Second Coming of Christ


Second Coming of Christ
The Second Coming of Christ stained glass window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina.

The Second Coming of Christ, the Second Advent, or the Parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven, where he sits at the Right Hand of God, to Earth. This prophecy is found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian and Islamic eschatologies. Christians generally believe the anticipated event is predicted in Biblical Messianic prophecy. Views about the nature of Jesus' Second Coming vary among Christian denominations and sometimes among individual Christians within these denominations.

For example, in most English versions of the Nicene Creed in current use is the phrase: "He [Jesus] will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. ... We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen."

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Terminology

Greek icon of Second Coming, c.1700
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Several different terms are used to refer to the second coming of Christ.

Epiphany

In the New Testament the Greek word ἐπιφάνεια (epiphaneia, appearing) is used five times to refer to the return of Christ.[1]

Parousia

The Greek New Testament uses the Greek term parousia (παρουσία, meaning "arrival", "coming", or "presence") twenty-four times, seventeen of them concerning Christ.[2] The word is also used six times referring to individuals: Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus [1Co.16:17], Titus[2Co. 7:6-72] and of Paul himself [2Co. 10:10] [Phil 1:26] [2:12] and one time referring to the "coming of the lawless one".[2Thes 2:9]

The etymology of Greek word parousia is related to para "beside" ousia "presence". In English "parousia" always has a special, Christian, meaning.[3]

Definitions

In Thayer's Lexicon, the Greek word parousia is defined as Strong's G3952:

...In the N. T. [New Testament] esp. [especially] of the advent, i.e., the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God.[2]

And in the Bauer-Danker Lexicon:

...of Christ, and nearly always of his Messianic Advent in glory to judge the world at the end of this age.

And in the Catholic Encyclopedia article on General Judgment:[4]

In the New Testament the second Parousia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine. The Saviour Himself not only foretells the event but graphically portrays its circumstances (Matthew 24:27 sqq. [Olivet discourse]; Matthew sqq. [Judgment of the Nations]). The Apostles give a most prominent place to this doctrine in their preaching (Acts 10:42, Acts) and writings (Romans 2:5-16; 14:10; 1 Cor. 4:5; 2 Cor. 5:10; 2 Tim. 4:1; 2 Thess 1:5; James 5:7). Besides the name Parusia (parousia), or Advent (1 Cor. 15:23, 2 Thes. 2:1-9), the second coming is also called Epiphany, epiphaneia, or Appearance (2 Thes. 2:8; 1 Tim. 6:14; 2 Tim. 4:1; Titus 2:13) and Apocalypse (apokalypsis), or Revelation (2 Thess. 2:7 1 Pet. 4:13). The time of the second coming is spoken of as "that Day" (2 Tim. 4:8) "the day of the Lord" (1 Thess. 5:2), "the day of Christ" (Phil 1:6), "the day of the Son of Man" (Luke 17:30), and "the last day" (John 6:39-40).

Adolf Deissmann (1908)[5] showed that the Greek word "parousia" was used as early as the 3rd century BC to describe the visit of a king or dignitary to a city arranged in order the show his magnificence to the people. The Roman Advent Coins struck by the cities of Corinth and Patras for Nero's visit reveals the correspondence between the Greek "parousia" and the Latin "Adventus" and their relationship to the Greek word "epiphany" that means "appearing".

Signs of Christ's return

The Book of Acts states:

Now when He had spoken these things, while they watched, He was taken up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight. And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as He went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel, who also said, "Men of Galilee, why do you stand gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will so come in like manner as you saw Him go into heaven."
—Acts 1:9-11

Other signs:

  1. The coming of Christ will be instantaneous and worldwide. "For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be." —Matthew 24:27
  2. The coming of Christ will be visible to all. "Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." —Matthew 24:30
  3. The coming of Christ will be audible. "And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other." —Matthew 24:31
  4. The resurrection of the righteous will occur. "For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first." —1 Thessalonians 4:16
  5. In one single event, the saved who are alive at Christ's coming will be caught up together with the resurrected to meet the Lord in the air. "Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord." —1 Thessalonians 4:17

Christian views

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1st century

According to historian Charles Freeman, early Christians expected Jesus to return within a generation of his death. When the second coming did not occur, the early Christian communities were thrown into turmoil.[6]

Children, it is the last hour; and just as you heard that antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have appeared; from this we know that it is the last hour.

Catholic and Orthodox

It is the traditional view of Catholics and Orthodox Christians that the second coming will be a sudden and unmistakable incident, like "a flash of lightning".[Mt 24:27] They hold the general view that Jesus will not spend any time on the earth in ministry or preaching.[7][8] They also agree that the ministry of the antichrist will take place right before the second coming.[7]

Preterism

The position associating the Second Coming with 1st century events such as the destruction of Jerusalem and of the Jewish Temple in AD 70 is known as Preterism.[9]

Some preterists see this "coming of the Son of Man in glory" primarily fulfilled in Jesus' death on the cross. They believe the apocalyptic signs are already fulfilled including "the sun will be dark",[10] the "powers ... will be shaken,"[11] and "then they will see".[12] Yet some critics note many are missing such as "But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up." (2 Peter 3:10)[13] And "Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." (Matthew 24:30)[14]

Some, such as Jerome, interpret the phrase "this generation" to mean lifetime of the Jewish race; however, if Jesus meant "race" he would have used genos (race) not genea (generation).[15][16] However, most scholars don't think Jesus spoke Greek, but instead that he spoke Aramaic.

