Lahore Resolution


Lahore Resolution

The Lahore Resolution ("Qarardad-e-Lahore" قرارداد لاھور), commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution (قرارداد پاکستان "Qarardad-e-Pakistan"), [Francis Robinson (1997), "The Muslims and Partition", History Today, Vol. 47, September] was a formal political statement adopted by the Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22–24 March 1940 that called for greater Muslim autonomy in British India. This has been largely interpreted as a demand for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. [Christoph Jaffrelot (Ed.) (2005), "A History of Pakistan and Its Origins", Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1843311492] The resolution was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq.

Although the idea of founding the state was introduced by Allama Iqbal in 1930 [Shafique Ali Khan (1987), "Iqbal's Concept of Separate North-west Muslim State: A Critique of His Allahabad Address of 1930", Markaz-e-Shaoor-o-Adab, Karachi, OCLC 18970794] and the name Pakistan had been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan Declaration [Choudhary Rahmat Ali, (1933), "Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?", pamphlet, published 28 January. (Rehmat Ali at the time was an undergraduate at the University of Cambridge)] in 1933, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and other leaders had kept firm belief in Hindu-Muslim unity. [Ian Talbot (1999), "Pakistan: a modern history", St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0312216068] However, the volatile political climate and religious hostilities gave the idea stronger backing. [Reginald Coupland (1943), "Indian Politics (1936-1942)", Oxford university press, London]

Background

With the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939, the Viceroy of India Lord Linlithgow declared India's entrance into the war without consulting the provincial governments. In this situation, Jinnah called a general session of the All India Muslim League in Lahore to discuss the circumstances and also analyze the reasons for the defeat of Muslim League in the Indian general election of 1937 in some Muslim majority provinces.

Proceedings

The session was held between 22 March and 24 March, 1940, at Minto Park (now Iqbal Park), Lahore. The welcome address was made by Nawab Sir Shah Nawaz Mamdot. In his speech, Jinnah recounted the contemporary situation, stressing that the problem of India was no more of an inter-communal nature, but manifestly an international. [http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A043&Pg=4 Lahore Resolution (1940)] , Story of Pakistan website, Retrieved on 23 April, 2006] He criticised the Congress and the nationalist Muslims, and espoused the Two-Nation Theory and the reasons for the demand for separate Muslim homelands. According to Stanley Wolpert, this was the moment when Jinnah the former ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity totally transformed himself into Pakistan's great leader. [Stanley Wolpert (1984), "Jinnah of Pakistan". Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195034127]

Sikandar Hayat Khan, the Chief Minister of the Punjab, drafted the original Lahore Resolution, which was placed before the Subject Committee of the All India Muslim League for discussion and amendments. The Resolution text unanimously rejected the concept of United India on the grounds of growing inter-communal violence [Muhammad Aslam Malik (2001), "The Making of the Pakistan Resolution", Oxford University Press, Delhi. ISBN 0-19-579538-5] and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state. [Syed Iftikhar Ahmed (1983), "Essays on Pakistan", Alpha Bravo Publishers, Lahore, OCLC 12811079]

After the presentation of annual report by Liaquat Ali Khan, the Resolution was moved in the general session by A.K. Fazlul Huq, the Chief Minister of undivided Bengal and was seconded by Choudhury Khaliquzzaman who explained his views on the causes which led to the demand of a separate state. Subsequently, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, and other leaders announced their support. In the same session, Jinnah also presented a resolution to condemn the Khaksar massacre of 19 March, owing to a clash between the Khaksars and the police, that had resulted in the loss of lives. [Nasim Yousaf (2004), " Pakistan's Freedom & Allama Mashriqi: Statements, Letters, Chronology of Khaksar Tehrik (Movement), Period Mashriqi's birth to 1947". page 123. AMZ Publications. ISBN 0976033305]

The statement

The principle text of the Lahore Resolution was passed on 24 March. In 1941 it became part of the Muslim League's constitution. In 1946, it formed the basis for the decision of Muslim League to struggle for one state for the Muslims. [I H Qureshi, (1965), "Struggle for Pakistan", Karachi] The statement declared:

Additionally, it stated:

Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. G. M. Syed, an influential Sindhi activist, revolutionary and Sufi and one of the important leaders to the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly.

