is given. Iqbal laments the dissension and disunity among the Indian Muslims as well as Muslim nations. Musafir is an account of one of Iqbal's journeys to Afghanistan, in which the Pashtun people are counseled to learn the "secret of Islam" and to "build up the self" within themselves. Iqbal's final work was the Armughan-e-Hijaz (The Gift of Hijaz), published posthumously in 1938. The first part contains quatrains in Persian, and the second part contains some poems and epigrams in Urdu. The Persian quatrains convey the impression as though the poet is travelling through the Hijaz in his imagination. Profundity of ideas and intensity of passion are the salient features of these short poems. The Urdu portion of the book contains some categorical criticism of the intellectual movements and social and political revolutions of the modern age.
While dividing his time between law and poetry, Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He supported Indian involvement in World War I, as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus and was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.
In November 1926, with the encouragement of friends and supporters, Iqbal contested for a seat in the Punjab Legislative Assembly from the Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a margin of 3,177 votes. He supported the constitutional proposals presented by Jinnah with the aim of guaranteeing Muslim political rights and influence in a coalition with the Congress, and worked with the Aga Khan and other Muslim leaders to mend the factional divisions and achieve unity in the Muslim League.
Revival of Islamic polity
Iqbal's second book in English, the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, is a collection of his six lectures which he delivered at Madras, Hyderabad and Aligarh; first published as a collection in Lahore, in 1930. These lectures dwell on the role of Islam as a religion as well as a political and legal philosophy in the modern age. In these lectures Iqbal firmly rejects the political attitudes and conduct of Muslim politicians, whom he saw as morally misguided, attached to power and without any standing with Muslim masses. Iqbal expressed fears that not only would secularism weaken the spiritual foundations of Islam and Muslim society, but that India's Hindu-majority population would crowd out Muslim heritage, culture and political influence. In his travels to Egypt, Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey, he promoted ideas of greater Islamic political co-operation and unity, calling for the shedding of nationalist differences. He also speculated on different political arrangements to guarantee Muslim political power; in a dialogue with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Iqbal expressed his desire to see Indian provinces as autonomous units under the direct control of the British government and with no central Indian government. He envisaged autonomous Muslim provinces in India. Under one Indian union he feared for Muslims, who would suffer in many respects especially with regard to their existentially separate entity as Muslims. Sir Muhammad Iqbal was elected president of the Muslim League in 1930 at its session in Allahabad, in the United Provinces as well as for the session in Lahore in 1932. In his presidential address on December 29, 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern India:
"I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of Northwest India."
In his speech, Iqbal emphasised that unlike Christianity, Islam came with "legal concepts" with "civic significance," with its "religious ideals" considered as inseparable from social order: "therefore, the construction of a policy on national lines, if it means a displacement of the Islamic principle of solidarity, is simply unthinkable to a Muslim." Iqbal thus stressed not only the need for the political unity of Muslim communities, but the undesirability of blending the Muslim population into a wider society not based on Islamic principles. He thus became the first politician to articulate what would become known as the Two-Nation Theory — that Muslims are a distinct nation and thus deserve political independence from other regions and communities of India. However, he would not elucidate or specify if his ideal Islamic state would construe a theocracy, even as he rejected secularism and nationalism. The latter part of Iqbal's life was concentrated on political activity. He would travel across Europe and West Asia to garner political and financial support for the League, and he reiterated his ideas in his 1932 address, and during the Third Round-Table Conference, he opposed the Congress and proposals for transfer of power without considerable autonomy or independence for Muslim provinces. He would serve as president of the Punjab Muslim League, and would deliver speeches and publish articles in an attempt to rally Muslims across India as a single political entity. Iqbal consistently criticised feudal classes in Punjab as well as Muslim politicians averse to the League. He fell prey to Punjabi dominated Muslims of region. Muslims across Indian subcontinent opposed the idea of two nation theory. Many unnoticed account of Iqbal's frustration toward Congress leadership were also pivotal of visioning the two nation theory. He also wanted to prove that defeat of Muslim ummat can be at least saved in this region by dividing the societies within British India in the name of Islam.
