Malolos Congress


Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
Type
Type Unicameral
Houses Asociación de representantes
Timeline
Philippines
Established September 15, 1898
Preceded by Spanish Cortes
Ayuntamiento
Succeeded by Taft Commission
Disbanded November 13, 1899
Members 136
Philippines

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The Malolos Congress was the constituent assembly of the First Philippine Republic. It drafted the Malolos Constitution.

Contents

Political Constitution

Following the declaration of independence from Spain on June 12, 1898 and transformation of the dictatorial government to a revolutionary government on 23 June, the Malolos Congress election was held between June 23 and September 10. On 15 September 1898, the revolutionary congress convened in Barasoain Church in Malolos (now Malolos City, Bulacan, with Pedro Paterno as president and Gregorio Araneta as vice president.[1] On 29 September, the 12 June Declaration of independence was ratified.[2] The congress then decided to draft a Constitution, a decision opposed by Apolinario Mabini, the Prime Minister of the revolutionary government.[2] The resulting Malolos Constitution was ratified on November 29, 1898, signed into law on December 23, approved on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by President Emilio Aguinaldo on January 21, and promulgated on January 22.[3][4][not in citation given] It was the first republican constitution in Asia.[5][not in citation given] The document states that the people have exclusive sovereignty. It states basic civil rights, separated the church from the state, and called for the creation of an Assembly of Representatives which would act as the legislative body. It also calls for a Presidential form of government with the president elected for a term of four years by a majority of the Assembly.[6]

Sessions

  • Regular Session: September 15, 1898 – November 13, 1899
    • Special Session: February 4, 1899

Legislation

Major legislation

Legislation Enactment Ratification
Declaration of Independence[7] June 12, 1898 September 29, 1898
Declaration of War against the United States[8] June 2, 1899 June 2, 1899

Malolos Constitution

Malolos Constitution[6]
Approved Promulgated
January 21, 1899 January 22, 1899

Leadership

  • President of the Revolutionary Government/First Philippine Republic:
Emilio Aguinaldo y Fámy
  • Prime Minister of the Revolutionary Government/First Philippine Republic:
Apolinario M. Mabini
Pedro A. Paterno elected on May 7, 1899
  • President of the Assembly of Representatives:
Pedro A. Paterno

Cabinet Members

  • Minister of Finance:
Mariano Trias y Closas
Hugo Ilagan elected on May 7, 1899
  • Minister of the Interior:
Teodoro Sandico
Severino de las Alas elected on May 7, 1899
  • Minister of War:
Baldomero Aguinaldo y Baloy
Mariano Trias y Closas elected on May 7, 1899
  • Minister of Welfare:
Gracio Gonzaga
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs:
Apolinario Mabini y Maranan
Leon Ma. Guerrero elected on May 7, 1899
  • Minister of Public Instruction:
Aguedo Velarde
  • Minister of Public Works and Communication:
Maximo Paterno
  • Minister of Public Works and Communication:
Leon Ma. Guerrero

Members

Soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary Army during a session of the congress.

List of congress members by province as of July 7, 1899.[9][10]

Province Elected Appointed
Manila 4 0
Batangas 4 0
Bulacan 4 0
Cavite 4 0
Camarines 4 0
Ilocos Sur 3 1
Ilocos Norte 6 0
Laguna 4 0
Pampanga 4 0
Pangasinan 2 2
Iloilo 0 4
Cebu 0 4
Leyte 0 4
Albay 4 1
Cagayan 1 2
Bataan 3 0
Isabela 2 1
Union 1 2
Nueva Ecija 3 0
Tarlac 3 0
Zambales 2 1
Sorsogon 0 3
Negros Occidental 0 3
Negros Oriental 0 3
Samar 0 3
Capiz 0 3
Antigua 0 3
Bohol 0 3
Zamboanga 0 3
Misamis 0 3
Calamianes 0 3
Masbate 0 3
Mindoro 1 2
Morong 2 0
Lepanto 3 0
Batanes Islands 1 1
Nueva Vizcaya 1 1
Abra 1 0
Padre Burgos (Benguet) 1 2
Catanduanes 0 2
Paragua 0 2
Totals 68 68
136

See also

References

  1. ^ Kalaw 1927, pp. 120, 124–125
  2. ^ a b Kalaw 1927, p. 125.
  3. ^ Guevara 2005, p. 104.
  4. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). The encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars: a political, social, and military history. ABC-CLIO. pp. 364–365[not in citation given]. ISBN 9781851099511. http://books.google.com/books?id=8V3vZxOmHssC 
  5. ^ Tucker 2009, pp. 364–365
  6. ^ a b Guevara, Sulpico, ed (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). pp. 104–119. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=philamer;iel=1;view=toc;idno=aab1246.0001.001. Retrieved 2008-03-26 . (English translation by Sulpicio Guevara)
  7. ^ The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence
  8. ^ Pedro Paterno's Proclamation of War. MSC Schools, Philippines. June 2, 1899. http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/pa990602.html. Retrieved 2007-10-17 
  9. ^ Kalaw, Maximo M. (1927). The development of Philippine politics. Oriental commercial. p. 121. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=philamer;idno=AFJ2233.0001.001. Retrieved 2008-03-22  (citing Volume II, Galley 2 of Major J. R. M. Taylor's translation and compilation of captured insurgent records (Taylor 1907)
  10. ^ *War Department, Bureau of Insular Affairs (1907). "I. Telegraphic Correspondence of Emilio Aguinaldo, July 15, 1898 to February 28, 1899, Annotated". In Taylor, John R.M.. Compilation of Philippine Insurgent Records. Combined Arms Research Library. http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/p4013coll11&CISOPTR=374&filename=374.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-10 

External links

Further reading

  • Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library
  • The Presidents of the Senate of the Republic of the Philippines. Quezon City: Giraffe Books. 2000. ISBN 971-8832-24-6. 
  • Pobre, Cesar P. (2000). Philippine Legislature 100 Years. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publ.. ISBN 971-92245-0-9. 

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