Mainline Protestant

The Last Judgment, by Jean Cousin the Younger (c. late 16th century)

The many denominations of Protestantism have differing views on the exact details of Christ's second coming. Only a handful of Christian organizations claim complete and authoritative interpretation of the typically symbolic and prophetic biblical sources. A common thread is the belief that Jesus will return to judge the world and to establish the kingdom of God (fulfilling the rest of Messianic prophecy).

A short reference to the second coming is contained in the Nicene Creed, a prominent Christian statement of faith: "He [Jesus] shall come again in glory to judge the living and the dead; and His kingdom shall have no end." An analogous statement is also in the biblical Pauline Creed, in 1 Corinthians 15:23.

Some Lutheran, Anglican and United Methodist liturgies proclaim the Mystery of Faith to be: "Christ has died, Christ is risen, Christ will come again."

Generally, mainline Protestant Christianity does not offer predictions on the date of the second coming, though some may form their own ideas of how and where it will happen.[citation needed]

Seventh Day Adventists

Fundamental Belief # 25 of the Seventh Day Adventist Church states

The second coming of Christ is the blessed hope of the church, the grand climax of the gospel. The Saviour's coming will be literal, personal, visible, and worldwide. When He returns, the righteous dead will be resurrected, and together with the righteous living will be glorified and taken to heaven, but the unrighteous will die. The almost complete fulfillment of most lines of prophecy, together with the present condition of the world, indicates that Christ's coming is imminent. The time of that event has not been revealed, and we are therefore exhorted to be ready at all times. (Titus 2:13; Heb. 9:28; John 14:1-3; Acts 1:9-11; Matt. 24:14; Rev. 1:7; Matt. 24:43, 44; 1 Thess. 4:13-18; 1 Cor. 15:51-54; 2 Thess. 1:7-10; 2:8; Rev. 14:14-20; 19:11-21; Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 21; 2 Tim. 3:1-5; 1 Thess. 5:1-6.) [17]

Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses rarely use the term "second coming", preferring the term "presence" as a translation of parousia.[18] They believe that Jesus' comparison of "the presence of the Son of man" with "the days of Noah" at Matthew 24:37-39 and Luke 17:26-30 suggests a duration rather than a moment of arrival.[19]

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that biblical chronology points to 1914[20] as the start of Christ's "presence", which continues until Armageddon. Other biblical expressions they correlate with this period include "the time of the end" (Dan 12:4), "the conclusion of the system of things" (Matt 13:40,49; 24:3) and "the last days" (2 Tim 3:1; 2 Peter 3:3).[21][22] Witnesses believe Christ's millennial reign begins after Armageddon.[23]

Latter Day Saints

Notably those of the Latter Day Saint movement have particularly distinct and specific interpretations as to various signs presented in the Book of Revelation.

Esoteric Christian teachings

In Rosicrucian esoteric Christian teaching, authors such as Max Heindel draw a distinction between Jesus the man, and the Christ, the true or divine nature.[24] He considers Jesus to be a high initiate of the human life wave (which evolves under the cycle of rebirth), a singularly pure type of mind, vastly superior to the great majority of the present humanity. He was educated during his youth among the Essenes and thus prepared himself for the greatest honor ever bestowed upon a human being: to deliver his pure, passionless, highly evolved physical body and vital body (already attuned to the high vibrations of the 'life spirit'), in the moment of the baptism, to the Christ being for His ministry in the physical world. Christ is described as the highest spiritual being of the life wave called archangels, and has completed His union with the second aspect of God (Christ the Son):[25] Wisdom (Christ the [solar] Logos; distinct from "the Word", Logos, of Whom John speaks, "The Only Begotten").[26]

In these esoteric Christian teachings, there is a clear distinction between the cosmic Christ, or Christ without, and the Christ within: the cosmic Christ, the 'Regent of the Earth',[27] aids each individual in the formation of the Christ within, the golden wedding garment.[28] also called "Soul body", the correct translation of Paul of Tarsus "soma psuchicon" (Greek "soma" [body] and "psuchicon" [psu(y)che—soul]), "It is sown a soul body; it is raised a spiritual body…,"[29] distinction of "spirit and soul and body".[30]

According to this tradition, the Christ within is regarded as the true Saviour who needs to be born within each individual[31] in order to evolve toward the future Sixth Epoch in the Earth's etheric plane, that is, toward the "new heavens and a new earth":[32] the New Galilee.[33] The Second Coming or Advent of the Christ is not in a physical body,[34] but in the new soul body of each individual in the etheric region of the planet[35] where man "shall be caught up IN THE CLOUDS to meet the Lord IN THE AIR."[36] The "day and hour" when this event shall be, as described in the Bible, is not in the human knowledge domain.[37] The esoteric Christian tradition teaches that first there will be a preparatory period as the Sun enters Aquarius by precession: the coming age of Aquarius.[38]

Dispensationalists

Dispensationalists believe:

  1. The coming of Christ will be instantaneous and worldwide. "For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be." ~ Gospel of Matthew 24:27
  2. The coming of Christ will be visible to all. "Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory." Matthew 24:30
  3. The coming of Christ will be audible. "And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other." Matthew 24:31

Other views

Baha'i Faith

Bahá'u'lláh claimed to be the Return of Christ. Followers of the Bahá'í Faith believe that the fulfillment of the prophecies of the second coming of Jesus, as well as the prophecies of the Maitreya and many other religious prophecies, were begun by the Báb in 1844 and then by Bahá'u'lláh.[39] They commonly compare the fulfillment of Christian prophecies to Jesus' fulfillment of Jewish prophecies, where in both cases people were expecting the literal fulfillment of apocalyptic statements.[40][41]

Hinduism

In modern times some traditional Indian religious leaders have since moved to embrace Jesus as an Avatar, or incarnation, of God.[42] In light of this, the Indian guru Paramahansa Yogananda, author of Autobiography of a Yogi, scribed an extensive commentary on the Gospels published in the two-volume set The Second Coming of Christ: The Resurrection of the Christ Within You.[43] In the tradition of the Gnostic Gospels, the book offers a mystical interpretation of the Second Coming in which it is understood to be an inner experience, something that takes place within the individual heart.

