Philippine–American War


Philippine–American War

] cite news
first =Ambeth R.
last =Ocampo
year =2005
month =January 7
title =The First Filipino Novel
journal =Philippine Daily Inquirer
] cite web
title =Chronology of Significant Events Relating to the Career of Emilio Aguinaldo with Respect to the Various Imperialist and Anti-Imperialist Campaigns in the Philippines
work =randolf.bol.ucla.edu
url =http://web.archive.org/web/20060918062708/http://randolf.bol.ucla.edu/aguichron.htm
accessdate=2006-05-20
(from internet archive)] Harvnb|Brands|1992|p=46] Harvnb|Steinberg|1972|p=167, Citing Harvnb|Kalaw|1926|pp=92-98.
(Miller states that the amount was $800,000. Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=35)]

Aguinaldo wrote retrospectively in 1899 that he had met with U.S. Consuls E. Spencer Pratt and Rounceville Wildman in Singapore between April 22 and 25, and that they persuaded him to again take up the mantle of leadership in the revolution, with Pratt communicating with Admiral Dewey by telegram, passing assurances from Dewey to Aguinaldo that the United States would at least recognize the independence of the Philippines under the protection of the United States Navy, and adding that there was no necessity for entering into a formal written agreement because the word of the Admiral and of the United States Consul were in fact equivalent to the most solemn pledge that their verbal promises and assurance would be fulfilled to the letter and were not to be classed with Spanish promises or Spanish ideas of a man’s word of honour. Aguinaldo reports agreeing to return to the Philippines, traveling from Singapore to Hong Kong aboard the steamship "Malacca", onwards from Hong Kong on American dispatch-boat "McCulloch", and arriving in Cavite on May 19.Harvnb|Aguinaldo|1899|Ref=Aguinaldo1899ch3] The New York Times wrote on August 6, 1899 that Pratt had obtained a court order enjoining the publication of certain statements "... which might be regarded as showing a positive connection" between himself and Aguinaldo.Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9F0DE3D61530EE32A25755C2A96E9C94689ED7CF&oref=slogin
title=Spencer-Pratt and Aguinaldo
publisher=The New York Times
|date=August 26, 1899
accessdate = 2007-12-26
] The Times reports the court ruling to uphold Mr. Pratt's position that he had "no dealings of a political character" with Aguinaldo and the book publisher withdrew from publication statements to the contrary.

In Cavite, Aguinaldo reports meeting with Admiral Dewey, and recalls: "I asked whether it was true that he had sent all the telegrams to the Consul at Singapore, Mr. Pratt, which that gentleman had told me he received in regard to myself. The Admiral replied in the affirmative, adding that the United States had come to the Philippines to protect the natives and free them from the yoke of Spain. He said, moreover, that America is exceedingly well off as regards territory, revenue, and resources and therefore needs no colonies, assuring me finally that there was no occasion for me to entertain any doubts whatever about the recognition of the Independence of the Philippines by the United States." By late May Dewey had been ordered by the U.S. Department of the Navy to distance himself from Aguinaldo lest he make untoward commitments to the Philippine forces.

In a matter of months after Aguinaldo's return, the Philippine Army conquered nearly all of Spanish-held ground within the Philippines. With the exception of Manila, which was completely surrounded by the Philippine Army of 12,000, the Filipinos now controlled the Philippines. Aguinaldo also turned over 15,000 Spanish prisoners to the Americans, offering them valuable intelligence. On June 12 Aguinaldo declared independence at his house in Cavite El Viejo.

On August 13, with American commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between Spain and the United States on the previous day, American forces captured the city of Manila from the Spanish. [Citation |url=http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html |title=The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War |publisher=U.S. Library of Congress |accessdate=2007-10-10] Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes had made a secret agreement with Dewey and General Wesley Merritt. Jaudenes specifically requested to surrender only to the Americans, not to the Filipino rebels. In order to save face, he proposed a mock battle with the Americans preceding the Spanish surrender; the Filipinos would not be allowed to enter the city. Dewey and Merritt agreed to this, and no one else in either camp knew about the agreement. On the eve of the mock battle, General Thomas M. Anderson telegraphed Aguinaldo, “Do not let your troops enter Manila without the permission of the American commander. On this side of the Pasig River you will be under fire”.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|p=196]

