- Dominion of Pakistan
Dominion of Pakistan Commonwealth Realm ← 1947–1956 → Flag Symbol Anthem
"God Save the Queen"
Capital Karachi Language(s) Urdu, English Government Constitutional monarchy King/Queen of Pakistan - 1947–52 George VI - 1952–56 Elizabeth II Governor-General - 1947–48 Muhammad Ali Jinnah - 1948–51 Khawaja Nazimuddin - 1951–55 Malik Ghulam Muhammad - 1955–56 Iskander Mirza Prime Minister - 1947–51 Liaquat Ali Khan - 1951–53 Khawaja Nazimuddin - 1953–55 Muhammad Ali Bogra - 1955–56 Chaudhry Muhammad Ali Historical era Cold War - Independence 14 August 1947 - Indo-Pakistani War 1947–48 - Constitution 1956 Currency Pakistani rupee
The Dominion of Pakistan was an independent federal Commonwealth realm in South Asia that was established in 1947 on the partition of British India into two sovereign dominions (the other being the Union of India). The Dominion of Pakistan, which included modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was intended to be a homeland for the Muslims of the Indian sub-continent. The Dominion of Pakistan became the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956; the eastern part of the country became the independent People's Republic of Bangladesh in 1971.
Section 1 of the Indian Independence Act 1947 provided that from "the fifteenth day of August, nineteen hundred and forty-seven, two independent Dominions shall be set up in India, to be known respectively as India and Pakistan". India was treated by the United Nations as the successor-state to the former British India. As it was already a member of the United Nations, it continued its seat and did not apply for a new membership. However, Pakistan was treated as though it were a new country and had to apply to join the international organisation. It was admitted as a UN member shortly after its independence in 1947.
The Dominion of Pakistan was a federation of five Provinces: East Bengal (later to become Bangladesh), West Punjab, Balochistan, Sindh, and the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). In addition, those Princely States which were enclaves within those provinces also joined the federation: these included Bahawalpur, Khairpur, Swat, Dir, Hunza, Chitral, Makranand, and the Khanate of Kalat. Each Province had its own Governor, who was appointed by the Governor-General of Pakistan, the representative of the King of Pakistan.
The controversial Radcliffe Award, not published until 17 August 1947, specified the Radcliffe Line which demarcated the border between India and Pakistan. The Radcliffe Boundary Commission sought to separate the Muslim-majority regions in the east and northwest from the rest of India with a Hindu majority. This entailed the partition of two provinces which did not have a uniform majority — Bengal and Punjab. The western part of Punjab became West Punjab and the eastern part became the Indian state of Punjab. Bengal was similarly divided into East Bengal (in Pakistan) and West Bengal (in India).
- Chester, Lucy P. (2009) Borders and Conflict in South Asia: The Radcliffe Boundary Commission and the Partition of Punjab. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
- Read, A. and Fisher, D. (1997). The Proudest Day: India's Long Road to Independence. New York: Norton.
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