Stating that "Paramahansa Yogananda was sent to the West by Jesus Christ himself" with the said intent to "restore the original Christian teachings among his followers", in Revelations of Christ Swami Kriyananda, Yogananda's disciple and Ex-minister of the Self-Realization Fellowship, provides a distilled commentary on the life and teachings of Christ, all of which is meant to serve as an anticipatory primer to Yogananda's more philosophically nuanced treatment in The Second Coming of Christ. Turning directly to The Bible, Kriyananda argues for a more scripturally mature Christianity in which The Second Coming is treated not in terms of a profane materialism - one which favors a literal, physical and subsequently anti-spiritual resurrection - but rather unfolds in accordance with the more spiritual aspirations of The Book of Luke; for "Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:21)

Thus Hinduism's consideration of itself as an Eastern extension of the Christian Gospel, however, is neither unique to Yogananda or his disciple, Swami Kriyananda. Similarly, Srila Prabhupada, author Bhagavad Gita As It Is and founder of the Hare Krishna Movement, has propounded the same pluralistic, nonsecular view: that "'Christ' is another way of saying Krsta and Krsta is another way of pronouncing Krishna, the name of God." Stating that "A son may call his father 'Father', but the father also has a specific name. Similarly, God is the general name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose specific name is Krishna", "Therefore", he writes, "whether you call God 'Christ', 'Krsta', or 'Krishna', ultimately you are addressing the same Supreme Personality of Godhead. "[44]

Islam

Muslims believe that Isa (Jesus) will return at a time close to the end of the world. The Qur'anic verse they allude to as an indicator to Isa' future return is as follows:[45]

“And he (Isa) shall be a Sign (for the coming of) the Hour (of Judgment): therefore have no doubt about the (Hour), but follow ye Me: this is a Straight Way.”[Quran 43:61]

According to Islamic tradition, Isa' descent will be in the midst of wars fought by the Mahdi (lit. "the rightly guided one"), known in Islamic eschatology as the redeemer of Islam, against the al-Masīh ad-Dajjāl ("false messiah") and his followers.[46] Isa will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes—his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi in his war against the Dajjal. Isa, considered in Islam as a Muslim (one who submits to God) and one of God's messengers, will abide by the Islamic teachings. Eventually, Isa will slay the Dajjal, and then everyone from the People of the Book (ahl al-kitāb, referring to Jews and Christians) will believe in him. Thus, there will be one community, that of Islam. Sahih Muslim, 41:7023

Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:656: Narrated Abu Hurairah:

"Allah's Apostle said, "The Hour will not be established until the son of Mary (Mariam) (i.e. Isa) descends amongst you as a just ruler, he will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the Jizya tax. Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it (as charitable gifts)."

After the death of the Mahdi, Isa will assume leadership. This is a time associated in Islamic narrative with universal peace and justice. Islamic texts also allude to the appearance of Ya'juj and Ma'juj (known also as Gog and Magog), ancient tribes which will disperse and cause disturbance on earth. God, in response to Isa' prayers, will kill them by sending a type of worm in the napes of their necks.[46] Isa' rule is said to be around forty years, after which he will die. Muslims will then perform the Salat al-Janazah (funeral prayer) for him and bury him in the city of Medina in a grave left vacant beside Muhammad.[45]

Ahmadiyya

The Ahmadis believe that the promised Mahdi and Messiah (being one and the same person) has already arrived in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908).

The hadith (sayings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad) and the Bible indicated that Isa would return during the latter days. Islamic tradition commonly depicts that Isa, upon his second coming, would be an Ummati (Muslim) and a follower of Muhammad and that he would revive the truth of Islam rather than fostering a new religion.[47]

The Ahmadiyya movement interpret the Second Coming of Isa prophesied as being that of a person "similar to Isa" (mathīl-i ʿIsā) and not his physical return, in the same way as John the Baptist resembled the character of the Biblical prophet Elijah in Christianity. Ahmadis believe that Ghulam Ahmad demonstrated that the prophecy in Muslim and Christian religious texts were traditionally misunderstood to suggest that Jesus of Nazareth himself would return, and hold that Jesus had survived the crucifixion and had died a natural death. Ahmadi's consider the founder of the movement, in both his character and teachings to be representative of Jesus, and subsequently he attained the same spiritual rank of Prophethood as Jesus. Thus, Ahmadis believe this prediction was fulfilled and continued by his movement.[48][49]

Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism believes that Jesus failed to fulfill any Messianic prophecies and is thus one of the false Jewish Messiah claimants. They often claim that, among other things, Jesus' death and failure to redeem the world[citation needed] after his first coming are proof that he could not be the Messiah. Rabbi David Wolpe believes that the Second Coming was "grown out of genuine disappointment" and invented by Christians to theologically compensate for Jesus' death.[50]

Theosophy

In January 1946, Theosophist Alice A. Bailey prophesied that Christ (who is regarded by Theosophists as being identical with the being known by Theosophists as the Maitreya) would return "sometime after AD 2025".[51]

