- Jesus in Christianity
Christian views of Jesus are based on the teachings and beliefs outlined in the Canonical gospels, New Testament letters, and the Christian creeds. These outline the key beliefs held by Christian about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. Generally speaking, adhering to the Christian faith requires a belief that Jesus is the Son of God and the Messiah or Christ. Jesus refers to himself as the Son of God in the New Testament.
Christians consider Jesus the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life. These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer in Calvary as a sign of his full obedience to the will of the Eternal Father, as an "agent and servant of God". The choice Jesus made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.
Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and the Son of God. While there have been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians generally believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. He ascended to heaven, to sit at the "Right Hand of God," and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the World to Come.
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“ "That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth." — Philippians 2:10 ”
Christian views of Jesus are derived from various sources, but especially from the canonical Gospels, and New Testament letters, such as the Pauline Epistles. Christians predominantly hold that these works are historically true.
The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension. These are usually bracketed by two other episodes: his Nativity at the beginning and the sending of the Paraclete at the end. The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his "works and words", e.g. his ministry, parables and miracles.
Christians not only attach theological significance to the works of Jesus, but also to his name. Devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity. These devotions and feasts exist both in Eastern and Western Christianity.
Christians predominantly profess that through his life, death, and resurrection, Jesus restored man's communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as a redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin, which had entered human history through the sin of Adam. However, not all Christian denominations agree on all doctrines, and both major and minor differences on teachings and beliefs persist throughout Christianity.
Christ, Logos and Son of God
“ "But who do you say that I am? Only Simon Peter answered him: You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" — Matthew 16:15-16 ”
Christians generally consider Jesus to be the Christ, the long awaited Messiah, as well as the one and only Son of God. The opening words in the Gospel of Mark (1:1), namely "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God" provide Jesus with the two distinct attributions of Christ and the Son of God. The divinity being again re-affirmed in Mark 1:11. Matthew 1:1 also starts by calling Jesus Christ and Matthew 1:16 explains it again with: "Jesus, who is called Christ".
In the Letters of Saint Paul the word Christ is so closely associated with Jesus that it is apparent that for the early Christians there is no need to claim that Jesus is Christ, for that is considered widely accepted among them. Hence Paul can use the term Christos with no confusion as to who it refers to, and as in 1Corinthians 4:15 and Romans 12:5 he can use expressions such as "in Christ" to refer to the followers of Jesus.
In the New Testament, the title "Son of God" is applied to Jesus on many occasions. It is often used to refer to his divinity, from the beginning in the Annunciation up to the Crucifixion. The declaration that Jesus is the Son of God is made by many individuals in the New Testament, and on two separate occasions by God the Father as a voice from Heaven, and is asserted by Jesus himself.
In Christology, the conception that the Christ is the Logos (i.e. The Word) has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. The conception derives from the opening of the Gospel of John, commonly translated into English as: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." In the original Greek, Logos (λόγος) is used for "Word," and in theological discourse, this is often left untranslated.
The pre-existence of Christ refers to the doctrine of the personal existence of Christ before his conception. One of the relevant Bible passages is John 1:1-18 where, in the Trinitarian view, Christ is identified with a pre-existent divine hypostasis called the Logos or Word. However, other non-Trinitarian views question the aspect of personal pre-existence or question the aspect of divinity, or both. This doctrine is reiterated in John 17:5 when Jesus refers to the glory which he had with the Father "before the world was" during the Farewell discourse. John 17:24 also refers to the Father loving Jesus "before the foundation of the world".
Following the Apostolic Age, from the 2nd century onwards, a number of controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus. Eventually in 451 the Hypostatic union was decreed, namely that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human. However, differences among Christian denominations continued thereafter - see the article on Christology for details.
Incarnation, Nativity and Second Adam
“ He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible. — Colossians 1:15-16 regards the birth of Jesus as the model for all creation. ”
Apostle Paul viewed the birth of Jesus as an event of cosmic significance which brought forth a "new man" who undid the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. Just as the Johannine view of Jesus as the incarnate Logos proclaims the universal relevance of his birth, the Pauline perspective emphasizes the birth of a new man and a new world in the birth of Jesus. Paul's eschatological view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation.
In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second: Adam, having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as inheritance. The birth of Jesus, on the other hand, counter-balanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam.