Patron of The Journal Tolu-e-Islam
He was also the first patron of the historical, political, religious, cultural journal of Muslims of British India and Pakistan. This journal played an important part in the Pakistan movement. The name of this journal is The Journal Tolu-e-Islam. In 1935, according to his instructions, Syed Nazeer Niazi initiated and edited, a journal Tolu-e-Islam named after the famous poem of Sir Muhammad Iqbal, Tulu'i Islam. He also dedicated the first edition of this journal to Sir Muhammad Iqbal. For a long time Sir Muhammad Iqbal wanted a journal to propagate his ideas and the aims and objective of Muslim league. It was Syed Nazeer Niazi, a close friend of his and a regular visitor to him during his last two years, who started this journal. He also made Urdu translation of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, by Sir Muhammad Iqbal.
In the first monthly journal of Oct. 1935, an article "Millat Islamia Hind" The Muslim nation of India was published. In this article Syed Nazeer Niazi described the political conditions of British India and the aims and objectives of the Muslim community. He also discussed the basic principles of Islam which were aims and objective of Sir Muhammad Iqbal' concept of an Islamic State.
The early contributors to this journal were eminent Muslim scholars like Maulana Aslam Jairajpuri, Ghulam Ahmed Pervez, Dr. Zakir Hussain Khan, Syed Naseer Ahmed, Raja Hassan Akhtar, Maulvi Ghulam Yezdani, Ragheb Ahsan, Sheikh Suraj ul Haq, Rafee ud din Peer, Prof. fazal ud din Qureshi, Agha Muhammad Safdar, Asad Multani, Dr. Tasadaq Hussain, Prof. Yusuf Saleem Chisti.
Afterward, this journal was continued by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez, who had already contributed many articles in the early editions of this journal. After the emergence of Pakistan, the mission of the journal Tolu-e-Islam was to propagate the implementation of the principle which had inspired the demand for separate Muslim State according to the Quran. This journal is still published by Idara Tolu-e-Islam, Lahore.
Relationship with Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Ideologically separated from Congress Muslim leaders, Iqbal had also been disillusioned with the politicians of the Muslim League owing to the factional conflict that plagued the League in the 1920s. Discontent with factional leaders like Sir Muhammad Shafi and Sir Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving this unity and fulfilling the League's objectives on Muslim political empowerment. Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal along with Moulana Abdur Raheem Dard (Resident missionary of the Ahmadiyya movement in London) were influential forces in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress:
"I know you are a busy man but I do hope you won't mind my writing to you often, as you are the only Muslim in India today to whom the community has right to look up for safe guidance through the storm which is coming to North-West India and, perhaps, to the whole of India."
There were significant differences between the two men — while Iqbal believed that Islam was the source of government and society, Jinnah was a believer in secular government and had laid out a secular vision for Pakistan where religion would have "nothing to do with the business of the state." Iqbal had backed the Khilafat struggle; Jinnah had dismissed it as "religious frenzy." And while Iqbal espoused the idea of Muslim-majority provinces in 1930, Jinnah would continue to hold talks with the Congress through the decade and only officially embraced the goal of Pakistan in 1940. Some historians postulate that Jinnah always remained hopeful for an agreement with the Congress and never fully desired the partition of India. Iqbal's close correspondence with Jinnah is speculated by some historians as having been responsible for Jinnah's embrace of the idea of Pakistan. Iqbal elucidated to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state in a letter sent on June 21, 1937:
"A separate federation of Muslim Provinces, reformed on the lines I have suggested above, is the only course by which we can secure a peaceful India and save Muslims from the domination of Non-Muslims. Why should not the Muslims of North-West India and Bengal be considered as nations entitled to self-determination just as other nations in India and outside India are."
Iqbal, serving as president of the Punjab Muslim League, criticised Jinnah's political actions, including a political agreement with Punjabi leader Sir Sikandar Hyat Khan, whom Iqbal saw as a representative of feudal classes and not committed to Islam as the core political philosophy. Nevertheless, Iqbal worked constantly to encourage Muslim leaders and masses to support Jinnah and the League. Speaking about the political future of Muslims in India, Iqbal said:
"There is only one way out. Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. Without it, our demands are not going to be accepted. People say our demands smack of communalism. This is sheer propaganda. These demands relate to the defense of our national existence.... The united front can be formed under the leadership of the Muslim League. And the Muslim League can succeed only on account of Jinnah. Now none but Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims."
