Jesus in Christianity


Jesus in Christianity
Jesus (on the left) is being identified by John the Baptist as the "Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world", in John 1:29.[1] 17th century depiction by Vannini.

Christian views of Jesus are based on the teachings and beliefs outlined in the Canonical gospels, New Testament letters, and the Christian creeds. These outline the key beliefs held by Christian about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. Generally speaking, adhering to the Christian faith requires a belief that Jesus is the Son of God and the Messiah or Christ. Jesus refers to himself as the Son of God in the New Testament.[2]

Christians consider Jesus the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[3] These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer in Calvary as a sign of his full obedience to the will of the Eternal Father, as an "agent and servant of God".[4][5] The choice Jesus made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam's disobedience.[6]

Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and the Son of God. While there have been theological debate over the nature of Jesus, Trinitarian Christians generally believe that Jesus is the Logos, God incarnate, God the Son, and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead.[7] He ascended to heaven, to sit at the "Right Hand of God,"[8] and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the World to Come.[9]

Contents

Overview

"That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth." — Philippians 2:10[10]

Christian views of Jesus are derived from various sources, but especially from the canonical Gospels, and New Testament letters, such as the Pauline Epistles. Christians predominantly hold that these works are historically true.[11]

The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension.[12][13][14] These are usually bracketed by two other episodes: his Nativity at the beginning and the sending of the Paraclete at the end.[12][14] The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his "works and words", e.g. his ministry, parables and miracles.[15][16]

Christians not only attach theological significance to the works of Jesus, but also to his name. Devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity.[17][18] These devotions and feasts exist both in Eastern and Western Christianity.[18]

Christians predominantly profess that through his life, death, and resurrection, Jesus restored man's communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant. His death on a cross is understood as a redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin,[19] which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.[20] However, not all Christian denominations agree on all doctrines, and both major and minor differences on teachings and beliefs persist throughout Christianity.

Christ, Logos and Son of God

First page of Mark, by Sargis Pitsak (14th century): "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God".
"But who do you say that I am? Only Simon Peter answered him: You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" — Matthew 16:15-16[21]

Christians generally consider Jesus to be the Christ, the long awaited Messiah, as well as the one and only Son of God. The opening words in the Gospel of Mark (1:1), namely "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God" provide Jesus with the two distinct attributions of Christ and the Son of God. The divinity being again re-affirmed in Mark 1:11.[22] Matthew 1:1 also starts by calling Jesus Christ and Matthew 1:16 explains it again with: "Jesus, who is called Christ".

In the Letters of Saint Paul the word Christ is so closely associated with Jesus that it is apparent that for the early Christians there is no need to claim that Jesus is Christ, for that is considered widely accepted among them. Hence Paul can use the term Christos with no confusion as to who it refers to, and as in 1Corinthians 4:15 and Romans 12:5 he can use expressions such as "in Christ" to refer to the followers of Jesus.[23]

In the New Testament, the title "Son of God" is applied to Jesus on many occasions.[24] It is often used to refer to his divinity, from the beginning in the Annunciation up to the Crucifixion.[24] The declaration that Jesus is the Son of God is made by many individuals in the New Testament, and on two separate occasions by God the Father as a voice from Heaven, and is asserted by Jesus himself.[24][25][26][27]

In Christology, the conception that the Christ is the Logos (i.e. The Word) has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. The conception derives from the opening of the Gospel of John, commonly translated into English as: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." In the original Greek, Logos (λόγος) is used for "Word," and in theological discourse, this is often left untranslated.

The pre-existence of Christ refers to the doctrine of the personal existence of Christ before his conception. One of the relevant Bible passages is John 1:1-18 where, in the Trinitarian view, Christ is identified with a pre-existent divine hypostasis called the Logos or Word. However, other non-Trinitarian views question the aspect of personal pre-existence or question the aspect of divinity, or both. This doctrine is reiterated in John 17:5 when Jesus refers to the glory which he had with the Father "before the world was" during the Farewell discourse.[28] John 17:24 also refers to the Father loving Jesus "before the foundation of the world".[28]

Following the Apostolic Age, from the 2nd century onwards, a number of controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus.[29][30][31] Eventually in 451 the Hypostatic union was decreed, namely that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human.[29][30][32][33] However, differences among Christian denominations continued thereafter - see the article on Christology for details.