In the 2nd century Church Father Irenaeus writes:
"When He became incarnate and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam - namely to be according to the image and likeness of God- that we might recover in Christ Jesus."
In patristic theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. The Nativity of Jesus thus began to serve as the starting point for "cosmic Christology" in which the birth, life and Resurrection of Jesus have universal implications. The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and re-birth of Jesus from his Nativity to his Resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a new harmony in the relationship between God the Father and man. The Nativity and Resurrection of Jesus thus created the author and exemplar of a new humanity. In this view, the birth, death and Resurrection of Jesus brought about salvation, undoing the damage of Adam.
In the Canonical gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper. The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. The date of the start of his ministry has been estimated at around 27-29 AD/CE and the end in the range 30-36 AD/CE.
Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church. The Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the Commissioning the twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee. The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.
In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea. As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized.
The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.
Teachings, parables and miracles
“ "The words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father who dwells in me does his works." — John 14:10 ”
In the New Testament the teachings of Jesus are presented in terms of his "words and works". The words of Jesus include a number of sermons, as well as parables that appear throughout the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels (the gospel of John includes no parables). The works include the miracles and other acts performed during his ministry.
Although the Canonical Gospels are the major source of the teachings of Jesus, the Pauline Epistles, which were likely written decades before the gospels, provide some of the earliest written accounts of the teachings of Jesus.
The New Testament does not present the teachings of Jesus as merely his own preachings, but equates the words of Jesus with divine revelation, with John the Baptist stating in John 3:34: "he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God" and Jesus stating in John 7:16: "My teaching is not mine, but his that sent me". In Matthew 11:27 Jesus claims divine knowledge, stating: "No one knows the Son except the Father and no one knows the Father except the Son", asserting the mutual knowledge he has with the Father.
The gospels include a number of discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, such as the Farewell discourse delivered after the Last Supper, the night before his crucifixion. Although some of the teachings of Jesus are reported as taking place within the formal atmosphere of a synagogue (e.g. in Matthew 4:23) many of the discourses are more like conversations than formal lectures.
The Gospel of Matthew has a structured set of sermons, often grouped as the Five Discourses of Matthew which present many of the key teachings of Jesus. Each of the five discourses has some parallel passages in the Gospel of Mark or the Gospel of Luke. The five discourses in Matthew begin with the Sermon on the Mount, which encapsulates many of the moral teaching of Jesus and which is one of the best known and most quoted elements of the New Testament. The Sermon on the Mount includes the Beatitudes which describe the character of the people of the Kingdom of God, expressed as "blessings". The Beatitudes focus on love and humility rather than force and exaction and echo the key ideals of Jesus' teachings on spirituality and compassion. The other discourses in Matthew include the Missionary Discourse in Matthew 10 and the Discourse on the Church in Matthew 18, providing instructions to the disciples and laying the foundation of the codes of conduct for the anticipated community of followers.
The parables of Jesus represent a major component of his teachings in the gospels, the approximately thirty parables forming about one third of his recorded teachings. The parables may appear within longer sermons, as well as other places within the narrative. Jesus' parables are seemingly simple and memorable stories, often with imagery, and each conveys a teaching which usually relates the physical world to the spiritual world.
In the 19th century, Lisco and Fairbairn stated that in the parables of Jesus, "the image borrowed from the visible world is accompanied by a truth from the invisible (spiritual) world" and that the parables of Jesus are not "mere similitudes which serve the purpose of illustration, but are internal analogies where nature becomes a witness for the spiritual world". Similarly, in the 20th century, calling a parable "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning", William Barclay states that the parables of Jesus use familiar examples to lead men's minds towards heavenly concepts. He suggests that Jesus did not form his parables merely as analogies but based on an "inward affinity between the natural and the spiritual order."
“ "Believe the miracles, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the Father." — John 10:38 ”
One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the Gospel accounts is that he delivered benefits freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment for his healing miracles, unlike some high priests of his time who charged those who were healed. In Matthew 10:8 he advised his disciples to heal the sick without payment and stated: "freely ye received, freely give."
Christians in general believe that Jesus' miracles were actual historical events and that his miraculous works were an important part of his life, attesting to his divinity and the Hypostatic union, i.e., the dual natures of Jesus as God and Man. Christians believe that while Jesus' experiences of hunger, weariness, and death were evidences of his humanity, the miracles were evidences of his deity.