Last Day counterfeits

Many Christians[who?] believe there will be a great deception before the coming of Christ. In Matthew 24 Jesus states

For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be. For false christs and false prophets will rise and show great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect.
—Matthew 24:21, 24 NKJV

These false Christs will perform great signs and are no ordinary people "For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty." (Revelation 16:14) Satan's angels will also appear as godly clergymen, and Satan will appear as an angel of light.[52] "For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into apostles of Christ. And no wonder! For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light. Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also transform themselves into ministers of righteousness, whose end will be according to their works." (2 Corinthians 11:13-15)

As the crowning act in the great drama of deception, Satan himself will impersonate Christ. The church has long professed to look to the Saviour's advent as the consummation of her hopes. Now the great deceiver will make it appear that Christ has come. In different parts of the earth, Satan will manifest himself among men as a majestic being of dazzling brightness, resembling the description of the Son of God given by John in the Revelation. (Revelation 1:13-15). The glory that surrounds him is unsurpassed by anything that mortal eyes have yet beheld. The shout of triumph rings out upon the air: "Christ has come! Christ has come!" The people prostrate themselves in adoration before him, while he lifts up his hands and pronounces a blessing upon them, as Christ blessed His disciples when He was upon the earth. His voice is soft and subdued, yet full of melody. In gentle, compassionate tones he presents some of the same gracious, heavenly truths which the Saviour uttered; he heals the diseases of the people, and then, in his assumed character of Christ, he claims to have changed the Sabbath to Sunday, and commands all to hallow the day which he has blessed.
The Great Controversy, p. 624[53]

Specific date predictions

Date of the Second Coming Author Notes
1757 Emanuel Swedenborg Followed the Last Judgment in 1757, which took place in the spiritual world.[54][55] This was one of many events recounted in his works resulting from visions of Jesus Christ returned. He tells of almost daily interaction with Christ over the course of almost 30 years. His return is not in the flesh, but in His Holy Spirit. "Neither shall they say see here or see there, for behold, the kingdom of God is within you" (Luke 17:20).[56]
1829-09-15 George Rapp Founder and leader of the Harmony Society, predicted that on September 15, 1829, the three and one half years of the Sun Woman would end and Christ would begin his reign on earth.[57] Dissension grew when Rapp's predictions went unfulfilled. In March 1832, a third of the group left and some began following a man named Bernhard Müller who claimed to be the Lion of Judah. Nevertheless, most of the group stayed and Rapp continued to lead them until he died on August 7, 1847. His last words to his followers were, "If I did not so fully believe, that the Lord has designated me to place our society before His presence in the land of Canaan, I would consider this my last."[58]
1844-10-22 William Miller and the Millerite Movement The fact that this failed to happen the way people were expecting was later referred to as the Great Disappointment. Some Millerites continued to set dates; others founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church and the Advent Christian Church, which continued to expect the Second Coming but no longer set dates for it. Members of the Bahá'í Faith believe that the event of the Second Coming did take place on 23 May 1844, when the Báb (the Gate), the forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh (Glory of God), declared his mission.[59][60] Bahá'u'lláh later claimed that he was the return and second coming of Jesus Christ.[61]
1874 Charles Taze Russell The first president of what is now the Watchtower Society of the Jehovah's Witnesses, calculated 1874 to be the year of Christ's Second Coming, and until his death taught that Christ was invisibly present, and ruling from the heavens from that date prophesied.[62][63][64][65] Russell proclaimed Christ's invisible return in 1874,[66] the resurrection of the saints in 1875,[67] and predicted the end of the "harvest" and a rapture of the saints to heaven for 1878,[68] and the final end of "the day of wrath" in 1914.[69] 1874 was considered the end of 6,000 years of human history and the beginning of judgment by Christ.[70]
1891 Joseph Smith (Mormons) In the History of the Church, page 957,[71] an eye witnesses account of Joseph Smith's prophecy in 1835 is recorded as: "President Smith then stated that the meeting had been called, because God had commanded it; and it was made known to him by vision and by the Holy Spirit. He then gave a relation of some of the circumstances attending us while journeying to Zion--our trials, sufferings; and said God had not designed all this for nothing, but He had it in remembrance yet; and it was the will of God that those who went to zion, with a determination to lay down their lives, if necessary, should be ordained to the ministry, and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time, or the coming of the Lord, which was nigh--even fifty-six years should wind up the scene."
1914 Jehovah's Witnesses The "Second Coming" is important in the doctrine of Jehovah's Witnesses, although they do not use this term. Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Christ's visible (to humans) return will be at Armageddon. They believe that 1914 marked the beginning of Christ's invisible presence (Matt. 24:3 gr. "parousia") as the King of God's Kingdom (Psalm 110; Revelation 12:10), and the beginning of the last days of the human ruled system of society. They believe the signs Christ revealed about his return in Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21 began to occur starting in 1914. In a parallel Biblical account at Revelation 6, they believe the ride of the symbolic four horsemen began in the same year, and that the first rider on the white horse depicts the Christ. He goes forth to complete his conquest of the earth, while the rule by human leaders continues for a short while until they meet their end at Armageddon by the power of the Christ (Revelation 19:11-21).
1917 to 1930 Sun Myung Moon The followers of Reverend Sun Myung Moon consider Reverend Moon to be the Lord of the Second Advent called by Jesus Christ on Easter Sunday at the age of 15 on a Korean Mountainside. (See Divine Principle)
1930 to 1939 Rudolf Steiner Steiner described the physical incarnation of Christ as a unique event, but predicted that Christ would reappear in the etheric, or lowest spiritual, plane beginning in the 1930s. This would manifest in various ways: as a new spiritual approach to community life and between individuals; in more and more individuals discovering fully conscious access to the etheric plane (clairvoyance); and in Christ's appearance to groups of seekers gathered together.[72]
1975 Herbert W. Armstrong Armstrong, Pastor-General of the Radio Church of God, and then the Worldwide Church of God, felt the return of Jesus Christ might be in 1975. Of particular note was the book 1975 in Prophecy! written by Armstrong and published by the Radio Church of God in 1956. Though, never explicitly stating a date in the booklet, the title led people to believe the date was the second coming.
1981-06-28 Bill Maupin Maupin, a pastor of the Lighthouse Gospel Tract Foundation in Tucson, Arizona, wrote a book predicting the date of the Second Coming. His congregation sold all their belongings and went to a hilltop on that day to await the event.
1982-06-21 Benjamin Creme The followers of the New Age Theosophical guru Benjamin Creme, like Alice A. Bailey, believe the Second Coming will occur when Maitreya (the being Theosophists identify as being Christ) makes his presence on Earth publicly known—Crème believes Maitreya has been on Earth since 1977, living in secret.

