Ministry of Jesus


Ministry of Jesus

In the Christian gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples.[1] The Gospel of Luke (3:23) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry.[2][3] The date of the start of his ministry has been estimated at around 27-29 AD/CE and the end in the range 30-36 AD/CE.[2][3][4][2][5][3][6]

Jesus' Early Galilean ministry begins when after his Baptism, he goes back to Galilee from his time in the Judean desert.[7] In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church.[1][8] The Major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the Commissioning the twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee.[9][10] The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.[11][12]

In the Later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.[13][14][15][16] As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Later Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized.[17][18][19]

The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.[20] The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.[21]

Contents

Overview

Judea and Galilee at the time of Jesus

The gospel accounts place the beginning of Jesus' ministry in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan.[1]

The gospels present John the Baptist's ministry as the pre-cursor to that of Jesus and the Baptism of Jesus as marking the beginning of Jesus' ministry, after which Jesus travels, preaches and performs miracles.[22][23][1]

Jesus's Baptism is generally considered the beginning of his ministry and the Last Supper with his disciples in Jerusalem as the end.[22][1] However, some authors also consider the period between the Resurrection and the Ascension part of the ministry of Jesus.[24]

Luke 3:23 states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry.[2][3] There have been different approaches to estimating the date of the start of the ministry of Jesus.[2][25][26][27] One approach, based on combining information from the Gospel of Luke with historical data about Emperor Tiberius yields a date around 28-29 AD/CE, while a second independent approach based on statements in the Gospel of John along with historical information from Josephus about the Temple in Jerusalem leads to a date around 27-29 AD/CE.[3][25][26][28][29][4]

In the New Testament, the date of the Last Supper is very close to the date of the crucifixion of Jesus (hence its name). Scholarly estimates for the date of the crucifixion generally fall in the range AD 30-36.[30][31][32]

The three Synoptic gospels refer to just one passover during his ministry, while the Gospel of John refers to three passovers, suggesting a period of about three years.[33][22] However, the Synoptic gospels do not require a ministry that lasted only one year, and scholars such as Köstenberger state that the Gospel of John simply provides a more detailed account.[22][34][23]

During the ministry of Jesus, the tetrarch ruling over Galilee and Perea in this period was Herod Antipas, who obtained the position upon the division of the territories following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC/BCE.[35]

Baptism and early ministry

Part of the Madaba Map showing Bethabara (Βέθαβαρά), calling it the place where John baptised

The gospels present John the Baptist's ministry as the pre-cursor to that of Jesus and the Baptism of Jesus as marking the beginning of Jesus' ministry.[22][23][1]

In his sermon in Acts 10:37-38, delivered in the house of Cornelius the centurion, Apostle Peter gives an overview of the ministry of Jesus, and refers to what had happened "throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached" and that Jesus whom "God anointed with the Holy Spirit and with power" had gone about "doing good".[36]

John 1:28 specifies the location where John was baptizing as "Bethany beyond the Jordan".[37][38] This is not the village Bethany just east of Jerusalem, but the town Bethany, also called Bethabara in Perea.[38] Perea is the province east of the Jordan, across the southern part of Samaria, and although the New Testament does not mention Perea by name, John 3:23 implicitly refers to it again when it states that John was baptising in Enon near Salim, "because there was much water there".[37][38] First century historian Flavius Josephus also wrote (Ant 18.5.2) that John the Baptist was imprisoned and then killed in Machaerus on the border of Perea.[39][40]

Luke 3:23 and Luke 4:1 indicate possible activities of Jesus in Judea and Perea around the time of his baptism, as does the initial encounter with the disciples of John the Baptist, in John 1:35-37 where "two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus".[41][42][43] Assuming that there were two incidences of Cleansing of the Temple, another possible reference to an early Judean ministry may be John 2:13-25.[44][45][46]

Ministry in Galilee

Early Galilean ministry

Towns in Roman controlled Judea and Galilee (in red) and Decapolis ( in black). Perea is the area south of Pella on the eastern side of River Jordan.