Christian authors also view the miracles of Jesus not merely as acts of power and omnipotence, but as works of love and mercy: they were performed not with a view to awe men by the feeling of omnipotence, but to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity. And each miracle involves specific teachings.
Since according to the Gospel of John
Crucifixion and atonement
In Johannine "agent Christology" the submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an agent of God or servant of God, for the sake of eventual victory. This builds on the salvific theme of the Gospel of John which begins in John 1:36 with John the Baptist's proclamation: "The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world". Further reinforcement of the concept is provided in Revelation 21:14 where the "lamb slain but standing" is the only one worthy of handling the scroll (i.e. the book) containing the names of those who are to be saved.
A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan". In this view, as in Acts 2:23, the cross is not viewed as a scandal, for the crucifixion of Jesus "at the hands of the lawless" is viewed as the fulfilment of the plan of God.
Paul's Christology has a specific focus on the death and resurrection of Jesus. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6:12 may be viewed as his abbreviation of the message of the gospels. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus was not an isolated event in history, but a cosmic event with significant eschatological consequences, as in 1 Corinthians 2:8. In the Pauline view, Jesus, obedient to the point of death (Philippians 2:8) died "at the right time" (Romans 4:25) based on the plan of God. For Paul the "power of the cross" is not separable from the Resurrection of Jesus.
John Calvin supported the "agent of God" Christology and argued that in his trial in Pilate's Court Jesus could have successfully argued for his innocence, but instead submitted to crucifixion in obedience to the Father. This Christological theme continued into the 20th century, both in the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the crucifixion of Jesus was "pre-eternally" determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam. In the Western Church, Karl Rahner elaborated on the analogy that the blood of the Lamb of God (and the water from the side of Jesus) shed at the crucifixion had a cleansing nature, similar to baptismal water.
Resurrection, Ascension and Second Coming
The New Testament teaches that the resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith.
In the teachings of the apostolic Church, the resurrection was seen as heralding a new era. Forming a theology of the resurrection fell to Apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption. Paul explained the importance of the resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience in :
But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.
If the cross stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the Resurrection: unless the one died the death of all, the all would have little to celebrate in the resurrection of the one. Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his resurrection.
The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50−115), Polycarp (69−155), and Justin Martyr (100−165). Following the conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.
- Chronology of Jesus
- Gospel harmony
- Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament
- Religious perspectives on Jesus
- ^ The Lamb of God by Sergei Bulgakov 2008 ISBN 0802827799 page 263
- ^ One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel by John Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 ISBN 3110181517 pages 240-241
- ^ Oxford Companion to the Bible p.649
- ^ The Christology of Anselm of Canterbury by Dániel Deme 2004 ISBN 0754637794 pages 199-200
- ^ a b The Christology of the New Testament by Oscar Cullmann 1959 ISBN 0664243517 page 79
- ^ a b c d Systematic Theology, Volume 2 by Wolfhart Pannenberg 2004 0567084663 ISBN pages 297-303
- ^ , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
- ^ , , , , , , , , , , , ,
- ^ Catholic encyclopedia: Holy Name of Jesus
- ^ Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19); Thomas Aquinas, Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses?; c.f. Catechism of the Catholic Church, §116; R.C. Sproul, Knowing Scripture pp. 45–61; Greg Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (art. 6); Scott Foutz, Martin Luther and Scripture
- ^ a b Essays in New Testament interpretation by Charles Francis Digby Moule 1982 ISBN 0521237831 page 63
- ^ The Melody of Faith: Theology in an Orthodox Key by Vigen Guroian 2010 ISBN 0802864961 page 28
- ^ a b Scripture in tradition by John Breck 2001 ISBN 0881412260 page 12
- ^ a b The Bible Knowledge Commentary by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 ISBN 0882078127 page 100
- ^ a b c The words and works of Jesus Christ by J. Dwight Pentecost 2000 ISBN 9780310309406 page 212
- ^ Outlines of dogmatic theology, Volume 2 by Sylvester Hunter 2010 ISBN 1146986335 page 443
- ^ a b Jesus: the complete guide by Leslie Houlden 2006 ISBN 082648011X page 426
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §606–618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529;
- ^ Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; ; .