Final years & death
In 1933, after returning from a trip to Spain and Afghanistan, Iqbal began suffering from a mysterious throat illness. He spent his final years helping Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan establish the Dar ul Islam Trust Institute at the latter's Jamalpur estate near Pathankot, an institution where studies in classical Islam and contemporary social science would be subsidised, and advocating the demand for an independent Muslim state. Iqbal ceased practising law in 1934 and he was granted pension by the Nawab of Bhopal. In his final years he frequently visited the Dargah of famous Sufi Hazrat Ali Hujwiri in Lahore for spiritual guidance. After suffering for months from his illness, Iqbal died in Lahore on 21 April 1938. His tomb is located in Hazuri Bagh, the enclosed garden between the entrance of the Badshahi Mosque and the Lahore Fort, and official guards are maintained there by the Government of Pakistan.
Iqbal is commemorated widely in Pakistan, where he is regarded as the ideological founder of the state. His Tarana-e-Hind is a song that is widely used in India as a patriotic song speaking of communal harmony. His birthday is annually commemorated in Pakistan as Iqbal Day, a national holiday. Iqbal is the namesake of many public institutions, including the Allama Iqbal Campus Punjab University in Lahore, the Allama Iqbal Medical College in Lahore, Iqbal Stadium in Faisalabad, Allama Iqbal Open University, the Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore, and Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town in Karachi. Government and public organizations have sponsored the establishment of colleges and schools dedicated to Iqbal, and have established the Iqbal Academy to research, teach and preserve the works, literature and philosophy of Iqbal. Allama Iqbal Stamps Society established for the promotion of Iqbaliyat in philately and in other hobbies. His son Javid Iqbal has served as a justice on the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Javaid Manzil was the last residence of Allama Iqbal.
Influence and legacyIf we are resolved to describe Islam as a system of superior values, we are obliged, first of all, to acknowledge that we are not the true representatives of Islam.—Muhammad Iqbal
Sayings like above influenced Muslims of British India to ponder on their situation under British rule. Allama Iqbal's poetry has also been translated into several European languages where his works were famous during the early part of the 20th century. Iqbal’s Asrar-i-Khudi and Javed Nama were translated into English by R A Nicholson and A J Arberry respectively.
- ^ a b Anil Bhatti. "Iqbal and Goethe" (PDF). Yearbook of the Goethe Society of India. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20081030083304/http://www.goethezeitportal.de/fileadmin/PDF/db/wiss/goethe/bhatti_iqbal.pdf. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
- ^ a b "Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s 1930 Presidential Address". Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/txt_iqbal_1930.html. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
- ^ a b c Schimmel 1963, p. 35
- ^ a b Mir 2006, p. 1
- ^ a b c d Mir 2006, pp. 2–3
- ^ Official website, Allama Iqbal Academy. "Asrar-e-Khudi". http://www.allamaiqbal.com. Retrieved 2006-05-30.
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- ^ Kuliyat Iqbal, Iqbal Academy Publications, 1990, Lahore, Pakistan
- ^ a b c "Allama Iqbal – Biography – Iqbal and Politics" (PHP). 26 May 2006. http://www.allamaiqbal.com/person/biography/biotxtread.html. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
- ^ Naipaul, V. S.. Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions Among the Converted Peoples. pp. 250–52.
- ^ .djvu text in Arabic
- ^ "Urdu Articles and Books". Tolueislam.com. http://www.tolueislam.com/Urdu/urdu.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- ^ a b "Iqbal and Pakistan Movement". Allamaiqbal.com. http://www.allamaiqbal.com/person/movement/move_main.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- ^ Official website, Government of Pakistan. "The Governor General". http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/governor_g.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-20.
- ^ Ayesha Jalal, The Sole Spokesman, pp. 14
- ^ Official website, Government of Pakistan. "The Statesman: Allama Iqbal's Presidential Address at Allahabad 1930". http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/politician13.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-20.
- ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1962). Gabriel's Wing. Brill Archive. p. 55. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=goE3AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA153&dq=Muhammad+Iqbal+illness#PPA55,M1.
- ^ Azam, K.M., Hayat-e-Sadeed: Bani-e-Dar ul Islam Chaudhry Niaz Ali (A Righteous Life: Founder of Dar ul Islam Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan), Lahore: Nashriyat, 2010 (583 pp., Urdu) [ISBN 978-969-8983-58-1]
- ^ Allama Iqbalâ€™s 73rd death anniversary observed with reverence | Pakistan Today | Latest news, Breaking news, Pakistan News, World news, business, sport and multimedia. Pakistan Today. Retrieved on 2011-10-30.