The Early Galilean ministry begins when Jesus goes back to Galilee from the Judean desert after rebuffing the temptation of Satan.[47] In this early period Jesus preaches around Galilee and in Matthew 4:18-20 his first disciples encounter him, begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church.[1][8]

The Gospel of John includes Marriage at Cana as the first miracle of Jesus taking place in this early period of ministry, before he returns to Galilee.[48][49] A few villages in Galilee (e.g. Kafr Kanna) have been suggested as the location of Cana.[50][51]

The return of Jesus to Galilee follows the arrest of John the Baptist.[52] The early teachings of Jesus result in his rejection at his hometown when in Luke 4:16-30 Jesus says in a Synagogue: "No prophet is acceptable in his own country" and the people reject him.

In this early period, Jesus' reputation begins to spread throughout Galilee. In Mark 1:21-28 and Luke 4:31-37 Jesus goes to Capernaum where people are "astonished at his teaching; for his word was with authority", in the Exorcism at the Synagogue in Capernaum episode, which is followed by healing the mother of Peter's wife.[53][54]

Luke 5:1-11 includes the first Miraculous draught of fishes episode in which Jesus tells Peter "now on you will catch men", Peter leaves his net and along with him James and John, the sons of Zebedee, follow Jesus as disciples thereafter.[55][56][57]

This period includes the Sermon on the Mount, one the major discourses of Jesus in Matthew and the Sermon on the Plain in the Gospel of Luke.[8][58] The Sermon on the Mount which covers chapters 5, 6 and 7 of the Gospel of Matthew is the first of the Five Discourses of Matthew and is the longest piece of teaching from Jesus in the New Testament.[59] It encapsulates many of the moral teaching of Jesus and includes the Beatitudes, and the widely recited Lord's Prayer.[59][58][60]

The Beatitudes are expressed as eight blessings in the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew and four similar blessings appear in the Sermon on the Plain in Luke, where they are followed by four woes that mirror the blessings.[61] The Beatitudes present the highest ideals of the teachings of Jesus on mercy, spirituality and compassion.[62][61]

Major Galilean ministry

The Major Galilean ministry, also called the Great Galilean ministry, begins in Matthew 8, after the Sermon on the Mount and refers to activities up to the death of John the Baptist.[63][64]

The beginnings of this period include the two miracles of The Centurion's Servant (8:5-13) and Calming the storm (Matthew 8:23-27) both dealing with the theme of faith and fear. When the Centurion shows faith in Jesus by requesting a "healing at a distance" Jesus commends him for his exceptional faith.[65] On the other hand, when his own disciples show fear of a storm on the Sea of Galilee, Jesus instructs them to have more faith, after he orders the storm to stop.[66][67]

The Calling of Matthew by Vittore Carpaccio, 1502

In this period, Jesus is still gathering the twelve apostles, and the Calling of Matthew takes place in Matthew 9:9.[68] The conflicts and criticism between Jesus and the Pharisees continue, e.g. they criticize Jesus for associating with "publicans and sinners", whereby Jesus responds: "It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."

Commissioning the twelve Apostles relates the initial selection of the twelve Apostles among the disciples of Jesus.[69][70] Jesus goes out to a mountainside to pray, and after spending the night praying to God, in the morning he calls his disciples and chooses twelve of them.[71]

In the Mission Discourse, Jesus instructs the twelve apostles who are named in Matthew 10:2-3 to carry no belongings as they travel from city to city and preach.[72][10] Separately in Luke 10:1-24 relates the Seventy Disciples, where Jesus appoints a larger number of disciples and sent them out in pairs with the Missionary's Mandate to go into villages before Jesus' arrival there.[73]

In Matthew 11:2-6 two messengers from John the Baptist arrive to ask Jesus if he is the expected Messiah, or "shall we wait for another?"[74] Jesus replies, "Go back and report to John what you hear and see: The blind receive sight, the lame walk".[75] Following this, Jesus begins to speak to the crowds about the Baptist.[76]

This period is in rich in parables and teachings and includes the Parabolic discourse which provides many of the parables for the Kingdom of Heaven beginning in Matthew 13:1[77][78] These include the parables of The Sower, The Tares, The Mustard Seed and The Leaven addressed to the public at large, as well as The Hidden Treasure, The Pearl and Drawing in the Net.[78]

