House of Representatives of the Philippines


House of Representatives of the Philippines

Infobox Parliament
name = House of Representatives of the Philippines
coa_pic = Phil HOR.png coa-pic =
session_room =
house_type = Lower house
houses = House of Representatives
leader1_type = House Speaker
leader1 = Prospero C. Nograles
party1 = Lakas-CMD
election1 = February 5, 2008
leader2_type = Deputy Speakers
leader2 = Arnulfo T. Fuentebella "Luzon"
Raul V. del Mar "Visayas"
Simeon A. Datumanong "Mindanao"
Eric D. Singson "Central Luzon"
Ma. Amelita C. Villarosa "Women"
party2 =
election2 = July 24, 2006
members = Not more than 250 Representatives
Currently, only 238 Representatives
p_groups = Lakas-CMD + KAMPI
NPC
Liberal
Nacionalista
UNO
BAYAN
PDP-LABAN
PMP
Buhay
LDP
PDSP
APEC
CIBAC
Independents
Others

election3 = May 14, 2007
meeting_place = "Batasang Pambansa", Quezon City
website = http://www.congress.gov.ph
The House of Representatives of the Philippines (Filipino: "Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas") is the lower chamber of the Congress of the Philippines. The Senate is the upper chamber. The House is often informally called the "Congress". Members of the house are called "Congressmen" ("mga kinatawan" or "mga konggresista") and their title is "Representative". Congressmen are elected to a three-year term and can be reelected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms. Most congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 212 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people. There are also Sectoral Representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of Representatives.

The official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the "Batasang Pambansa" (literally, "national legislature") located at the Constitution Hill in Quezon City in Metro Manila. The building is often simply called "Batasan".

History

When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from September 1900 to October 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission.

The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907. Through the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th Congress of the United States was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature.

In 1916, the Jones Law or the Philippine Autonomy Act changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted.

Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines in 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. The 1973 Constitution abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral "Batasang Pambansa" parliamentary system of government.

The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines.

The presiding officer is the Speaker.

Exclusive powers

The House of Representatives has the exclusive power to propose legislation relating to appropriations, revenues, tariffs and increase of public debt. It is in this regard that the House is often referred to as having the "power of the purse." With the Senate membership having a national constituency, bills of local application and private bills are left to the House of Representatives to initiate. In all these instances, the Senate may just concur or propose amendments to such legislation.cite web|url= http://www.chanrobles.com/article6.htm|title= The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article VI|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library|date= |]

Impeachment

Another exclusive power of the House is to initiate all cases of impeachment against, the President, Vice President, members of the Supreme Court, members of the Constitutional Commissions (Commission on Elections, Commission on Audit), and the Ombudsman. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the Senate which tries and decide on the impeachment case.cite web|url= http://www.chanrobles.com/article11.htm|title= The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article XI|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library|date= |]

Commission on Appointments

On the basis of proportional representation of the political parties and the party-list organizations, the House elects twelve members or half of the membership of the Commission on Appointments, which is responsible for confirming the appointments of the President.cite web|url= http://www.chanrobles.com/article6.htm|title= The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article VI|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library|date= |]

House Electoral Tribunal

Similar to the Senate, the House of Representatives also constitutes its own electoral tribunal to judge all contests relating to the election, returns and qualification of its members. The House Electoral Tribunal is composed of nine members, of which three are justices of the Supreme Court and the remainder are elected by the House on the basis of proportional representation of the political parties and the party-list organizations. The most senior justice presides as its Chairman.cite web|url= http://www.chanrobles.com/article6.htm|title= The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article VI|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library|date= |]

Officers

peakers of the House

*1907-1922 Sergio Osmeña (Philippine Assembly, House of Representatives)
*1922-1933 Manuel A. Roxas (House of Representatives)
*1933-1935 Quintin Paredes (House of Representatives)
*1935-1935 Gil Montilla (National Assembly)
*1938-1941 Jose Yulo (National Assembly)
*1943-1944 Benigno Aquino Sr. (National Assembly, 2nd Republic)
*1945-1946 Jose Zulueta (House of Representatives)
*1946-1953 Eugenio Perez (House of Representatives)
*1954-1957 Jose B. Laurel, Jr. (House of Representatives)
*1957-1962 Daniel Romualdez (House of Representatives)
*1962-1967 Cornelio Villareal (House of Representatives)
*1967-1971 Jose B. Laurel, Jr. (House of Representatives)
*1971-1972 Cornelio Villareal (House of Representatives)
*1978-1984 Querube Makalintal (Interim Batasang Pambansa)
*1984-1986 Nicanor Yñiguez (Regular Batasang Pambansa)
*1987-1992 Ramon Mitra, Jr. (House of Representatives)
*1992-1998 Jose C. De Venecia, Jr.(House of Representatives)
*1998-2000 Manuel Villar Jr. (House of Representatives)
*2000-2001 Arnulfo Fuentebella (House of Representatives)
*2001 Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. (House of Representatives)
*2001-2008 Jose C. De Venecia, Jr. (House of Representatives)
*2008-pres Prospero C. Nograles (House of Representatives)

Latest election

District representation

:"Main article: Legislative districts of the Philippines"All provinces and several cities have at least one congressional/legislative district, whose residents vote for their own congressman. Each district covers a population of approximately 250,000 to 500,000 people. Provinces that have only one congressional/legislative district are divided into two provincial districts for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Council) members. For provinces that have more than one congressional/legislative district, the provincial districts are identical to the corresponding congressional/legislative district.