Incarnation, Nativity and Second Adam

He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible. — Colossians 1:15-16 regards the birth of Jesus as the model for all creation.[34][35][36][37]

Apostle Paul viewed the birth of Jesus as an event of cosmic significance which brought forth a "new man" who undid the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. Just as the Johannine view of Jesus as the incarnate Logos proclaims the universal relevance of his birth, the Pauline perspective emphasizes the birth of a new man and a new world in the birth of Jesus.[6] Paul's eschatological view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation.[6]

In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second: Adam, having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as inheritance. The birth of Jesus, on the other hand, counter-balanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam.[38]

In the 2nd century Church Father Irenaeus writes:

"When He became incarnate and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam - namely to be according to the image and likeness of God- that we might recover in Christ Jesus."[39][40]

In patristic theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. The Nativity of Jesus thus began to serve as the starting point for "cosmic Christology" in which the birth, life and Resurrection of Jesus have universal implications.[6][41][42] The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and re-birth of Jesus from his Nativity to his Resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a new harmony in the relationship between God the Father and man. The Nativity and Resurrection of Jesus thus created the author and exemplar of a new humanity.[43] In this view, the birth, death and Resurrection of Jesus brought about salvation, undoing the damage of Adam.[44]

Ministry

The Communion of the Apostles, by Luca Signorelli, 1512.

In the Canonical gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper.[45] The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry.[46][47] The date of the start of his ministry has been estimated at around 27-29 AD/CE and the end in the range 30-36 AD/CE.[46][47][46][48][47][49]

Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert.[50] In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church.[45][51] The Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the Commissioning the twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee.[52][53] The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.[54][55]

In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.[56][57][58][59] As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized.[60][61][62]

The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.[63] The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.[64]

Teachings, parables and miracles

"The words that I say unto you I speak not from myself: but the Father who dwells in me does his works." — John 14:10[65]

In the New Testament the teachings of Jesus are presented in terms of his "words and works".[15][16] The words of Jesus include a number of sermons, as well as parables that appear throughout the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels (the gospel of John includes no parables). The works include the miracles and other acts performed during his ministry.[16]

Although the Canonical Gospels are the major source of the teachings of Jesus, the Pauline Epistles, which were likely written decades before the gospels, provide some of the earliest written accounts of the teachings of Jesus.[66]

The New Testament does not present the teachings of Jesus as merely his own preachings, but equates the words of Jesus with divine revelation, with John the Baptist stating in John 3:34: "he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God" and Jesus stating in John 7:16: "My teaching is not mine, but his that sent me".[65][67] In Matthew 11:27 Jesus claims divine knowledge, stating: "No one knows the Son except the Father and no one knows the Father except the Son", asserting the mutual knowledge he has with the Father.[27][68]

Discourses

Jesus' Farewell Discourse to his eleven remaining disciples after the Last Supper, from the Maesta by Duccio.

The gospels include a number of discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, such as the Farewell discourse delivered after the Last Supper, the night before his crucifixion.[69] Although some of the teachings of Jesus are reported as taking place within the formal atmosphere of a synagogue (e.g. in Matthew 4:23) many of the discourses are more like conversations than formal lectures.[70]