Final Galilean ministry

The Final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist and includes the Feeding the 5000 and Walking on water episodes, both in Matthew 14.[79][12] After hearing of the Baptist's death, Jesus withdraws by boat privately to a solitary place near Bethsaida, where he addresses the crowds who had followed him on foot from the towns, and feeds them all by "five loaves and two fish" supplied by a boy.[80]

Following this, the gospels present the Walking on water episode in Matthew 14:22-23, Mark 6:45-52 and John 6:16-21 as an important step in developing the relationship between Jesus and his disciples, at this stage of his ministry.[81] The episode emphasizes the importance of faith by stating that when he attempted to walk on water, Peter began to sink when he lost faith and became afraid, and at the end of the episode, the disciples increase their faith in Jesus and in Matthew 14:33 they say: "Of a truth thou art the Son of God".[82]

Major teaching in this period include the Discourse on Defilement in Matthew 15:1–20 and Mark 7:1–23 where in response to a complaint from the Pharisees Jesus states: "What goes into a man's mouth does not make him 'unclean,' but what comes out of his mouth, that is what makes him 'unclean.'".[83]

Following this episode Jesus withdrawas into the "parts of Tyre and Sidon" near the Mediterranean Sea where the Canaanite woman's daughter episode takes place in Matthew 15:21–28 and Mark 7:24-30.[84] This episode is an example of how Jesus emphasizes the value of faith, telling the woman: "Woman, you have great faith! Your request is granted."[84] The importance of faith is also emphasized in the Cleansing ten lepers episode in Luke 17:11-19.[85][86]

In the Gospel of Mark, after passing through Sidon Jesus enters the region of the Decapolis, a group of ten cities south east of Galilee, where the Healing the deaf mute miracle is reported in Mark 7:31-37, where after the healing he disciples say: "He even makes the deaf hear and the mute speak." The episode is the last in a series of narrated miracles which builds up to Peter's proclamation of Jesus as Christ in Mark 8:29.[87]

Judea and Perea to Jerusalem

Later Judean ministry

In this period, Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea. A the beginning of this period, Jesus predicts his death for the first time, and this prediction then builds up to the other two episodes, the final prediction being just before Jesus enters Jerusalem for the last time, the week of his crucifixion.[88][89] In Matthew 16:21–28 and Mark 8:31–33 Jesus teaches his disciples that "the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and after three days rise again.[90]

Pietro Perugino's depiction of the "Giving of the Keys to Saint Peter" by Jesus, 1492

Later in this period, at about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels, two related episodes mark a turning point in the ministry of Jesus: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus.[13][14][91][92] These episodes begin in Caesarea Philippi just north of the Sea of Galilee at the beginning of the final journey to Jerusalem which ends in the Passion and Resurrection of Jesus.[93] These episodes mark the beginnings of the gradual disclosure of the identity of Jesus as the Messiah to his disciples; and his prediction of his own suffering and death.[13][14][93][94][95]

Peter's Confession begins as a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples in Matthew 16:13, Mark 8:27 and Luke 9:18. Jesus asks his disciples: But who do you say that I am? Simon Peter answers him: You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.[93][96][97] In Matthew 16:17 Jesus blesses Peter for his answer, and states: "flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven." In blessing Peter, Jesus not only accepts the titles Christ and Son of God which Peter attributes to him, but declares the proclamation a divine revelation by stating that his Father in Heaven had revealed it to Peter.[98] In this assertion, by endorsing both titles as divine revelation, Jesus unequivocally declares himself to be both Christ and the Son of God.[98][99]

In the Gospel of Matthew, following this episode Jesus also selects Peter as the leader of the Apostles, and states that "upon this rock I will build my church".[35] In Matthew 16:18 Jesus then continues: "That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church". The word "church" (ekklesia in Greek) as used here, appears in the Gospels only once more, in Matthew 18:17, and refers to the community of believers at the time.[100]

Later Perean ministry

Following the proclamation by Peter, the account of the Transfiguration of Jesus is the next major event and appears in Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:2-8, Luke 9:28-36.[14][94][95][95] Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles with him and goes up to a mountain, which is not named. Once on the mountain, Matthew (17:2) states that Jesus "was transfigured before them; his face shining as the sun, and his garments became white as the light." At that point the prophets Elijah and Moses appear and Jesus begins to talk to them.[94] Luke is specific in describing Jesus in a state of glory, with Luke 9:32 referring to "they saw his glory".[101] A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud states: "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him".[94]

Sixth century mosaic of the Raising of Lazarus, church of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy.