At the beginning of the war between Spain and America, Americans and Filipinos had been allies against Spain in all but name; now Spanish and Americans were in a partnership that excluded the Filipino insurgents. Fighting between American and Filipino troops almost broke out as the former moved in to dislodge the latter from strategic positions around Manila on the eve of the attack. Aguinaldo had been told bluntly by the Americans that his army could not participate and would be fired upon if it crossed into the city. The insurgents were infuriated at being denied triumphant entry into their own capital, but Aguinaldo bided his time. Relations continued to deteriorate, however, as it became clear to Filipinos that the Americans were in the islands to stay.Citation
editor-last=Dolan
editor-first=Ronald E.
url=http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/phtoc.html
title=Philippines: A Country Study
location=Washington
publisher=Library of Congress
year=1991
chapter-url=http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ph0023)
chapter=Historical Setting—Outbreak of War, 1898
last=Seekins
first=Donald M.
accessdate=2007-12-25
]

The June 12 declaration of Philippine independence had not been recognized by either the United States or Spain, and the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which was signed on December 10, 1898, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost.

On January 1, 1899 Aguinaldo was declared President of the Philippines — the first and only president of what would be later called the First Philippine Republic. He later organized a Congress at Malolos, Bulacan to draft a constitution.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|pp=199-212]

Admiral Dewey later argued that he had promised nothing regarding the future:

War against the United States

Conflict origins

The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898, when Filipino revolutionary forces under Aguinaldo (later to become the Philippines' first Republican President) proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain after the latter was defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.

The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain, as the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost.

Tensions between the Philippine and the American governments existed because of the conflicting movements for independence and colonization, aggravated by the feelings of betrayal on the part of Aguinaldo. The Malolos Congress declared war on the United States on June 2, 1899, with Pedro Paterno, President of Congress, issuing a Proclamation of War. [Citation
url=http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/pa990602.html
title=Pedro Paterno's Proclamation of War
date=June 2, 1899
publisher=MSC Schools, Philippines
accessdate=2007-10-17
] The Philippine-American war ensued between 1899 and 1902.

First Philippine Commission

On January 20, 1899 President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (the Schurman Commission), to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it. Specific recommendations included the establishment of civilian government as rapidly as possible (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor), including establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels, and a system of free public elementary schools.cite web
url=http://countrystudies.us/philippines/16.htm
title=Philippines: United States Rule
publisher=U.S. Library of Congress
accessdate=2007-07-04
] Harvnb|Worcester|1914|Ref=worcester1914ch9|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=180 180] |Ref=worcester1914ch9 Ch.9]

On November 2, 1900 Dr. Schurman signed the following statement:

"Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn, the commissionbelieve that the government of the Philippines would speedily lapseinto anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate, theintervention of other powers and the eventual division of the islandsamong them. Only through American occupation, therefore, is the ideaof a free, self-governing, and united Philippine commonwealth atall conceivable. And the indispensable need from the Filipino pointof view of maintaining American sovereignty over the archipelago isrecognized by all intelligent Filipinos and even by those insurgentswho desire an American protectorate. The latter, it is true, wouldtake the revenues and leave us the responsibilities. Nevertheless,they recognize the indubitable fact that the Filipinos cannot standalone. Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coincides with the dictatesof national honour in forbidding our abandonment of the archipelago. Wecannot from any point of view escape the responsibilities of governmentwhich our sovereignty entails; and the commission is strongly persuadedthat the performance of our national duty will prove the greatestblessing to the peoples of the Philippine Islands." [...] [ [456] Report Philippine Commission, Vol. I, p. 183.]

First shots

The conflict began on the night of February 4, 1899 when a Filipino soldier was shot by an American soldier, Pvt. William W. Grayson (an English immigrant who only acquired U.S. citizenship in 1900.Citation
url=http://www.inquirer.net/globalnation/col_lob/2006/feb06.htm
title=The first shot
first=Ambeth
last=Ocampo
date=March 7, 2008
publisher=Philippine Daily Inquirer
] ) San Juan Bridge in modern San Juan City, Metro Manila was considered the site of the event until 2003, when the Philippine National Historical Institute relocated it to the Sosiego and Silencio Streets in Santa Mesa, Manila (moving a marker). [Carvajal, Nancy C. [http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view_article.php?article_id=116603 "RP-US war actually began in Manila, not San Juan."] "Philippine Daily Inquirer". 02/04/2008.] Immediately before the shooting, Grayson and others witnessed a series of outpost signals. Grayson's own account subsequently states:

"In a moment, something rose up slowly in front of us. It was a Filipino. I yelled “Halt!” and made it pretty loud, for I was accustomed to challenging the officer of the guard in approved military style. I challenged him with another loud “halt!” Then he shouted “halto!” to me. Well, I thought the best thing to do was to shoot him. He dropped. Then two Filipinos sprang out of the gateway about fifteen feet from us. I called "Halt" and Miller fired and dropped one. I saw that another was left. Well, I think I got my second Filipino that time. We retreated to where our six other fellows were and I said "Line up fellows, the niggers are in here all through these yards." We then retreated to the pipe line and got behind the water work main and stayed there all night. It was some minutes after our second shots before Filipinos began firing. [Harvnb|Wildman|1901] [Citation
chapter-url=http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/filam1.html
chapter=I. The Philippine American War
title= [http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/ Philippine Centennial Celebration collection]
publisher=msc.edu, citing Harvnb|Bautista|1998|p=Page number|date=March 2008
]

An eyewitness account from an American sergeant states that the shot Filipino was a "particularly abusive" officer who would curse at the sentries, regularly accompanied by a drunken mob. (This account conflicts with Grayson's version in some ways; it also claims "fire immediately erupted all along the [American] line" and "a large group of Filipinos, screaming at the top of their lungs" rushed the bridge and were checked by volley fire, details absent from Grayson's account). [Harvnb|Feuer|2002|pp= [http://books.google.com/books?id=pg-SZanwnuIC&pg=PA89&sig=S229JewmVAq9Abj6-kE2pa7oNOA 89-90] ] Some posit that the shot Filipino was himself probably drunk. [Harvnb|Karnow|1990|p=Page number|date=January 2008 ] Harvnb|Blitz|p=32] One account says there were four Filipinos, drunk and unarmed, who mocked Grayson's challenge. "For more details see Battle of Manila (1899)".

Fighting soon erupted in Manila. On February 5 General Arthur MacArthur ordered his troops to advance without investigating the incident.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|p=217] The fighting caused 2,000 casualties for Filipinos and 250 for the Americans.Fact|date=March 2008

Aguinaldo was in Malolos when the conflict started. That same night, a Filipino captain wired Malolos, stating the Americans had started the hostilities. The next day (February 5) Aguinaldo sent an emissary to General Elwell Otis to sue for peace, saying "the firing on our side the night before had been against my order." Otis replied: "Fighting having begun, must go on to the grim end." Aguinaldo then sent a telegram to all "local chiefs" informing them of the hostilities.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|p=218]

According to Murat Halstead, official historian of the U.S. Philippine Expedition, Aguinaldo issued the following proclamation:

Cquote|I order and command:

1. That peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken andthat the latter be treated as enemies, within the limits prescribedby the laws of war.

2. That the Americans captured be held as prisoners of war.

3. That this proclamation be communicated to the consuls and thatcongress order and accord a suspension of the constitutional guarantee,resulting from the declaration of war.

This proclamation may be the aforementioned telegram, but Halstead dates it to February 4.Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch28|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=318 318] ]

Aguinaldo also ordered an investigation of the events. It was learned that 200-300 American troops were shipped to Cavite on the morning of February 4, but were sent back to Manila without disembarking; also, on February 2 and 3, Filipino employees on American ships were dismissed from service for no apparent reason. Considering the American attack was sudden, these events led to Filipino suspicions that the Americans had planned to force them into war. In contrast, American authorities made no investigations and instead declared all-out war. Filipino historians Agoncillo and Renato Constantino both say American aggression sparked the war.

The Malolos Congress only declared war on the United States on June 2, 1899, with Pedro Paterno, President of Congress, issuing a Proclamation of War. [Citation
chapter-url=http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/pa990602.html
chapter=Pedro Paterno's Proclamation of War
title= [http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/ Philippine Centennial Celebration collection]
publisher=msc.edu, citing Harvnb|Bautista|1998|p=Page number|date=March 2008
] Harvnb|Halstead|1898|Ref=Halstead1898ch28 ch.28] Prior to this proclamation, several battles had already occurred.

U.S. President William McKinley later told reporters “that the "insurgents" had attacked Manila” in justifying war on the Philippines. [Citation
url=http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/view/20080203-116558/Manila-to-commemorate-start-of-the-Philippine-American-War
title=Manila to commemorate start of the Philippine-American War
author=Nancy C. Carvajal
publisher=Philippine Daily Inquirer
date=March 2, 2008
accessdate=2008-08-07
] The McKinley administration declared Aguinaldo to be an “outlaw bandit”, and no formal declaration of war was ever issued. Two reasons have been suggested for this:
# Calling the war the "Philippine Insurrection" made it appear to be a rebellion against a lawful government. [Harvnb|Karnow|1990|p=Page number|date=January 2008 ]
# To enable the American government to avoid liability to claims by veterans of the action.Fact|date=February 2007

econd Philippine Commission

The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission), appointed by McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers. Between September 1900 and August 1902 it issued 499 laws. A judicial system was established, including a Supreme Court, and a legal code was drawn up to replace antiquated Spanish ordinances. A civil service was organized. The 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards. The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, and undertaking necessary construction projects; they also elected provincial governors. [cite web
url=http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=T00000000006&page=1&epage=1
title=The Philippine Bill of July 1902
publisher=Filipiniana.net online digital library
date=July 1, 1902
accessdate=2008-01-07
]