Legislative districts in provinces


* Abra (1)
* Agusan del Norte (2)
* Agusan del Sur (1)
* Aklan (1)
* Albay (3)
* Antique (1)
* Apayao (1)
* Aurora (1)
* Basilan (1)
* Bataan (2)
* Batanes (1)
* Batangas (4)
* Benguet (1)
* Biliran (1)
* Bohol (3)
* Bukidnon (3)
* Bulacan (4)
* Cagayan (3)
* Camarines Norte (1)
* Camarines Sur (4)
* Camiguin (1)
* Capiz (2)
* Catanduanes (1)
* Cavite (3)
* Cebu (6)
* Compostela Valley (2)
* Cotabato (2)

* Davao del Norte (2)
* Davao del Sur (2)
* Davao Oriental (2)
* Dinagat Islands (1)
* Eastern Samar (1)
* Guimaras (1)
* Ifugao (1)
* Ilocos Norte (2)
* Ilocos Sur (2)
* Iloilo (5)
* Isabela (4)
* Kalinga (1)
* La Union (2)
* Laguna (4)
* Lanao del Norte (2)
* Lanao del Sur (2)
* Leyte (5)
* Maguindanao (1)
* Marinduque (1)
* Masbate (3)
* Misamis Occidental (2)
* Misamis Oriental (2)
* Mountain Province (1)
* Negros Occidental (6)
* Negros Oriental (3)
* Northern Samar (2)
* Nueva Ecija (4)

* Nueva Vizcaya (1)
* Occidental Mindoro (1)
* Oriental Mindoro (2)
* Palawan (2)
* Pampanga (4)
* Pangasinan (6)
* Quezon (4)
* Quirino (1)
* Rizal (2)
* Romblon (1)
* Samar (2)
* Sarangani (1)
* Shariff Kabunsuan (1)
* Siquijor (1)
* Sorsogon (2)
* South Cotabato (2)
* Southern Leyte (1)
* Sultan Kudarat (1)
* Sulu (2)
* Surigao del Norte (2)
* Surigao del Sur (2)
* Tarlac (3)
* Tawi-Tawi (1)
* Zambales (2)
* Zamboanga del Norte (3)
* Zamboanga del Sur (2)
* Zamboanga Sibugay (1)

Legislative districts in cities


*Antipolo City (2)
*Bacolod City (1)
*Baguio City (1)
*Cagayan de Oro City (2)
*Caloocan City (2)
*Cebu City (2)
*Davao City (3)
*Iloilo City (1)

*Las Piñas City (1)
*Makati City (2)
*Malabon City and Navotas City (1)
*Mandaluyong City (1)
*Manila (6)
*Marikina City (2)
*Muntinlupa City (1)
*Parañaque City (2)

*Pasay City (1)
*Pasig City (1)
*Pateros and Taguig City (1)
*Quezon City (4)
*San Jose del Monte City (1)
*San Juan City (1)
*Taguig City (1)
*Valenzuela City (2)
*Zamboanga City (2)

ectoral representation

The party-list system is the name designated for the sectoral representation. Under the 1987 Constitution, the electorate can vote for certain party-list organizations in order to give voice to significant minorities of society that would otherwise not be adequately represented through geographical district. From 1987-1998, sectoral representatives were appointed by the President.

Since 1998, each voter votes for a single party-list organization. Organizations that garner at least 2% of the total number of votes are awarded one representative for every 2% up to a maximum of three representatives. Thus, there can be at most 50 sectoral representatives in Congress, though usually no more than 20 are elected because many organizations do not reach the required 2% minimum number of votes.

After the 2007 election, in a controversial decision, COMELEC changed how it allocates the party-list seats. Under the new formula only one party will have the maximum 3 seats. It based its decision on a formula contained in a Supreme Court decision.

Redistricting

Congress is mandated to reapportion the legislative districts within three years following the return of every census.cite web|url= http://www.chanrobles.com/article6.htm|title= The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Article VI|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library|date= |] Since its restoration in 1987, no general apportionment law has been passed, despite the publication of four censuses in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2007. [cite web|url= http://www.nscb.gov.ph/secstat/d_popn.asp|title= NSCB - Statistics - Population and Housing|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= National Statistical Coordination Board|date= |] The increase in the number of representative districts since 1987, were mostly due to the creation of new provinces, cities and piecemeal redistricting of certain provinces and cities.

Most populous legislative districts

:mnb|district|a Based on the Ordinance appended to the 1987 Constitution apportioning the seats of the House of Representatives. [cite web|url= http://www.chanrobles.com/ordinance.htm|title= The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines - Ordinance|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library|date= |] :mnb|population|b Based on the 2007 Census figures. [cite web|url= http://www.census.gov.ph/data/census2007/index.html|title= Final Results - 2007 Census of Population|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= National Statistics Office|date= |] :mnb|shariff kabunsuan|c Reverted back as the 1st District of Maguindanao as of July 16, 2008. [cite web|url= http://www.supremecourt.gov.ph/jurisprudence/2008/july2008/177597.htm|title= G.R. No. 177597|accessdate= 2008-07-25|author= Supreme Court of the Philippines|date= |]

ee also

* 2007 Batasang Pambansa bombing
* Politics of the Philippines
* President of the Philippines
* Executive Departments of the Philippines
* Congress of the Philippines
* Senate of the Philippines
* Ombudsman of the Philippines
* Supreme Court of the Philippines
* Republic Acts of the Philippines
* Batasang Pambansa

References

External links

* [http://www.congress.gov.ph Official Website of the House of Representatives]
* [http://www.senate.gov.ph Official Website of the Senate]


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