The Transfiguration not only supports the identity of Jesus as the Son of God (as in his Baptism), but the statement "listen to him", identifies him as the messenger and mouth-piece of God.[102] The significance is enhanced by the presence of Elijah and Moses, for it indicates to the apostles that Jesus is the voice of God, and instead of Elijah or Moses, he should be listened to, by virtue of his filial relationship with God.[102] 2 Peter 1:16-18, echoes the same message: at the Transfiguration God assigns to Jesus a special "honor and glory" and it is the turning point at which God exalts Jesus above all other powers in creation.[103]

Many of the episodes in the Later Judean ministry are are from the Gospel of Luke, but in general these sequence of episodes in Luke do not provide enough geographical information to determine Perea, but scholars generally assume that the route Jesus followed from from Galilee to Jerusalem passed through Perea.[104] However, the Gospel of John does state that he returned to the area where he was baptized, and John 10:40-42 states that "many people believed in him beyond the Jordan", saying "all things whatsoever John spake of this man were true".[105][106][107] The area where Jesus was baptised is inferred as the vicinity of the Perea area, given the activities of the Baptist in Bethabara and Ænon in John 1:28 and 3:23.[37][38]

This period of ministry includes the Discourse on the Church in which Jesus anticipates a future community of followers, and explains the role of his apostles in leading it.[77][108] It includes the parables of The Lost Sheep and The Unforgiving Servant in Matthew 18 which also refer to the Kingdom of Heaven. The general theme of the discourse is the anticipation of a future community of followers, and the role of his apostles in leading it.[109][110] Addressing his apostles in 18:18, Jesus states: "what things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and what things soever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven". The discourse emphasizes the importance of humility and self sacrifice as the high virtues within the anticipated community. It teaches that in the Kingdom of God, it is childlike humility that matters, not social prominence and clout.[109][110]

At the end of this period, the Gospel of John includes the Raising of Lazarus episode in John 11:1-46 in which Jesus brings Lazarus of Bethany back to life four days after his burial.[20] In the Gospel of John, the raising of Lazarus is the climax of the "seven signs" which gradually confirm the identity of Jesus as the Son of God and the expected Messiah.[111] It is also a pivotal episode which starts the chain of events that leads to the crowds seeking Jesus on his Triumphal entry into Jerusalem - leading to the decision of Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin to plan to kill Jesus.Crucifixion of Jesus.[112]

Final ministry in Jerusalem

Jesus enters Jerusalem and the crowds welcome him, by Giotto, 14th century.

The Final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the Passion Week and begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem early in the week that includes the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion.[20][113][114][115][116][117] The gospels pay special attention to the account of the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem, and the narrative amounts to about one third of the text of the four gospels, showing its theological significance in Christian thought in the Early Church.[21][118]

Before arriving in Jerusalem, in John 12:9-11, after raising Lazarus from the dead, crowds gather around Jesus and believe in him, and the next day the multitudes that had gathered for the feast in Jerusalem welcome Jesus as he descends from the Mount of Olives towards Jerusalem in Matthew 21:1-11, Mark 11:1-11, Luke 19:28-44 and John 12:12-19.[113][115][114][119] In Luke 19:41-44 as Jesus approaches Jerusalem, he looks at the city and weeps over it, foretelling the suffering that awaits the city.[113][115][120]

Casting out the money changers by Giotto, 14th century.