- ^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0664257526 page xvi and 109
- ^ Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity by Larry W. Hurtado 2005 ISBN 0802831672 page 288
- ^ Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity by Larry W. Hurtado 2005 ISBN 0802831672 page 99
- ^ a b c Catholic Encyclopedia: Son of God
- ^ One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel by John Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 ISBN 3110181517 pages 240-241
- ^ Dwight Pentecost The words and works of Jesus Christ 2000 ISBN 0310309409 page 234
- ^ a b The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0802837859 page 571-572
- ^ a b Creation and Christology by Masanobu Endo 2002 ISBN 3161477898 page 233
- ^ a b Editors, Erwin Fahlbusch (1999), The encyclopedia of Christianity, Leiden, Netherland: Brill, pp. 463, ISBN 0802824137, http://books.google.com/?id=z47zgZ75dqgC&pg=PA463&dq=Logos+as+God+in+the+early+church
- ^ a b Rausch, Thomas P. (2003), Who is Jesus? : an introduction to Christology, Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, pp. 149, ISBN 0814650783, http://books.google.com/?id=8OJCa6euw5gC&pg=PA148&dq=Justin+Martyr+christology
- ^ McGrath, Alister E. (2007), Christian theology : an introduction, Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, pp. 282, ISBN 1405153601, http://books.google.com/?id=tHlY94UWi3UC&pg=PA282&dq=Justin+Martyr+christology
- ^ Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, Vol XIV p207, translated edition by H.R. Percival. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/ephesus.html
- ^ The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church, trans H. R. Percival, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, (repr. Grand Rapids MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1955), XIV, pp. 192-242
- ^ The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0802837859 page
- ^ An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies by Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff 2007 ISBN 0814658563 page 238
- ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0865543739 page 712
- ^ Basic Theology: by Charles Caldwell Ryrie 1999 ISBN 0802427340 page 275
- ^ An exposition of the epistle of Saint Paul to the Philippians by Jean Daille 1995 ISBN 0802825117 pages 194-195
- ^ An introduction to the early history of Christian doctrine by James Franklin Bethune-Baker 2005 ISBN 1402157703 page 334
- ^ A History of the Christian Church by Williston Walker 2010 ISBN 1440044465 pages 65-66
- ^ Christ in Christian Tradition: From the Apostolic Age to Chalcedon by Aloys Grillmeier, John Bowden 1975 ISBN 066422301X pages 15-19
- ^ The Witness of Jesus, Paul and John: An Exploration in Biblical Theology by Larry R. Helyer 2008 ISBN 0830828885 page 282
- ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0860120066 pages 474 and 1434
- ^ Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 9781579183554 pages 613-614
- ^ a b Christianity: an introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 9781405109017 pages 16-22
- ^ a b c The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 9780805443653 page 114
- ^ a b c Paul L. Maier "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0931464501 pages 113-129
- ^ Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times by Paul Barnett 2002 ISBN 0830826998 pages 19-21
- ^ Sanders (1993). pp. 11, 249.
- ^ The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris ISBN 0851113389 page 71
- ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 117-130
- ^ A theology of the New Testament by George Eldon Ladd 1993ISBN page 324
- ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 143-160
- ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 97-110
- ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 165-180
- ^ The Christology of Mark's Gospel by Jack Dean Kingsbury 1983 ISBN 0800623371 pages 91-95
- ^ The Cambridge companion to the Gospels by Stephen C. Barton ISBN 0521002613 pages 132-133
- ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 121-135
- ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 189-207
- ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 137
- ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 211-229
- ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0865543739 page 929
- ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 155-170
- ^ Matthew by David L. Turner 2008 ISBN 0801026849 page 613
- ^ a b Eric Francis Osborn, 1993 The emergence of Christian theology ISBN 0-521-43078-X page 98
- ^ Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0805444823 pages 441-442
- ^ The missions of Jesus and the disciples according to the Fourth Gospel by Andreas J. Köstenberger 1998 ISBN 0802842550 pages 108-109