The Gospel of Matthew has a structured set of sermons, often grouped as the Five Discourses of Matthew which present many of the key teachings of Jesus.[71][72] Each of the five discourses has some parallel passages in the Gospel of Mark or the Gospel of Luke.[73] The five discourses in Matthew begin with the Sermon on the Mount, which encapsulates many of the moral teaching of Jesus and which is one of the best known and most quoted elements of the New Testament.[74][70] The Sermon on the Mount includes the Beatitudes which describe the character of the people of the Kingdom of God, expressed as "blessings".[75] The Beatitudes focus on love and humility rather than force and exaction and echo the key ideals of Jesus' teachings on spirituality and compassion.[76][77][78] The other discourses in Matthew include the Missionary Discourse in Matthew 10 and the Discourse on the Church in Matthew 18, providing instructions to the disciples and laying the foundation of the codes of conduct for the anticipated community of followers.[79][80][81]

Parables

The parables of Jesus represent a major component of his teachings in the gospels, the approximately thirty parables forming about one third of his recorded teachings.[82][83] The parables may appear within longer sermons, as well as other places within the narrative.[70] Jesus' parables are seemingly simple and memorable stories, often with imagery, and each conveys a teaching which usually relates the physical world to the spiritual world.[84][85]

In the 19th century, Lisco and Fairbairn stated that in the parables of Jesus, "the image borrowed from the visible world is accompanied by a truth from the invisible (spiritual) world" and that the parables of Jesus are not "mere similitudes which serve the purpose of illustration, but are internal analogies where nature becomes a witness for the spiritual world".[84] Similarly, in the 20th century, calling a parable "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning",[86] William Barclay states that the parables of Jesus use familiar examples to lead men's minds towards heavenly concepts. He suggests that Jesus did not form his parables merely as analogies but based on an "inward affinity between the natural and the spiritual order."[86]

Miracles

Jesus healing the paralytic by Palma il Giovane, 1592
"Believe the miracles, that you may know and understand that the Father is in me, and I in the Father." — John 10:38[87]

In Christian teachings, the miracles of Jesus were as much a vehicle for his message as were his words. Many of the miracles emphasize the importance of faith, for instance in Cleansing ten lepers,[Lk 17:19] Jesus did not say: "My power has saved you" but says "Rise and go; your faith has saved you."[88][89] Similarly, in the Walking on Water miracle, Apostle Peter learns an important lesson about faith in that as his faith wavers, he begins to sink.[Mt 14:34-36] [90]

One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the Gospel accounts is that he delivered benefits freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment for his healing miracles, unlike some high priests of his time who charged those who were healed.[91] In Matthew 10:8 he advised his disciples to heal the sick without payment and stated: "freely ye received, freely give."[91]

Christians in general believe that Jesus' miracles were actual historical events and that his miraculous works were an important part of his life, attesting to his divinity and the Hypostatic union, i.e., the dual natures of Jesus as God and Man.[92] Christians believe that while Jesus' experiences of hunger, weariness, and death were evidences of his humanity, the miracles were evidences of his deity.[93][94][95]

Christian authors also view the miracles of Jesus not merely as acts of power and omnipotence, but as works of love and mercy: they were performed not with a view to awe men by the feeling of omnipotence, but to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity.[92][96] And each miracle involves specific teachings.[97][98]

Since according to the Gospel of John[20:30] it was impossible to narrate all of the miracles performed by Jesus, the Catholic Encyclopedia states that the miracles presented in the Gospels were selected for a twofold reason: first for the manifestation of God's glory, and then for their evidential value. Jesus referred to his "works" as evidences of his mission and his divinity, and in John 5:36 he declared that his miracles have greater evidential value than the testimony of John the Baptist.[92]

Crucifixion and atonement

A series of articles on
Christology

Jesusicon.jpg

Christ
Pre-existence of Christ
Logos (The Word)
IncarnationNativity
Person of Christ
Hypostatic union
Knowledge of Christ
Perfection of Christ
Imitation of Christ
Threefold office

The accounts of the crucifixion and subsequent resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the Canonical Gospels to the Pauline Epistles.[99]

In Johannine "agent Christology" the submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an agent of God or servant of God, for the sake of eventual victory.[5][100] This builds on the salvific theme of the Gospel of John which begins in John 1:36 with John the Baptist's proclamation: "The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world".[101][102] Further reinforcement of the concept is provided in Revelation 21:14 where the "lamb slain but standing" is the only one worthy of handling the scroll (i.e. the book) containing the names of those who are to be saved.[103]