In the three Synoptic Gospels, entry into Jerusalem is followed by the Cleansing of the Temple episode, in which Jesus expels the money changers from the Temple, accusing them of turning the Temple to a den of thieves through their commercial activities. This is the only account of Jesus using physical force in any of the Gospels.[121][122][123] The synoptics include a number of well known parables and sermons such as the Widow's mite and the Second Coming Prophecy during the week that follows.[113][114]

In that week, the synoptics also narrate conflicts between Jesus and the elders of the Jews, in episodes such as the Authority of Jesus Questioned and the Woes of the Pharisees in which Jesus criticizes their hypocrisy.[113][114] Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles approaches the Jewish elders and performs the "Bargain of Judas" in which he accepts to betray Jesus and hand him over to the elders.[124][125][126] Matthew specifies the price as thirty silver coins.[125]

In Matthew 24, Mark 13 and Luke 21 Jesus provides a Discourse on the End Times which is also called the Olivet Discourse because it was given on the Mount of Olives.[77] The discourse is mostly about judgment and the expected conduct of the followers of Jesus, and the need for vigilance by the followers in view of the coming judgment.[127] The discourse is generally viewed as referring both to the coming destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, as well as the End Times and Second Coming of Christ, but the many scholarly opinions about which verses refer to which event remain divided.[109][127]

A key episode in the final part of the ministry of Jesus is the Last Supper which includes the Institution of the Eucharist. In Matthew 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19-20 during the last supper, Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the disciples, saying: "This is my body which is given for you". In 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 (which was likely written before the Gospels) Apostle Paul refers to it.[128][129][130][131][132] John 14-17 concludes the Last Supper with a long, three chapter sermon known as the Farewell discourse which prepares the disciples for the departure of Jesus.[133][134]