Creme put advertisements in many of the world's major newspapers in early 1982 stating that the Second Coming would occur on Monday, 21 June 1982 (summer solstice in the northern hemisphere), at which time Christ (Maitreya) would announce his Second Coming on worldwide television (this is called the Emergence or Day of Declaration ; this is when, Creme's followers believe, the Maitreya will telepathically overshadow all of humanity when he appears on worldwide television) [73] When this event did not occur, Crème claimed that the "world is not yet ready to receive Maitreya"; his followers continue to believe it will happen "soon".

2007-09-13 Paul Sides Predicted that September 13, 2007 marks the end of seven years of "wars and rumors of war" that erupted when The Oslo Accords were annulled. Then he predicts a final seven year "tribulation period" that culminates in a war over the Holy Land that brings back the Messiah.[74]
2008-09-30 Mark Biltz Pastor of El Shaddai Ministries, predicted September 30, 2008 (Rosh Hashanah) as the potential day of the second coming of Jesus based on four total Lunar Eclipses that occur seven years (Great Tribulation period) after September 30, 2008 in 2014 and 2015 that happen to fall on the two Jewish holidays Pesach and Succot in both 2014 and 2015. Mark believes this to be significant as the four Lunar Eclipses falling on the aforementioned Jewish holidays has happened in the past in 1492, 1948 and 1949 highlighting those years to be significant in Jewish history. In 1492 the Jews were expelled from Spain, in 1948 Israel became a nation, and in 1949 Jerusalem became the capital of Israel. In addition, he attributed these Lunar events to the "signs in the heavens" that the Bible speaks of.[75]
1999 to 2009 Jerry Falwell Fundamentalist preacher who predicted in 1999 that the Second Coming would probably be within 10 years.[76]
1994 to 2011 Harold Camping Camping, general manager of Family Radio and Bible teacher, published a book, 1994?, a prediction of Christ's return was likely pointing to 1994 with the possibility that it will happen in 2011. He later claimed that the rapture would be on May 21, 2011 followed by the end of the world on October 21 of the same year. Camping wrote "Adam when?" and claimed the Biblical calendar meshes with the secular and is accurate from 11,013 BC–2011 AD.[77]
2012 Jack Van Impe Televangelist who has, over the years, predicted many specific years and dates for the second coming of Jesus, but has continued to move his prediction later. Many of these dates have already passed, and he recently pointed to 2012 as a possible date for the second coming. Van Impe no longer claims to know the exact date of the Second Coming, but quotes verses which imply that mankind should know when the second coming is near.
2022 Troy Brooks Partial rapture (Matt 24.40-42, Luke 21.36, Rev. 3.10) places Rev. 6.12 right before the 1st trumpet (8.7) that starts the Tribulation and shows us three events in specific order: 1) great earthquake (Haiti 2010-second most deaths, most deaths per capita; Japan 2011-5th greatest in magnitude, greatest financial loss), 2) unique solar eclipse (the H3 Hybrid Nov. 3, 2013-4th since Christ), and 3) unique lunar eclipse (2014/15 feast Tetrad-8th since Christ, won't happen again till 2582/83). Israel became a nation again during the 1949/50 feast Tetrad and entered Jerusalem in the 1967/68 feast Tetrad (first time ever two feast Tetrads occurred within 18 years apart). The 2,520 days of the Tribulation are from Feast of Trumpets Sept. 14, 2015 (first rapture according to readiness, Rev. 7.9 "before the throne") to Tisha B'Av Aug. 7, 2022 (the day Jesus steps down on the mount of olives when the 1st and 2nd Temples were destroyed to reign in the 3rd Temple). 2014-21 and 2016-23 don't add up to 2,520 days. The probability of this is 112 trillion to 1. http://biblocality.com/forums/content.php?265
2025 Alice A. Bailey In January 1946, the New Age Theosophical guru prophesied that Christ would return "sometime after AD 2025"[51] (Theosophists identify "Christ" as being identical to a being they call Maitreya) to inaugurate the Age of Aquarius; thus, this event will be, according to Bailey, the New Age equivalent of the Christian concept of the Second Coming.[78]

Alice A. Bailey stated that St. Germain is the manager of the executive council of the Christ (Like C.W. Leadbeater, Alice A. Bailey refers to St. Germain as the Master Rakoczi or the Master R. in her books.).;[79] thus, according to Alice A. Bailey, St. Germain's primary task is to prepare the way for the Second Coming.