A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan".[104] In this view, as in Acts 2:23, the cross is not viewed as a scandal, for the crucifixion of Jesus "at the hands of the lawless" is viewed as the fulfilment of the plan of God.[104][105]

Paul's Christology has a specific focus on the death and resurrection of Jesus. For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in Galatians 6:12 may be viewed as his abbreviation of the message of the gospels.[106] For Paul, the crucifixion of Jesus was not an isolated event in history, but a cosmic event with significant eschatological consequences, as in 1 Corinthians 2:8.[106] In the Pauline view, Jesus, obedient to the point of death (Philippians 2:8) died "at the right time" (Romans 4:25) based on the plan of God.[106] For Paul the "power of the cross" is not separable from the Resurrection of Jesus.[106]

John Calvin supported the "agent of God" Christology and argued that in his trial in Pilate's Court Jesus could have successfully argued for his innocence, but instead submitted to crucifixion in obedience to the Father.[107][108] This Christological theme continued into the 20th century, both in the Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the crucifixion of Jesus was "pre-eternally" determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam.[109] In the Western Church, Karl Rahner elaborated on the analogy that the blood of the Lamb of God (and the water from the side of Jesus) shed at the crucifixion had a cleansing nature, similar to baptismal water.[110]

Resurrection, Ascension and Second Coming

The New Testament teaches that the resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith.[1 Cor 15:12-20] [1 Pet 1:3] Christians, through faith in the working of God[Col 2:12] are spiritually resurrected with Jesus, and are redeemed so that they may walk in a new way of life.[Rom 6:4]

In the teachings of the apostolic Church, the resurrection was seen as heralding a new era. Forming a theology of the resurrection fell to Apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as Hebrews 6:1 states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption.[111] Paul explained the importance of the resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience in 1 Corinthians 15:20-22:

But Christ really has been raised from the dead. He is the first of all those who will rise. Death came because of what a man did. Rising from the dead also comes because of what a man did. Because of Adam, all people die. So because of Christ, all will be made alive.

If the cross stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the Resurrection: unless the one died the death of all, the all would have little to celebrate in the resurrection of the one.[112] Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his resurrection[113] for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his resurrection.[Rom 1:4] [113] Paul's views went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid; given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit.[114] At the same time, Paul believed that the newly resurrected body would be a heavenly body; immortal, glorified, powerful and pneumatic in contrast to an earthly body, which is mortal, dishonored, weak and psychic.[115] According to theologian Peter Carnley, the resurrection of Jesus was different from the Resurrection of Lazarus as: "In the case of Lazarus, the stone was rolled away so that he could walk out.... the raised Christ didn't have to have the stone rolled away, because he is transformed and can appear anywhere, at any time."[116]

The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius (50−115),[117] Polycarp (69−155), and Justin Martyr (100−165). Following the conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within Liturgy.[118]