- ^ "Allama Iqbal". Sunni-news.net. http://www.sunni-news.net/en/articles.aspx?selected_article_no=6842. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- ^ Javaid Manzil last residence of Allama Iqbal looking for visitors By: M Abid Ayub. Ilmkidunya.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-30.
- ^ Quranic Research Group, Not Reform, but Return to the Quran
- ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 2003-05-28. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_28-5-2003_pg3_6. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- Ayesha Jalal (1994). The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45850-1.
- Ram Nath Kak (1995). Autumn Leaves: Kashmiri Reminiscences. India: Vitasta. ISBN 8186588000. http://www.koausa.org/Books/AutumnLeaves.
- Mustansir Mir (2006), Iqbal, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 1845110943
- Bruce Lawrence (2008), The Qu'ran, Grove Press, ISBN 080214344X
- Muhammad Munawwar. Iqbal-Poet Philosopher of Islam. ISBN 969-416-061-8.
- Sailen Debnath, Secularism: Western and Indian, ISBN 978-81-269-1366-4, Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi
- V. S. Naipaul (1998). Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions Among the Converted Peoples. USA: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50118-5.
- Annemarie Scimmel (1963), Gabriel's Wing: a study of the religious ideas of Sir Muhammad Iqbal, Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill
- Official website
- Dr. Iqbal Society of North America
- Some of his best Urdu poems from Columbia University site
- Muhammad Iqbal: A Spiritual Bridge between East and West
- Poetry of Dr Muhammad Iqbal in Gurmukhi at punjabi-kavita.com
National symbols of Pakistan Muhammad Iqbal FamilyJavid Iqbal (son) · Waleed Iqbal (grandson) · Yousuf Salahuddin (grandson) Prose PoetryAsrar-i-Khudi ("The Secrets of the Self") · Rumuz-i-Bekhudi ("The Secrets of Selflessness") · Payam-i-Mashriq ("Message from the East") · Bang-i-Dara ("The Call Of The Marching Bell") · Zabur-i-Ajam ("Persian Psalms") · Javid Nama · Bal-i-Jibril ("Gabriel's Wing") · Zarb-i-Kalim ("The Rod of the Moses") · Pas Chih Bayad Kard ("What should then be done O people of the East") · Armaghan-i-Hijaz ("Gift from Hijaz") Scholars Related topics Pakistan Movement HistoryEast India Company · Indian Rebellion of 1857 · Aligarh Movement · Urdu movement · Partition of Bengal · Lucknow Pact · Khilafat Movement · Nehru Report · Fourteen Points of Jinnah · Allahabad Address · Now or Never pamphlet · Two-Nation Theory · Round Table Conferences · Lahore Resolution · Direct Action Day · Indian Muslim nationalism · Cabinet Mission · Indian Independence Act · Radcliffe Line · Pakistan · Objectives Resolution · Independence · Republic Day · Kashmir Freedom Movement · Pakistani nationalism Organisations LeadersSyed Ahmed Khan · Muhammad Iqbal · Muhammad Ali Jinnah · Ghulam Bhik Nairang · Liaquat Ali Khan · Bahadur Yar Jung · G. M. Syed · Abdur Rab Nishtar · Fatima Jinnah · Choudhary Rahmat Ali · Muhammad Ali Jouhar · Shaukat Ali · A.K. Fazlul Huq · Sikandar Hayat Khan · Zafar Ali Khan · Khawaja Nazimuddin · Abdul Qayyum Khan · Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy · Ra'ana Liaquat Ali Khan · more Activists Persian literature Old MiddleAyadgar-i Zariran · Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan · Dēnkard · Book of Jamasp · Book of Arda Viraf · Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan · Cube of Zoroaster · Dana-i_Menog_Khrat · Shabuhragan of Mani · Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr · Bundahishn · Greater Bundahishn · Menog-i Khrad · Jamasp Namag · Pazand · Dadestan-i Denig · Zadspram · Sudgar Nask · Warshtmansr · Zand-i Vohuman Yasht · Drakht-i Asurig · Bahman Yasht · Shikand-gumanic Vichar Classical900s–1000s1000s–1100sBābā Tāher · Nasir Khusraw (1004–1088) · Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) · Khwaja Abdullah Ansari (1006–1088) · Asadi Tusi · Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) · Nizam