By 2057 Frank J. Tipler In 1994, physicist and intelligent design advocate Frank J. Tipler published a book called The Physics of Immortality in which he claimed to scientifically prove the existence of God as a consequence of what he calls the Omega Point Theory. In 2007, he published a sequel to "The Physics of Immortality" called The Physics of Christianity which applies the principles of the Omega Point Theory to the Christian religion. In this 2007 book, he asserts in the first chapter that the Second Coming of Christ will occur within 50 years, i.e., by 2057, and will be coincident with what futurist Ray Kurzweil calls the Singularity (which Kurzweil himself predicts will occur by 2045).[80]
Unknown Master Beinsa Douno Predicted the Second Appearance of Christ as: "Christ Impulse will gradually penetrate into the human being and will take over guidance during the further development of the humankind (sic). We are still in the beginning of all this now." (Master Beinsa Douno, The Master, The Life of the Sixth Race, ISBN 954-744-050-0, [1], 1900—1946, Society Byalo Bratstvo - Bulgaria)
Unknown Rastafari movement The movement believes Haile Selassie is the second coming (although he himself did not encourage this belief). He embodied this when he became Emperor of Ethiopia, but is also expected to return a second time to initiate the apocalyptic day of judgment. Haile Selassie, also called Jah Ras Tafari, is often considered to be alive by members of the Rastafari movement.[81]