See also

References

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  71. ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 9780805443653 pages 194-196
  72. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Craig S. Keener 2009 ISBN 9780802864987 pages 37-38
  73. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by R. T. France 2007 ISBN 9780802825018 page 9
  74. ^ The Sermon on the mount: a theological investigation by Carl G. Vaught 2001 ISBN 9780918954763 pages xi-xiv
  75. ^ "Beatitudes." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  76. ^ A Dictionary Of The Bible by James Hastings 2004 ISBN 1410217302 page 15-19
  77. ^ Jesus the Peacemaker by Carol Frances Jegen 1986 ISBN 0934134367 pages 68-71
  78. ^ The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Ján Majerník, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005 ISBN 1931018316, pages 63-68
  79. ^ Behold the King: A Study of Matthew by Stanley D. Toussaint 2005 ISBN 0825438454 pages 215-216
  80. ^ Preaching Matthew's Gospel by Richard A. Jensen 1998 ISBN 9780788012211 pages 25 & 158
  81. ^ Matthew by Larry Chouinard 1997 ISBN 0899006280 page 321
  82. ^ All the Parables of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 9780310281115 page 174
  83. ^ J. Dwight Pentecost, 1998 The parables of Jesus: lessons in life from the Master Teacher ISBN 0-8254-3458-0 page 10
  84. ^ a b Friedrich Gustav Lisco 1850 The Parables of Jesus Daniels and Smith Publishers, Philadelphia pages 9-11
  85. ^ Ashton Oxenden, 1864 The parables of our Lord? William Macintosh Publishers, London, page 6
  86. ^ a b William Barclay, 1999 The Parables of Jesus ISBN 0-664-25828-X pages 12.
  87. ^ The emergence of Christian theology by Eric Francis Osborn 1993 ISBN 052143078X page 100
  88. ^ Berard L. Marthaler 2007 The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology ISBN 0-89622-537-2 page 220
  89. ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-310-28101-6 page 235
  90. ^ Pheme Perkins 1988 Reading the New Testament ISBN 0-8091-2939-6 page 54
  91. ^ a b The Miracles of Jesus by Craig Blomberg, David Wenham 1986 ISBN 1850750092 page 197
  92. ^ a b c Catholic Encyclopedia on Miracles
  93. ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-310-28101-6 page 25
  94. ^ William Thomas Brande, George William Cox, A dictionary of science, literature, & art London, 1867, also Published by Old Classics on Kindle, 2009, page 655
  95. ^ Bernard L. Ramm 1993 An Evangelical Christology ISBN 1-57383-008-9 page 45
  96. ^ Author Ken Stocker states that "every single miracle was an act of love": Facts, Faith, and the FAQs by Ken Stocker, Jim Stocker 2006 ISBN page 139
  97. ^ Robert Maguire 1863 The miracles of Christ published by Weeks and Co. London page 133
  98. ^ Warren W. Wiersbe 1995 Classic Sermons on the Miracles of Jesus ISBN 0-8254-3999-X page 132
  99. ^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0664257526 page 106
  100. ^ The Johannine exegesis of God by Daniel Rathnakara Sadananda 2005 ISBN 3110182483 page 281
  101. ^ Johannine Christology and the Early Church by T. E. Pollard 2005 ISBN 0521018684 page 21
  102. ^ Studies in Early Christology by Martin Hengel 2004 ISBN 0567042804 page 371
  103. ^ Studies in Revelation by M. R. De Haan, Martin Ralph DeHaan 1998 ISBN 0825424852 page 103
  104. ^ a b New Testament christology by Frank J. Matera 1999 ISBN 0664256945 page 67
  105. ^ The speeches in Acts: their content, context, and concerns by Marion L. Soards 1994 ISBN 0664252214 page 34
  106. ^ a b c d Christology by Hans Schwarz 1998 ISBN 0802844634 pages 132-134
  107. ^ Calvin's Christology by Stephen Edmondson 2004 ISBN 0521541549 page 91
  108. ^ The Reading and Preaching of the Scriptures by Hughes Oliphant Old 2002 ISBN 0802847757 page 125
  109. ^ The Lamb of God by Sergei Bulgakov 2008 ISBN 0802827799 page 129
  110. ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0860120066 page 74
  111. ^ The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology by Berard L. Marthaler 2007 ISBN 0896225372 page 361
  112. ^ Theology of Paul the Apostle by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN page 235
  113. ^ a b Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 0-19-530013-0
  114. ^ Meditation and Piety in the Far East by Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Sverre Holth 2004 ISBN 0227172353 page 30
  115. ^ Corinthians 15:42-49 with commentary by Dale B. Martin, The Corinthian Body, Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0300081723 p. 126 in particular.
  116. ^ National Interest - Archbishop Peter Carnley
  117. ^ Ignatius makes many passing references, but two extended discussions are found in the Letter to the Trallians and the Letter to the Smyrnaeans.
  118. ^ The Resurrection and the icon by Michel Quenot 1998 ISBN 0881411493 page 72

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