American escalation

An American military force of 126,000 soldiers was needed to conquer the country, and the force was regularly engaged in war against Filipino forces for another decade. Also, Macabebe Filipinos were recruited by the United States Army. Twenty-six of the 30 American generals who served in the Philippines from 1898 to 1902 had fought in the Indian Wars. [Harvnb|Boot|2003|p=127]

By the end of February 1899 the Americans had prevailed in the struggle for Manila, and the Philippine Army was forced to retreat north. Hard-fought American victories followed at Quingua (April), Zapote Bridge (June), and Tirad Pass (December). With the June assassination of General Antonio Luna by rivals in the Philippine leadership, conventional military leadership was weakened. Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar fought a delaying action at Tirad Pass to allow Aguinaldo to escape, at the cost of his life. After this battle and the loss of two of their best generals, the Filipinos' ability to fight a conventional war rapidly diminished.

Philippine war strategy

Estimates of the Filipino forces vary between 80,000 and 100,000, with tens of thousands of auxiliaries.Harvnb|Deady|2005|p=55] Lack of weapons and ammunition was a significant impediment to the Filipinos. U.S. troop strength averaged 40,000 and peaked at 74,000. A total of 126,468 US soldiers served there. [Harvnb|Deady|2005|p=62]

The goal, or end-state, sought by the First Philippine Republic was a sovereign, independent, socially stable Philippines led by the "ilustrado" (intellectual) oligarchy.Harvnb|Deady|2005|p=57] Local chieftains, landowners, and businessmen were the "principales" who controlled local politics. The war was strongest when "illustrados", "principales", and peasants were unified in opposition to annexation. The peasants, who provided the bulk of guerrilla manpower, had interests different from their "illustrado" leaders and the "principales" of their villages. Coupled with the ethnic and geographic fragmentation, unity was a daunting task. The challenge for Aguinaldo and his generals was to sustain unified Filipino public opposition; this was the revolutionaries' strategic center of gravity.

The Filipino operational center of gravity was the ability to sustain its force of 100,000 irregulars in the field.Harvnb|Deady|2005|p=58] The Filipino general Francisco Makabulos described the Filipinos' war aim as, “not to vanquish the U.S. Army but to inflict on them constant losses.” They sought to initially use conventional tactics and an increasing toll of U.S. casualties to contribute to McKinley's defeat in the 1900 presidential election. Their hope was that as President the avowedly anti-imperialist William Jennings Bryan would withdraw from the Philippines. They pursued this short-term goal with guerilla tactics better suited to a protracted struggle. While targeting McKinley motivated the revolutionaries in the short term, his victory demoralized them and convinced many undecided Filipinos that the United States would not depart precipitately.

Guerrilla war phase

In 1900 Aguinaldo shifted from conventional to guerrilla warfare, a means of operation which better suited their disadvantaged situation and made American occupation of the Philippine archipelago all the more difficult over the next few years. In fact, during just the first four months of the guerrilla war, the Americans had nearly 500 casualties.Fact|date=February 2008 The Philippine Army began staging bloody ambushes and raids, such as the guerrilla victories at Paye, Catubig, Makahambus, Pulang Lupa, Balangiga and Mabitac. At first, it even seemed as if the Filipinos would fight the Americans to a stalemate and force them to withdraw. This was even considered by President McKinley at the beginning of the phase.

The shift to guerrilla warfare, however, only angered the Americans into acting more ruthlessly than before. They began taking no prisoners, burning whole villages, and routinely shooting surrendering Filipino soldiers. Much worse were the concentration camps that civilians were forced into, after being suspected of being guerrilla sympathizers. Thousands of civilians died in these camps. In nearly all cases, the civilians suffered much more than the guerrillas.Fact|date=February 2008

The subsequent American oppression of the population tremendously reduced the materials, men, and morale of many Filipino soldiers, compelling them in one way or another to surrender.

Decline and fall of the First Philippine Republic

The Philippine Army continued suffering defeats from the better armed American Army during the conventional warfare phase, forcing Aguinaldo to continuously change his base of operations, which he did for nearly the length of the entire war.

