- Music of Montenegro
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The music of Montenegro represents a mix of the country's unique musical tradition and Western musical influences.
In the 10th and 11th centuries a composer of religious chants (Jovan of Duklja) was the oldest composer known from the Adriatic coast. At the end of the 12th century a script was made, now called Ljetopis Popa Dukljanina, which described the secular use of musical instruments.
Seven liturgies from the 15th century, written by a Venetian publisher L.A. Giunta, have been saved in a St. Clara monastery in Kotor. In those centuries the typical music "venetian style" was introduced to coastal Montenegro (then called Albania Veneta).
Religious music development was sparked in the 19th century, when a Catholic singing academy was opened in Kotor. Also, until the musical renaissance of the 20th century, Montenegrin music was mainly based on the simple traditional instrument, the gusle. .The oldest singing society, named "Jedinstvo" (Unity) was formed in Kotor in 1839. In 1870 in Cetinje, the first Montenegrin Army Music started being formed—although not many people applied for the orchestra, because being a soldier was much more valued in Montenegrin society than being a musician.
Many scholars believe that the biggest contribution to Montenegrin music was the one from the Italian composer who spent the most part of his life in these areas: Dionisio de Sarno San Giorgio. With his "Balkan Empress" – inspired by the work of King Nikola, got all the praises of Italian critique in the second half of the XIX century.
The first music school in Montenegro was founded in 1934 in Cetinje. In the 20th century, Borislav Tamindžić helped bring attention to Montenegrin music.
Due to the country's turbulent history, filled with defensive wars and constant fighting for freedom, the development of culture, especially music, was a secondary interest for Montenegrins. The first notable Montenegrin composer was Jovan Ivanišević (1860–1889). He composed piano miniatures, orchestra, solo and chorus songs that were performed even in Prague. He died when he was only 29 years old.
In the 19th century, there were also many operas with librettos inspired by Montenegro and its culture, like the famous "Balkan Empress" . Other prominent 19th century composers include Aleksa Ivanović and Dragan Milošević, who graduated from Prague music schools.
In the beginning of 20th century, when music schools were first introduced, and culture started developing faster, Montenegrin music started flourishing. There have been a number of notable classical music composers from Montenegro, especially during the 20th century. In the first half of the century, two musical schools developed: one based in Cetinje, and the other one in Podgorica. An important role in the music development of that time was played by Radio Titograd, which broadcast various music programmes daily, and helped popularise the music. At that time, composers started returning to the roots, introducing many traditional elements in modern compositions. Also, during the 1940s and 1950s, musical schools were opened in Kotor, Podgorica, Cetinje, Tivat, Herceg Novi, Nikšić, Bar, Ulcinj and Berane.
- Špiro Ognjenović
- Jelisaveta Popović
- Jovan Ivanišević
- Mirko Petrović Njegoš
- Jovan Milošević
- Ilija Lakešić
- Antun Homen
- Anton Pogačar
- Vida Matjan
- Srećko Marković
- Cvjetko Ivanović
- Đorđije Radović
- Borislav Tamindžić
- Branko Zenović
- Miodrag Ćupić
- Marko Rogošić
- Radonja Vučeković
- Nikola Gregović
- Dragan Rakić
- Julio Marić
- Slobodan Jerkov
- Žarko Mirković
- Senad Gačević
- Milivoje Božović
- Zlatko Baban
- Dejan Krdžić
- Darko Nikčević
- Dragana Lučić
- Nedjeljko Pejović
- Matijas Kunstlman
Traditional music heritage is somewhat different in different parts of Montenegro. In traditional music, different styles can be noticed in the Gulf of Kotor area, Old Montenegro and Sanjak regions.
Old Montenegro traditional music is based around the traditional instrument, the gusle. The music is mainly vocal, or instrumental-vocal. Many songs are adapted from the epics, and are based on the events and tales from Montenegrin tradition.
Popular music includes that from former Yugoslavia as a whole, which includes music from the ever-popular Lepa Brena, Ceca, Seka Aleksic, and many more. One of the most well-known singers from Montenegro would have to be Boban Rajovic/Piroman or Šako Polumenta. See also Montenegro in the Eurovision Song Contest.
Hip hop in Montenegro evolved in the mid-1990s, and was popularized mostly thanks to the most famous Montenegrin hip hop group at that time, Monteniggers. Following their popularity, various hip hop artists emerged, such as Rade Rapido, MC Marko, and to some extent, Rambo Amadeus, who was active long before that. Song themes were often humorous commentaries on everyday life.
After a few years of stagnation, a new wave of Montenegrin hip hop started emerging through a growing number of hip hop oriented artists and bands, such as Who See from Kotor. The main problem these artists face is lack of support from record labels, and insufficient funds available for hip hop projects.
In late 1980s and 1990s a dance music was popular, mostly thanks to Elmag radio, which aired those songs. The best known groups are: H2O (from Bar), This Beat, Bass Reflex, Brchko, PG Crew, Maxi Playboy, Koko Kid (from Podgorica), Bianco Nero (Black and White in Italian),Grofovi (from Mojkovac) and many others.
- ^ Montenegrin gusle
- ^ Works of Dionisio De Sarno San Giorgio, mostly done in Montenegro
- ^ Balkan Empress
- Video of music and folk dance in Montenegro
- Music in Montenegro (in Montenegrin)
- History of the Music Culture in Montenegro (in Montenegrin)
Montenegro topics HistoryPraevalitana · Duklja · Principality of Zeta · Sanjak of Montenegro, Ottoman Empire · Principality of Montenegro · Kingdom of Montenegro · Kingdom of Yugoslavia · Zeta Banovina · Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944) · World War II · Socialist Republic of Montenegro · Montenegrin independence referendum · Montenegro Geography Politics Economy Military Symbols Demographics CultureWikiProject · Portal Music of Southeastern Europe
1 Armenia, Cyprus and Turkey may be considered West Asian countries.
For further information, see Middle Eastern music.
Music of Europe Sovereign
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
- Northern Ireland
- Vatican City
States with limited
- Northern Cyprus
- South Ossetia
and other territories
Other entities Music of Southeastern Europe (the Balkans) By stylePop-folkFolk musicOther By country Performers by country Folk dancesCircle dancesOtherBy country Folk musicians
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