Commemoration

* To commemorate the event, "Minar-e-Pakistan", a 60 meters tall distinctive monument in the shape of a minaret has been built at the site in Iqbal Park Lahore, where the resolution was passed.
* 23 March is a national holiday in Pakistan, celebrated as Republic Day to commemorate Lahore Resolution as well as the day in 1956 when the country became the first Islamic Republic in the world. [Stanford M. Mirkin (1966), "What Happened when: A Noted Researcher's Almanac of Yesterdays", I. Washburn, New York. OCLC 390802 (First published in 1957 under title: When did it happen?)]

See also

* Khakrsar Movement
* History of Pakistan
* Pakistan Movement

References

External links

portal|Pakistan|Flag of Pakistan.svg
* [http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/leader5.htm The Pakistan Resolution] , Government of Pakistan Official website. (Retrieved on 23 April, 2006)
* [http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A043&Pg=1 Lahore Resolution (1940)] at Story of Pakistan website. (Retrieved on 23 April, 2006)
* [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/L_0011.htm Lahore Resolution] at Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.(Retrieved on 23 April, 2006)
* [http://hangingodes.wordpress.com/2007/03/24/23-march-1940-lahore-resolution/ Pakistan Resolution or Muslim League's Search For Survival]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lahore-Resolution — Die Lahore Resolution wurde am 23. März 1940 von der All India Muslim League unter Leitung von Ali Jinnah in Lahore (damals Britisch Indien, heute Pakistan) verabschiedet. In ihr wurde auf Grundlage der Zwei Nationen Theorie ein eigener Staat für …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Lahore — Urdu: لاہور Punjabi: لہور …   Wikipedia

  • Lahore High Court — The Lahore High Court is based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Lahore High Court was established on 21 March 1919, although it s predecessors have been providing justice since 1866. The Lahore High Court has such jurisdiction as is conferred on them …   Wikipedia

  • History of Lahore — The recorded history of Lahore (Urdu: تاريخ لاہور), a city district of modern day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. Originally the capital and largest city of the Punjab region, it has since its creation changed hands from Hindu, Greek, Afghan …   Wikipedia

  • Charing Cross, Lahore — Charing Cross, renamed Faisal Square ( Faisal Chowk in Urdu and Punjabi), and now officially renamed as Shahrah e Quaid e Azam to honour the founder of the nation of Pakistan, is a neighbourhood of Lahore, Pakistan, located on Mall Road. Laid out …   Wikipedia

  • Culture of Lahore — The Badshahi Mosque at night. The culture of Lahore (Punjabi: لہور ﺩﻯ ثقافت) (Urdu: لاہور ﮐﻰ ثقافت) is a manifestation of the lifestyle, festivals, literature, music, language, politics, cuisine and socio economic conditions of the its people. It …   Wikipedia

  • Climate of Lahore — Weather radar of Lahore, located on Jail Road. The climate of Lahore features a hot semi arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with rainy, long and extremely hot summers, dry and warm winters, a monsoon and dust storms. The weather of… …   Wikipedia

  • Defence Housing Authority, Lahore — The Defence Housing Authority (DHA), Lahore is a housing society located in northern Lahore, Pakistan. It was originally built for army officers, but is now a popular destination for potential residents and businessmen. DHA is a popular… …   Wikipedia

  • Masonic Temple (Lahore) — Prince Albert Victor Lodge 2370ec[1] Masonic Temple Lahore No. 2370 Location …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Lahore — An aerial view of the skyline in the Walled City of Lahore. This article deals with topics related to the demographics of the city of Lahore, in Punjab, Pakistan. Urban demographics According to the 1998 census, Lahore s population was 6,318,745 …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.