- ^ Matthew by Charles H. Talbert 2010 ISBN 0801031923 page 149
- ^ John by Gail R. O'Day, Susan Hylen 2006 ISBN 9780664252601, Chapter 15: The Farewell Discourse, pages 142-168
- ^ a b c The Sermons of Jesus the Messiah by E. Keith Howick 2003 ISBN 9781886249028 pages 7-9
- ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 9780805443653 pages 194-196
- ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Craig S. Keener 2009 ISBN 9780802864987 pages 37-38
- ^ The Gospel of Matthew by R. T. France 2007 ISBN 9780802825018 page 9
- ^ The Sermon on the mount: a theological investigation by Carl G. Vaught 2001 ISBN 9780918954763 pages xi-xiv
- ^ "Beatitudes." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
- ^ A Dictionary Of The Bible by James Hastings 2004 ISBN 1410217302 page 15-19
- ^ Jesus the Peacemaker by Carol Frances Jegen 1986 ISBN 0934134367 pages 68-71
- ^ The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Ján Majerník, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005 ISBN 1931018316, pages 63-68
- ^ Behold the King: A Study of Matthew by Stanley D. Toussaint 2005 ISBN 0825438454 pages 215-216
- ^ Preaching Matthew's Gospel by Richard A. Jensen 1998 ISBN 9780788012211 pages 25 & 158
- ^ Matthew by Larry Chouinard 1997 ISBN 0899006280 page 321
- ^ All the Parables of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 9780310281115 page 174
- ^ J. Dwight Pentecost, 1998 The parables of Jesus: lessons in life from the Master Teacher ISBN 0-8254-3458-0 page 10
- ^ a b Friedrich Gustav Lisco 1850 The Parables of Jesus Daniels and Smith Publishers, Philadelphia pages 9-11
- ^ Ashton Oxenden, 1864 The parables of our Lord? William Macintosh Publishers, London, page 6
- ^ a b William Barclay, 1999 The Parables of Jesus ISBN 0-664-25828-X pages 12.
- ^ The emergence of Christian theology by Eric Francis Osborn 1993 ISBN 052143078X page 100
- ^ Berard L. Marthaler 2007 The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology ISBN 0-89622-537-2 page 220
- ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-310-28101-6 page 235
- ^ Pheme Perkins 1988 Reading the New Testament ISBN 0-8091-2939-6 page 54
- ^ a b The Miracles of Jesus by Craig Blomberg, David Wenham 1986 ISBN 1850750092 page 197
- ^ a b c Catholic Encyclopedia on Miracles
- ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-310-28101-6 page 25
- ^ William Thomas Brande, George William Cox, A dictionary of science, literature, & art London, 1867, also Published by Old Classics on Kindle, 2009, page 655
- ^ Bernard L. Ramm 1993 An Evangelical Christology ISBN 1-57383-008-9 page 45
- ^ Author Ken Stocker states that "every single miracle was an act of love": Facts, Faith, and the FAQs by Ken Stocker, Jim Stocker 2006 ISBN page 139
- ^ Robert Maguire 1863 The miracles of Christ published by Weeks and Co. London page 133
- ^ Warren W. Wiersbe 1995 Classic Sermons on the Miracles of Jesus ISBN 0-8254-3999-X page 132
- ^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0664257526 page 106
- ^ The Johannine exegesis of God by Daniel Rathnakara Sadananda 2005 ISBN 3110182483 page 281
- ^ Johannine Christology and the Early Church by T. E. Pollard 2005 ISBN 0521018684 page 21
- ^ Studies in Early Christology by Martin Hengel 2004 ISBN 0567042804 page 371
- ^ Studies in Revelation by M. R. De Haan, Martin Ralph DeHaan 1998 ISBN 0825424852 page 103
- ^ a b New Testament christology by Frank J. Matera 1999 ISBN 0664256945 page 67
- ^ The speeches in Acts: their content, context, and concerns by Marion L. Soards 1994 ISBN 0664252214 page 34
- ^ a b c d Christology by Hans Schwarz 1998 ISBN 0802844634 pages 132-134
- ^ Calvin's Christology by Stephen Edmondson 2004 ISBN 0521541549 page 91
- ^ The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures by Hughes Oliphant Old 2002 ISBN 0802847757 page 125
- ^ The Lamb of God by Sergei Bulgakov 2008 ISBN 0802827799 page 129
- ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0860120066 page 74
- ^ The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0896225372 page 361
- ^ Theology of Paul the Apostle by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN page 235
- ^ a b Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
- ^ Meditation and Piety in the Far East by Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Sverre Holth 2004 ISBN 0227172353 page 30
- ^ Corinthians 15:42-49 with commentary by Dale B. Martin, The Corinthian Body, Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0300081723 p. 126 in particular.
- ^ National Interest - Archbishop Peter Carnley
- ^ Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
- ^ The Resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN 0881411493 page 72
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