Claimants of Christ's Second Coming

  • The members of the Unification Church believe that Jesus anointed Sun Myung Moon to fulfill the mission of the Second Coming. Together with his wife Hak Ha Han they established the position of the True Parents of mankind restoring the failure of the Garden of Eden when Adam and Eve failed and were expulsed from the Paradise[citation needed].
  • Emanuel Swedenborg and those in the New Church believe Jesus is making his second coming by revealing Himself in the spiritual meaning of the Bible. They believe that the Last Judgment was commenced in the beginning of the year 1757, and was fully accomplished at the end of that year. This Judgement on the Christian church, which took place in the spiritual world, marked the beginning of Christ's second coming.[82]
  • Bahá'u'lláh claimed to be the Return of Christ. Followers of the Bahá'í Faith believe that the fulfillment of the prophecies of the second coming of Jesus, as well as the prophecies of the 5th Buddha Maitreya and many other religious prophecies, were begun by the Báb in 1844 and then by Bahá'u'lláh. They commonly compare the fulfillment of Christian prophecies to Jesus' fulfillment of Jewish prophecies, where in both cases people were expecting the literal fulfillment of apocalyptic statements.[40][41]
  • Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, A 19th century figure from India, who claimed to be the second coming of and likeness of Jesus, the promised Messiah at the end of time, as well as being the promised Mahdi, being the only person in Islamic history to have claimed to be both. He preached the supremacy of what he presented as pristine Islamic beliefs and practices, and promoted the spread of his movement through peaceful means, writing over eighty books. He gathered thousands of followers within his lifetime and founded the Ahmadiyya religious movement.[83]
  • The followers of the Neo-Theosophical guru Benjamin Creme believe the Second Coming will occur when the being known by Theosophists as the Maitreya publicly makes his presence on Earth known (they believe he has been on Earth since 1977, living in secret). This future event is called the Emergence or Day of Declaration ; this is when, Creme's followers believe, the Maitreya will telepathically overshadow all of humanity when he appears on worldwide television (this event was originally supposed to occur on 21 June 1982).[84] Benjamin Creme's followers believe in the Nestorian/Gnostic doctrine promulgated by C.W. Leadbeater that Maitreya overshadowed the being called by Theosophists the Master Jesus during the Ministry of Jesus.[85]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ NT usage
  2. ^ a b "Strong's G3952". Blueletterbible.org. http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/strongs.pl?strongs=3952. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  3. ^ "Merriam Webster.com". Merriam Webster.com. 2007-04-25. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/parousia. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  4. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: General Judgment (Last Judgment)". Newadvent.org. 1910-10-01. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08552a.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  5. ^ Adolf Deissmann (1908). Light from the Ancient East:The New Testament Illustrated by Recently Discovered Texts of the Graeco-Roman World. 
  6. ^ Freeman, Charles. The Closing of the Western Mind: The Rise of Faith and Fall of Reason, p. 133. Vintage. 2002.
  7. ^ a b "Jesus is Coming Soon". Orthodoxphotos.com. http://www.orthodoxphotos.com/readings/sign/coming.shtml. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  8. ^ "Catholics: Catholic views on End Times?, end time prophecy, end time prophecies". En.allexperts.com. 2006-10-05. http://en.allexperts.com/q/Catholics-955/Catholic-views-End-Times.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  9. ^ 1) Future Survival, Chuck Smith, The Word for Today, Costa Mesa, CA 1978, page 17 2) The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, Dr. David Friedrich Strauss, Sigler Press, Ramsey, NJ 1994, page 587 3) Jesus and The Last Days, George Murray, Hendrickson Pub., Peabody, Mass. 1993, pages 443-444 4) The Quest of the Historical Jesus, Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Macmillian, NY, 1968, page 240 5) Last Days Madness, Gary DeMar, American Vision Inc., Atlanta, GA 1994, page 114 6) The Parousia, Stuart Russell, T. Fisher Unwin Pub., London, 1887, page 84 7) The Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbon, Penguin Books, NY 1985, page 276 8) Apocalypse of The Gospels, Milton Terry, (1819), chapter 18 reprinted and its pages renumbered in 1992 by John Bray, PO Box 90129, Lakeland, FL 33804, pages 34 & 38
  10. ^ compare Mark 13:24 to Mark 15:33
  11. ^ compare Mark 13:25 to Mark 14:63 and Mark 15:5
  12. ^ compare Mark 13:26 to Mark 15:31 and 15:39
  13. ^ Preterism Part 1
  14. ^ Preterism's Proof Texts Analyzed
  15. ^ Is Jesus Coming Soon? By Gary DeMar, p. 24
  16. ^ 1) Matthew, Douglas Hare, John Knox Press, Louisville, Kentucky, 1993, p. 281 2) The Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Alan Hugh M'Neile, Macmillan & Co., London 1949, p. 354-355 3) The Broadman Bible Commentary, Vol. 8, Clifton Allen, ed., Broadman Press, Nashville, TN 1969, p. 221 4) Critical and Exegetical Hand-Book To The Gospel of Matthew, Heinrich Meyer (1883), Alpha Pub., Winona Lake, IN 1980, p. 426 5) The Gospel According to Matthew, R.T. France, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI, 1985, p. 346 6) A Commentary on The Gospel According to St. Matthew, Floyd Filson, Adam & Charles Black Pub., London, 1960, p. 257 7) Hard Sayings of the Bible, W. Kaiser, P. Davids, F.F. Bruce, M. Brauch, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Ill, 1996, pp. 445-448 8) Bible Commentary, Vol. 1, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY 1901, p. 144 9) The Imperial Bible Dictionary, Vol. II, Rev. Patrick Fairbairn, Blackie & Son, London, 1885, p. 352 10) The Great Tribulation, David Chilton, Dominion Press, Ft. Worth, TX 1987, p. 3 11) The Quest of the Historical Jesus, Dr. Albert Schweitzer, Macmillian, NY, 1968, p. 22 12) Apocalypse of The Gospels, Milton Terry (1819), chapter 18 reprinted and its pages renumbered in 1992 by John Bray, PO Box 90129, Lakeland, FL 33804, p. 34 13) The Parousia, J. Stuart Russell, T. Fisher Unwin Pub., London, 1887, p. 85
  17. ^ Seventh Day Adventists Fundamental Beliefs
  18. ^ "Appendix 5B Christ's Presence (Parousia)", New World Translation - Large Reference Edition, ©Watch Tower 1984 (orig 1950)
  19. ^ "Presence", Insight on the Scriptures - Volume 2, ©1988 Watch Tower, page 677
  20. ^ "1900 onward—Skirts Splattered With Blood", Awake!, November 8, 1989, ©Watch Tower, page 22
  21. ^ "Keep Jehovah's Day Close in Mind", The Watchtower, September 1, 1997, page 21
  22. ^ "‘No Peace for the Wicked Ones’", The Watchtower, July 1, 1987, page 13
  23. ^ "There Is a Future for the Dead", The Watchtower, April 1, 1968, page 200
  24. ^ Heindel, Max, The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception (Part III, Chapter XV: Christ and His Mission), November 1909, ISBN 0-911274-34-0
  25. ^ cf. Matthew 16:16
  26. ^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship, Jesus and Christ-Jesus
  27. ^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship, Eastern and Western Spiritual Alternatives
