- Indian Independence Act 1947
The Indian Independence Act 1947 was the statute (10 and 11 Geo VI, c. 30) enacted by the
British Parliamentpromulgating the partition of Indiaand the independence of the dominions of Pakistan and India. The Act received royal assent on July 18, 1947.
The legislation was formulated by the government of Prime Minister
Clement Attlee, after representatives of the Indian National Congress, [represented by Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Acharya Kripalani] the Muslim League, [represented by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Liaqat Ali Khan, and Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar] and the Sikh community [representated by Sardar Baldev Singh] came to an agreement with the Viceroy of India, Louis Mountbatten, on what has come to be known as the "3 June Plan" or "Mountbatten Plan".
Passed in June 1947, the Act basically stipulated that:
*Two independent dominions, India and Pakistan shall be set up in India . [ [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1947/cukpga_19470030_en_1 OPSI_UK]
*The date of setting up of dominions was fixed as fifteenth of August 1947. [ [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1947/cukpga_19470030_en_1 OPSI_UK]
*The responsibility as well as suzerainty of the government of
United Kingdomshall cease on fifteenth of August 1947. [ [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1947/cukpga_19470030_en_1 OPSI_UK]
*That all Indian princely states shall be released from their official commitments and treaty relationships with the
British Empire, and will be free to join either dominion.
*Both Dominions will be completely self-governing in their internal affairs, foreign affairs and national security, but the
British monarchwill continue to be their head of state, represented by the Governor-General of Indiaand a new Governor-General of Pakistan. Both Dominions shall convene their Constituent Assemblies and write their respective constitutions.
*Both Dominions will be members of the British Commonwealth, but free to leave whenever they please.
*The British monarch shall be permitted to remove the title of
Emperor of Indiafrom the Royal Style and Titles. King George VI subsequently removed the title by Order in councilon June 22, 1948.
Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy, was retained as the Governor-General of India. Jawaharlal Nehrubecame the Prime Minister of Indiaand Sardar Vallabhbhai Patelbecame the Deputy Prime Minister of India. Over 560 princely states acceded to India, with the states of Junagadhand Hyderabad annexed after military action.
Muhammad Ali Jinnahbecame the Governor-General of Pakistan, and Liaquat Ali Khanbecame the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Three princely states geographically inalienable to Pakistan joined the Dominion.Kashmir was disputed.
1947 Kashmir War
Indiaand Pakistanwere engaged a military conflict over the Himalayan kingdom of Kashmir. Both nations control significant territories of the disputed state, and the issue remains unresolved.
Indian independence movement
Political integration of India
*cite web|accessdate=2008-06-02 |title=Indian Independence Act 1947 (c.30) |work=Revised Statute from The UK Statute Law Database|publisher=Office of Public Sector Information, National Archives, UK |url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/RevisedStatutes/Acts/ukpga/1947/cukpga_19470030_en_1
*cite web|accessdate=2008-06-02 |title=Parliament and India, 1858–1947|publisher=United Kingdom Parliament|url=http://www.parliament.uk/parliamentary_publications_and_archives/parliamentary_archives/indian_independence.cfm
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