Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944)


Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944)

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Краљевина Црна Гора"
"Kraljevina Crna Gora"
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Montenegro
common_name = Montenegro
continent = Europe
region = Balkans
country = Montenegro
era = World War II
status = Protectorate, Client state
status_text = Protectorate of Fascist Italy, component of the Italian Empire (1941-1943), client state of Nazi Germany (1943-44)
empire = Italy
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 1941
year_end = 1944
date_start = 5 May
date_end =
event_start = Invasion of Yugoslavia
event_end = Defeat
era = World War II
p1 = Kingdom of Yugoslavia
flag_p1 = Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (civil).svg
s1 = Socialist Republic of Montenegro
flag_s1 = Flag of SR Montenegro.svg






capital = Cetinje
national_anthem = Eternal Our Montenegro
common_languages = People's language1, Italian, German
religion = Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholicism
currency = Italian lira, Reichsmark
latd=42|latm=23|latNS=N|longd=18|longm=55|longEW=E
leader1 = (none)¹
year_leader1 = 1941-1944
title_leader = Monarch-designate
representative1 = Serafino Mazzolini
year_representative1 = 1941
representative2 = Alessandro Pirzio Biroli
year_representative2 = 1941-1943
representative3 = Curio Barbasetti di Prun
year_representative3 = 1943
representative4 = Theodor Geib
year_representative4 = 1943-1944
representative5 = Wilhelm Keiper
year_representative5 = 1944
title_representative = Governor
deputy1 = Sekule Drljević
year_deputy1 = 1941
deputy2 = Blažo Đukanović
year_deputy2 = 1941-1943
deputy3 = Ljubo Vukčević
year_deputy3 = 1943-1945
title_deputy = Prime Minister
footnotes = 1"Prince Michael" never accepted the title.
2factually Serbian language.

Montenegro existed as a puppet protectorate of Fascist Italy, as a component of the Italian Empire (1941 - 1943. The Italian Fascist regime saw Montenegro as a future part of a Greater Italy that would span across the Adriatic coast to northern Greece, where the local populations would be assimilated as Italians and colonization by Italians would be promoted by the Italian Fascists, as it was in Italian-held Albania, to eventually displace the non-Italian populations.

History

After the invasion of Yugoslavia by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy on April 6 1941, and subsequent Royal Yugoslav Army surrender on April 17 1941, Sekula Drljević, leader of the Montenegrin Federalists in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, established the "Provisional Administrative Committee of Montenegro", which operated as the collaborationist organ of Fascist Italy. The Committee was disbanded on 5 May 1941 and a "Montenegrin Council" was formed to oversee the Italian occupation and create the semi-independent protectorate of Montenegro. The Fascist regime intended to make Montenegro part of Greater Italy, which would span the Adriatic coast to Albania, with the intention of assimilating the local populations.

King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (influenced by his wife Queen Elena, daughter of the former King of Montenegro) imposed on Mussolini the creation of an independent Montenegro against the wishes of the fascist Croatians of Ante Pavelic and the Albanians (who wanted to divide Montenegro between themselves). The Kingdom of Montenegro was created under fascist control when Krsto Zrnov Popović returned from his exile in Rome in 1941 to attempt to lead the Zelenaši ("Green" party), who supported the reinstatement of the independent Montenegrin monarchy. This militia were called the Lovćen Brigade.

Montenegro was nominally a Kingdom, but the last King's grandson Prince Michael Petrović-Njegoš refused the crown, declaring loyalty to his nephew, young King Peter II of Yugoslavia. Instead, Italian governors ran Montenegro.

On July 12, 1941, the rule of Sekula Drljević was inaugurated. At the beginning of 1942, however, the country suffered the outbreak of civil war as the Partisans and Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) fought against Montenegrin separatists and Axis forces. As World War II progressed, the conflict within Montenegro became extremely chaotic and vicious as virtually every combination of alliances were made and broken between the warring sides and factions. Also active within Montenegro were the Second Serbian Volunteer Corps.

The nation's borders essentially existed only on paper. Particularly after the spring of 1942, much of the Sandžak region, which was included in the Independent State of Montenegro, was not actually controlled by its proclaimed government. In addition, the area of the Bay of Kotor (the venetian Cattaro) was annexed to the Dalmatian province of the Kingdom of Italy until September 1943.

At the end of September 1943, the fascist Croatia of Ante Pavelić annexed the the Italian Province of Kotor ("Provincia di Cattaro"; Bay of Kotor) Fact|date=March 2008. By October 1943, Drljević was exiled from Montenegro. In 1944, while in the Independent State of Croatia, Drljević formed the Montenegrin State Council, which attempted to act as a government-in-exile. The Montenegrin People's Army was later formed by Ante Pavelić and Drljević out of the defeated Pavle Đurišić-led Chetnik forces.

After the departure of the Italian governors, Montenegro remained under the direct control of German troops, with a terrible and bloody guerrilla war ravaging the area. During this period, tens of thousands of innocent civilians were killed by the Nazis. In December 1944 the German troops withdrew from Montenegro and Tito's partisans assumed control, ending the existence of the Kingdom of Montenegro.

Governors

*Mihajlo Ivanović (nominal) (17 May 1941 - 23 July 1941)
*Conte Serafino Mazzolini 19 April 1941 - 23 July 1941)
*Principe Alessandro Pirzio Biroli (23 July 1941 - 13 July 1943)
*Conte Curio Barbasetti di Prun (13 July 1943 - 10 September 1943)
*Theodor Geib (10 September 1943 - 1 June 1944)
*Wilhelm Keiper (1 June 1944 - 15 December 1944)

Religion

The main religion in Montenegro was Serbian Orthodox. There was also a significant Muslim population and a smaller Catholic one. The Serbian Orthodox Church was divided into the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral and the Eparchy of Budimlje-Nikšić, both led by Joanikije Lipovac. Lipovac was killed in the aftermath of the war by Yugoslav communists after trying to flee the country in 1945. [ [http://arhiva.glas-javnosti.co.yu/arhiva/2000/05/24/srpski/R00052305.shtm www.glas-javnosti.co.yu ] ] The Catholic church was divided into two dioceses, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bar and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Skopje.

References

ee also

*Bombing of Podgorica in World War II

External links

* [http://www.montenegro.org.au/adzicozelenasima.html Crnogorski zelenaši (Montenegrin Greens)]
* [http://www.orderofdanilo.org/en/index.htm The Royal family of Montenegro]
*History of Montenegro
*Fascist Italy
* [http://www.terra.es/personal7/jqvaraderey/194145fc.gifMap]
* [http://terkepek.adatbank.transindex.ro/kepek/netre/211.gifMap]
* [http://terkepek.adatbank.transindex.ro/kepek/netre/330.gifMap]
* [http://www.marxists.org/subject/yugoslavia/images/maps/1941-dismemberment.jpgMap]


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