  28. ^ Matthew 22:2-11
  29. ^ 1Cor 15:44
  30. ^ 1Thess 5:23
  31. ^ Galatians 4:19
  32. ^ 2Pet 3:13, 3:7
  33. ^ Heindel, Max, How Shall We Know Christ at His Coming?, May 1913 (stenographic report of a lecture, Los Angeles), ISBN 0-911274-64-2
  34. ^ 1Cor 15:50, John 18:36
  35. ^ 2Cor 5:1-3, Greek "politeuma" [commonwealth], "Our commonwealth is in heaven ...": Philippians 3:20-21
  36. ^ Matthew 24:30, 1Thess 4:17, Acts 1:10-11, 1John 3:2
  37. ^ Matthew 24:23-27
  38. ^ The Rosicrucian Fellowship, The Aquarian Age (cf. 1Cor 2:6-16)
  39. ^ Buck, Christopher (2004). "The eschatology of Globalization: The multiple-messiahship of Bahā'u'llāh revisited". In Sharon, Moshe. Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths. Boston: Brill. pp. 143–178. ISBN 90-04-13904-4. 
  40. ^ a b Prophecy-Fulfilled
  41. ^ a b Stephen Lambden. "Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: some aspects of the Bábí-Baha'i exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism". Bahai-library.com. http://bahai-library.com/bsr/bsr09/9B3_lambden_armageddon.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  42. ^ "Krishna and Jesus Christ". Harekrishnatemple.com. http://www.harekrishnatemple.com/bhakta/chapter27.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  43. ^ Yogananda, Paramahansa. The Second Coming of Christ: The Resurrection of the Christ Within You. Self-Realization Fellowship, 2004. ISBN 978-0876125557
  44. ^ http://krishna.org/christ-and-krishna-the-name-is-the-same/
  45. ^ a b "Isa", Encyclopedia of Islam
  46. ^ a b Sonn (2004) p. 209
  47. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud, Kitab Al-Malahim, Book 37, Number 4310
  48. ^ “A Prophet Like Unto Moses”, The Promised Mehdi and Messiha, by Dr. Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited
  49. ^ The Four Questions Answered, by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, AAIIL 1996
  50. ^ "Why Jews Don't Accept Jesus". Beliefnet.com. http://www.beliefnet.com/story/28/story_2892_2.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  51. ^ a b Bailey, Alice A. The Externalisation of the Hierarchy New York:1957 Lucis Publishing Co. Page 530
  52. ^ The United States In Bible Prophecy See Item # 15
  53. ^ The Great Controversy Chapter Entitled "The Time Of Trouble", Ellen White, p. 624-625
  54. ^ The Last Judgment and Babylon Destroyed. All the Predictions in the Apocalypse are at This Day Fulfilled
  55. ^ Emanuel Swedenborg, The True Christian Religion. Containing the Universal Theology of The New Church Foretold by the Lord in Daniel 7; 13, 14; and in Revelation 21;1,2, Chapter 14
  56. ^ "Angelic Wisdom Concerning the Divine Providence". Smallcanonsearch.com. http://www.smallcanonsearch.com/read.php?book=dp&section=135. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  57. ^ Frederic J. Baumgartner, Longing for the End: A History of Millennialism in Western Civilization (1999) p.166
  58. ^ William E. Wilson, The Angel and the Serpent: The Story of New Harmony (Indiana University Press, 1984) p.11
  59. ^ Sears, William (1961). Thief in the Night. London: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-008-X. 
  60. ^ Motlagh, Hushidar Hugh (1992). I Shall Come Again (The Great Disappointment ed.). Mt. Pleasant, MI: Global Perspective. pp. 205–213. ISBN 0-937661-01-5. 
  61. ^ Buck, Christopher (2004). "The eschatology of Globalization: The multiple-messiahship of Bahā'u'llāh revisited". In Sharon, Moshe. Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths. Boston: Brill. pp. 151-155. ISBN 90-04-13904-4. 
  62. ^ "Charles Taze Russell—FREE Charles Taze Russell Information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Charles Taze Russell Research". Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404705638.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  63. ^ "The writer, among many others now interested, was sound asleep, in profound ignorance of the cry, etc., until 1876, when being awakened he trimmed his lamp (for it is still very early in the morning.) It showed him clearly that the Bridegroom had come and that he is living "in the days of the Son of Man."C.T. Russell (April 1880). "From and To The Wedding". Zion's Watch Tower: 2. http://www.mostholyfaith.com/bible/Reprints/Z1880APR.asp. 
  64. ^ Russell explained how he accepted the idea of an invisible return of Christ from N.H. Barbour in "Harvest Gatherings and Siftings" in the July 15, 1906 Watch Tower, Reprints page 3822.
  65. ^ The Three Worlds and The Harvest of This World by N.H. Barbour and C.T. Russell (1877). Text available online at: http://www.heraldmag.org/olb/contents/history/3worlds.pdf Scan of book in PDF format
  66. ^ The Three Worlds, p. 175.
  67. ^ The Three Worlds, pp. 104–108.
  68. ^ See pages 68, 89–93, 124, 125–126, 143 of The Three Worlds.
  69. ^ The year 1914 was seen as the final end of the "day of wrath": ."..the 'times of the Gentiles,' reach from B.C. 606 to A.D. 1914, or forty years beyond 1874. And the time of trouble, conquest of the nations, and events connected with the day of wrath, have only ample time, during the balance of this forty years, for their fulfillment." The Three Worlds, p. 189.
  70. ^ In 1935, the idea that the 6,000 years ran out in 1874 was moved forward 100 years."The Second Hand in the Timepiece of God" (PDF). The Golden Age: 412–413. March 27, 1935. http://www.a2z.org/wtarchive/docs/1935_Calendar_Golden_Age.pdf. 
  71. ^ http://www.archive.org/details/HistoryOfTheChurchhcVolumes1-7original1902EditionPdf
  72. ^ "Reappearance/Christ: Lecture I: The Event of the Appearance of Christ in the Etheric World". Wn.rsarchive.org. http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/ReapChrist/19100125p01.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  73. ^ Creme, Benjamin Maitreya's Mission Amsterdam:1986 Share International Foundation
  74. ^ "September 13". Sabbathcovenant.com. 2003-07-03. http://www.sabbathcovenant.com/september_13.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  75. ^ El Shaddai Ministries/wrs (2008-05-02). "El Shaddai Ministries - Stipulating Eclipse Comments". Elshaddaiministries.us. http://www.elshaddaiministries.us/stipulation.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  76. ^ Falwell: Antichrist May Be Alive. Sonja Baristic, Associated Press. January 16, 1999.
  77. ^ Harold Camping (1992). 1994?. Vantage Press, Inc.. ISBN 0533103681. 
  78. ^ Bailey, Alice A. The Reappearance of the Christ New York:1948 Lucis Publishing Co.
  79. ^ Bailey, Alice A. The Externalisation of the Hierarchy New York:1957—Lucis Press (Compilation of earlier revelations by Alice A. Bailey) Page 508
  80. ^ Website of Dr. Frank J. Tipler--Content of the first chapter of The Physics of Christianity is downloadable from Dr. Tipler's website:
  81. ^ "Rastafari Movement". Religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu. 2006-09-07. http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/rast.html. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  82. ^ "Last Judgment passage number 45". Smallcanonsearch.com. http://www.smallcanonsearch.com/read.php?book=lj&section=45. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  83. ^ The Promised Messiah
  84. ^ Creme, Benjamin Maitreya's Mission Amsterdam:1986 Share International Foundtion
  85. ^ Leadbeater, C.W. The Masters and the Path Adyar, Madras, India: 1925--Theosophical Publishing House Page 278

Bibliography


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