- Lahore Resolution
The Lahore Resolution ("Qarardad-e-Lahore" قرارداد لاھور), commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution (قرارداد پاکستان "Qarardad-e-Pakistan"), [Francis Robinson (1997), "The Muslims and Partition", History Today, Vol. 47, September] was a formal political statement adopted by the
Muslim Leagueat the occasion of its three-day general session on 22–24 March 1940 that called for greater Muslim autonomy in British India. This has been largely interpreted as a demand for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. [Christoph Jaffrelot (Ed.) (2005), "A History of Pakistan and Its Origins", Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1843311492] The resolution was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq.
Although the idea of founding the state was introduced by
Allama Iqbalin 1930 [Shafique Ali Khan (1987), "Iqbal's Concept of Separate North-west Muslim State: A Critique of His Allahabad Address of 1930", Markaz-e-Shaoor-o-Adab, Karachi, OCLC 18970794] and the name Pakistanhad been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Aliin his Pakistan Declaration[Choudhary Rahmat Ali, (1933), " Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?", pamphlet, published 28 January. (Rehmat Ali at the time was an undergraduateat the University of Cambridge)] in 1933, Muhammad Ali Jinnahand other leaders had kept firm belief in Hindu- Muslimunity. [Ian Talbot (1999), "Pakistan: a modern history", St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0312216068] However, the volatile political climate and religious hostilities gave the idea stronger backing. [Reginald Coupland (1943), "Indian Politics (1936-1942)", Oxford university press, London]
With the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939, the
Viceroy of IndiaLord Linlithgow declared India's entrance into the war without consulting the provincial governments. In this situation, Jinnahcalled a general session of the All India Muslim League in Lahoreto discuss the circumstances and also analyze the reasons for the defeat of Muslim Leaguein the Indian general election of 1937 in some Muslim majority provinces.
The session was held between
22 Marchand 24 March, 1940, at Minto Park (now Iqbal Park), Lahore. The welcome address was made by Nawab Sir Shah Nawaz Mamdot. In his speech, Jinnah recounted the contemporary situation, stressing that the problem of India was no more of an inter-communal nature, but manifestly an international. [http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A043&Pg=4 Lahore Resolution (1940)] , Story of Pakistan website, Retrieved on 23 April, 2006] He criticised the Congress and the nationalist Muslims, and espoused the Two-Nation Theory and the reasons for the demand for separate Muslim homelands. According to Stanley Wolpert, this was the moment when Jinnah the former ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity totally transformed himself into Pakistan's great leader. [Stanley Wolpert (1984), "Jinnah of Pakistan". Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195034127]
Sikandar Hayat Khan, the
Chief Ministerof the Punjab, drafted the original Lahore Resolution, which was placed before the Subject Committee of the All India Muslim League for discussion and amendments. The Resolution text unanimously rejected the concept of United India on the grounds of growing inter-communal violence [Muhammad Aslam Malik (2001), "The Making of the Pakistan Resolution", Oxford University Press, Delhi. ISBN 0-19-579538-5] and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state. [Syed Iftikhar Ahmed (1983), "Essays on Pakistan", Alpha Bravo Publishers, Lahore, OCLC 12811079]
After the presentation of annual report by
Liaquat Ali Khan, the Resolution was moved in the general session by A.K. Fazlul Huq, the Chief Minister of undivided Bengaland was seconded by Choudhury Khaliquzzaman who explained his views on the causes which led to the demand of a separate state. Subsequently, Maulana Zafar Ali Khanfrom Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, and other leaders announced their support. In the same session, Jinnah also presented a resolution to condemn the Khaksar massacre of 19 March, owing to a clash between the Khaksarsand the police, that had resulted in the loss of lives. [Nasim Yousaf (2004), " Pakistan's Freedom & Allama Mashriqi: Statements, Letters, Chronology of Khaksar Tehrik (Movement), Period Mashriqi's birth to 1947". page 123. AMZ Publications. ISBN 0976033305]
The principle text of the Lahore Resolution was passed on
24 March. In 1941 it became part of the Muslim League's constitution. In 1946, it formed the basis for the decision of Muslim League to struggle for one state for the Muslims. [ I H Qureshi, (1965), "Struggle for Pakistan", Karachi] The statement declared:
Additionally, it stated:
Pakistan Resolution in the Sindh Assembly
Sindhassembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. G. M. Syed, an influential Sindhi activist, revolutionary and Sufi and one of the important leaders to the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly.
* To commemorate the event, "
Minar-e-Pakistan", a 60 meters tall distinctive monumentin the shape of a minarethas been built at the site in Iqbal ParkLahore, where the resolution was passed.
23 Marchis a national holiday in Pakistan, celebrated as Republic Day to commemorate Lahore Resolution as well as the day in 1956 when the country became the first Islamic Republicin the world. [Stanford M. Mirkin (1966), "What Happened when: A Noted Researcher's Almanac of Yesterdays", I. Washburn, New York. OCLC 390802 (First published in 1957 under title: When did it happen?)]
* Khakrsar Movement
History of Pakistan
portal|Pakistan|Flag of Pakistan.svg
* [http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/Quaid/leader5.htm The Pakistan Resolution] ,
Government of PakistanOfficial website. (Retrieved on 23 April, 2006)
* [http://www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A043&Pg=1 Lahore Resolution (1940)] at Story of Pakistan website. (Retrieved on
23 April, 2006)
* [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/L_0011.htm Lahore Resolution] at Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.(Retrieved on
23 April, 2006)
* [http://hangingodes.wordpress.com/2007/03/24/23-march-1940-lahore-resolution/ Pakistan Resolution or Muslim League's Search For Survival]
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