See also

References

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  4. ^ a b Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible states that Jesus began his ministry "ca 28 AD" at "ca age 31". In Chronos, kairos, Christos: Paul L. Maier specifically states that he considers the Temple visit date in John at "around 29 AD/CE", using various factors that he summarizes in a chronology table. Maier's table considers 28 AD/CE to be roughly the 32nd birthday of Jesus, and at http://www.mtio.com/articles/aissar30.htm Paul Meir clearly states that 5 BC/BCE was the year of birth of Jesus. Paul N. Anderson dates the temple incident at "around 26-27 AD/CE" Jerry Knoblet estimates the date as around AD 27 AD/CE. In their book, Robert Fortna & Thatcher estimate the date at around AD/CE 28. Köstenberger & Kellum (page 140) make the same statement as Maier, namely that the 32nd birthday of Jesus was around 28 AD/CE when his ministry began.
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  78. ^ a b Matthew by Charles H. Talbert 2010 ISBN 0801031923 (Discourse 3) pages 162–173
  79. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 97-110
  80. ^ Robert Maguire 1863 The miracles of Christ published by Weeks and Co. London page 185
  81. ^ Merrill Chapin Tenney 1997 John: Gospel of Belief ISBN 0802843514 page 114
  82. ^ Dwight Pentecost 2000 The words and works of Jesus Christ ISBN 0310309409 page 234
  83. ^ Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study by Graham H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0830815961 page 79
  84. ^ a b Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study by Graham H. Twelftree 1999 ISBN 0830815961 pages 133-134
  85. ^ Berard L. Marthaler 2007 The creed: the apostolic faith in contemporary theology ISBN 0-89622-537-2 page 220
  86. ^ Lockyer, Herbert, 1988 All the Miracles of the Bible ISBN 0-310-28101-6 page 235
  87. ^ Lamar Williamson 1983 Mark ISBN 0804231214 pages 138-140
  88. ^ St Mark's Gospel and the Christian faith by Michael Keene 2002 ISBN 0748767754 pages 24-25
  89. ^ The temptations of Jesus in Mark's Gospel by Susan R. Garrett 1996 ISBN 9780802842596 pages 74-75
  90. ^ Matthew for Everyone by Tom Wright 2004 ISBN 0664227872 page 9
  91. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 pages 121-135
  92. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 189-207
  93. ^ a b c The Collegeville Bible Commentary: New Testament by Robert J. Karris 1992 ISBN 0814622119 pages 885-886
  94. ^ a b c d Transfiguration by Dorothy A. Lee 2005 ISBN 9780826475954 pages 21-30
  95. ^ a b c The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition by Mark Harding, Alanna Nobbs 2010 ISBN 9780802833181 pages 281-282
  96. ^ Who do you say that I am? Essays on Christology by Jack Dean Kingsbury, Mark Allan Powell, David R. Bauer 1999 ISBN 0664257526 page xvi
  97. ^ The Gospel of Mark, Volume 2 by John R. Donahue, Daniel J. Harrington 2002 ISBN 0814659659 page 336
  98. ^ a b One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel by John Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 ISBN 3110181517 pages 240-241
  99. ^ Jesus God and Man by Wolfhart Pannenberg 1968 ISBN 0664244688 pages 53-54
  100. ^ The Gospel of Matthew by Rudolf Schnackenburg 2002 ISBN 0802844383 pages 7-9
  101. ^ Transfiguration by Dorothy A. Lee 2005 ISBN 9780826475954 pages 72-76
  102. ^ a b Metamorphosis: the Transfiguration in Byzantine theology and iconography by Andreas Andreopoulos 2005 ISBN 0881412953 pages 47-49
  103. ^ The Bible knowledge background commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation by Craig A. Evans ISBN 0781442281 pages 319-320
  104. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0865543739 page 929
  105. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 137
  106. ^ The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels by Douglas Redford 2007 ISBN 0784719004 pages 211-229
  107. ^ Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 1998 ISBN 0865543739 page 929
  108. ^ Behold the King: A Study of Matthew by Stanley D. Toussaint 2005 ISBN 0825438454 pages 215-216
  109. ^ a b c Matthew by Larry Chouinard 1997 ISBN 0899006280 page 321
  110. ^ a b Behold the King: A Study of Matthew by Stanley D. Toussaint 2005 ISBN 0825438454 pages 215-216
  111. ^ The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 9780805443653 pages 312-313
  112. ^ Francis J. Moloney, Daniel J. Harrington, 1998 The Gospel of John Liturgical Press ISBN 0814658067 page 325
  113. ^ a b c d e The people's New Testament commentary by M. Eugene Boring, Fred B. Craddock 2004 ISBN 0664227546 pages 256-258
  114. ^ a b c d The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0781438683 page 381-395
  115. ^ a b c The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke by Ján Majerník, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt 2005 ISBN 1931018316 pages 133-134
  116. ^ The Bible knowledge background commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation by Craig A. Evans ISBN 0781442281 pages 114-118
  117. ^ Matthew 21:1-11, Mark 11:1-11, Luke 19:28-44 John 12:12-19
  118. ^ Preaching Through the Christian Year, Year C by Fred B. Craddock, John H. Hayes, Carl R. Holladay, Gene M. Tucker 1994 ISBN 1563381001 page 172
  119. ^ John 12-21 by John MacArthur 2008 ISBN 9780802408242 pages 17-18
  120. ^ Mercer Commentary on the New Testament by Watson E. Mills 2003 ISBN 0865548641 pages 1032-1036
  121. ^ The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 ISBN 0802837859 page 571-572
  122. ^ The Bible knowledge background commentary by Craig A. Evans 2005 ISBN 0781442281 page 49
  123. ^ The Fourth Gospel And the Quest for Jesus by Paul N. Anderson 2006 ISBN 0567043940 page 158
  124. ^ Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:1-6
  125. ^ a b All the Apostles of the Bible by Herbert Lockyer 1988 ISBN 0310280117 page 106-111
  126. ^ The Synoptic Gospels and the Book of Acts by Doremus Almy Hayes 2009 ISBN 1115877313 page 88
  127. ^ a b The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon Morris 1992 ISBN 0851113389 pages 593-596
  128. ^ Matthew 26:20, Mark 14:17, Luke 22:21-23 John 13:1
  129. ^ Steven L. Cox, Kendell H Easley, 2007 Harmony of the Gospels ISBN 0-8054-9444-8 page 180-191
  130. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, 2005 ISBn 9780802824165 pages 52-56
  131. ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0781438683 pages 465-477
  132. ^ Matthew 26:20, Mark 14:17, Luke 22:21-23 John 13:1
  133. ^ John by Gail R. O'Day, Susan Hylen 2006 ISBN 9780664252601, Chapter 15: The Farewell Discourse, pages 142-168
  134. ^ The Gospel according to John by Herman Ridderbos 1997 ISBN 9780802804532 The Farewell Prayer: pages 546-576

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