al-Mulk (1018–1092) · Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) · Moezi Neyshapuri · Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) · Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani · Ahmad Ghazali · Hujwiri · Manuchehri · Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) · Uthman Mukhtari · Abu-al-Faraj Runi · Sanai · Banu Goshasp · Borzu-Nama · Afdal al-Din Kashani · Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami · Mu'izzi · Mahsati Ganjavi1100s–1200sHakim Iranshah · Suzani Samarqandi · Ashraf Ghaznavi · Faramarz Nama · Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155–1191) · Adib Sabir · Am'aq · Najm-al-Din Razi · Attār (1142–c.1220) · Khaghani (1120–1190) · Anvari (1126–1189) · Faramarz-e Khodadad · Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209) · Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) · Kamal al-din Esfahani · Shams Tabrizi (d.1248)1200s–1300sAbu Tahir Tarsusi · Najm al-din Razi · Awhadi Maraghai · Shams al-Din Qays Razi · Baha al-din Walad · Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī · Baba Afdal al-Din Kashani · Fakhr al-din Araqi · Mahmud Shabistari (1288–1320s) · Abu'l Majd Tabrizi · Amir Khusro (1253–1325) · Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) · Bahram-e-Pazhdo · Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo · Rumi · Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) · Nozhat al-Majales · Khwaju Kermani · Sultan Walad1300s–1400s1400s–1500s1500s–1600s1600s–1700s1700s–1800sNeshat Esfahani · Forughi Bistami (1798–1857) · Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
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См. также в других словарях:
Muhammad Iqbal — Muhammad Iqbal. Muhammad Iqbal (urdu/persa: محمد اقبال, hindi:मुहम्मद इक़बाल) (Sialkot, Panyab, India, ahora Pakistán; 9 de noviembre de 1877 – Lahore, Panyab, India, ahora Pakistán; … Wikipedia Español
Muhammad Iqbal — Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: محمد إقبال / Muḥammad Iqbāl; * 9. November 1877 in Sialkot; † 21. April 1938 in Lahore, beides damals Britisch Indien, heute Pakistan) war ein … Deutsch Wikipedia
Muhammad Iqbâl — Muhammad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal (ourdou : محمد اقبال ) (né le 9 novembre 1877 à Sialkot dans le Pendjab en Inde Britannique (Pakistan actuel) – décédé le 21 avril 1938) est un poète et philosophe. Allama Iqbal est considéré… … Wikipédia en Français
Muhammad Iqbal — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Iqbal. Muhammad Iqbal Sir Muhammad Iqbal (ourdou : محمد اقبال ) (né le 9 novembre 1877 à … Wikipédia en Français
Muhammad Iqbal bibliography — Main article: Muhammad Iqbal This is a selective list of scholarly works related to Muhammad Iqbal, the poet philosopher of the Indian subcontinent. Contents 1 Books 1.1 Translations (English) 1.2 Translations (Spanish) … Wikipedia
Allama Muhammad Iqbal — Muhammad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal Muhammad Iqbal (ourdou : محمد اقبال ) (né le 9 novembre 1877 à Sialkot dans le Pendjab en Inde Britannique (Pakistan actuel) – décédé le 21 avril 1938) est un poète et philosophe. Allama Iqbal est considéré… … Wikipédia en Français
Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal — (Urdu: مزار اقبال ; Mazaar e Iqbal) Mausoleum with Badshahi Mosque in the background … Wikipedia
Timeline of Muhammad Iqbal's life — Timeline = *1877: Born at Sialkot (present day Pakistan) on Friday, November 9 1877. Kashmiri origin. *1893 ndash;1895: High School and Intermediatendash Scotch Mission College, Sialkot. *1897: B.A. (Arabic and Philosophy)ndash Government College … Wikipedia
Iqbal Manzil — is the birth place of famous poet Dr Muhammad Iqbal in the centre of the historic city of Sialkot [ [http://www.dawn.com/2007/11/09/nat26.htm Iqbal Manzil renovated Dawn Pakistan] ] . It has been converted in to a museum cum library. Iqbal Manzil … Wikipedia
Muhammad Izhar ul Haq — Born 14 February 1948 (1948 02 14) (age 63) … Wikipedia