On March 23, 1901 General Frederick Funston and his troops captured Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela, with the help of some Filipinos (called the Macabebe Scouts after their home locale) who had joined the Americans' side. The Americans pretended to be captives of the Macabebes, who were dressed in Philippine Army uniforms. Once Funston and his “captors” entered Aguinaldo's camp, they immediately fell upon the guards and quickly overwhelmed them and the weary Aguinaldo.

On April 1, 1901, at the Malacañang Palace in Manila, Aguinaldo swore an oath accepting the authority of the United States over the Philippines and pledging his allegiance to the American government. Three weeks later he publicly called on his followers to lay down arms. “Let the stream of blood cease to flow; let there be an end to tears and desolation,” Aguinaldo said. “The lesson which the war holds out and the significance of which I realized only recently, leads me to the firm conviction that the complete termination of hostilities and a lasting peace are not only desirable but also absolutely essential for the well-being of the Philippines.” [Harvnb|Brands|1992|p=59]

The capture of Aguinaldo dealt a severe blow to the Filipino cause, but not as much as the Americans had hoped. General Miguel Malvar took over the leadership of the Filipino government, or what remained of it. [Cruz, Maricel V. [http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2008/jan/02/yehey/top_stories/20080102top6.html "Lawmaker: History wrong on Gen. Malvar."] "Manila Times", January 02, 2008] He originally had taken a defensive stance against the Americans, but now launched all-out offensive against the American-held towns in the Batangas region.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|p=247] General Vincente Lukban in Samar, and other army officers, continued the war in their respective areas.

In response General J. Franklin Bell adopted tactics to counter Malvar's guerrilla strategy. Forcing civilians to live in hamlets, interrogating suspected guerrillas (and regular civilians alike), and his scorched earth campaigns took a heavy toll on the Filipino revolutionaries.

Bell also relentlessly pursued Malvar and his men, breaking ranks, dropping morale, and forcing the surrender of many of the Filipino soldiers. Finally, Malvar surrendered, along with his sick wife and children and some of his officers, on April 13, 1902. By the end of the month nearly 3,000 of Malvar's men had also surrendered. With the surrender of Malvar, the Filipino war effort began to dwindle even further.

Official end to the war

The Philippine Organic Act of July 1902 approved, ratified, and confirmed McKinley's Executive Order establishing the Philippine Commission and stipulated that a legislature would be established composed of a lower house, the Philippine Assembly, which would be popularly elected, and an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission. The act also provided for extending the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos. [cite web
url=http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=T00000000006&page=1&epage=1
title=The Philippine Bill of July 1902
publisher=Filipiniana.net online digital library
date=July 1, 1902
accessdate=2008-01-07
]

On July 2 the Secretary of War telegraphed that the insurrection against the sovereign authority of the U.S. having come to an end, and provincial civil governments having been established, the office of Military governor was terminated. On July 4 Theodore Roosevelt, who had succeeded to the U.S. Presidency after the assassination of President McKinley on September 5, 1901, proclaimed a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all persons in the Philippine archipelago who had participated in the conflict. [Harvnb|Worcester|1914|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=180&fk_files=56151 180] ] [Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D0DE2D81330E733A25757C0A9619C946397D6CF
title=GENERAL AMNESTY FOR THE FILIPINOS; Proclamation Issued by the President
date=July 4, 1902
accessdate=2008-02-05
]

Post-1902 hostilities

Some Filipino historians like Constantino have suggested that the war unofficially continued for nearly a decade, since bands of guerrillas, quasi-religious armed groups and other resistance groups continued to roam the countryside, still clashing with American Army or Philippine Constabulary patrols. After the close of the war, however, Governor-General Taft preferred to rely on the Philippine Constabulary in a law-enforcement role rather than on the American army. He was, in fact, criticized for this.Harvnb|Worcester|1914|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=240 240] |Ref=worcester1914ch14 Ch.14]

Simeon Ola of Guinobatan, Albay in the Bicol region has been suggested as the last Filipino general to surrender (on September 25, 1903) in place of Malvar. [Dy-Liacco, Leonor R. (1996). "Sarung Dolot sa Satuyang Ina." J & R Printing Co. Inc.]

In 1902 a veteran "Katipunan" member and self-proclaimed "generalisimo" named Macario Sakay attempted to form his own Republic, called "Katagalugan" after Bonifacio's, in southern Luzon. After years of resistance he was captured and executed in 1907 after accepting an amnesty offer. [Citation
url=http://www.bibingka.com/phg/sakay/default.htm
last= Froles
first= Paul
title= Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?
publisher=Philippine History Group of Los Angeles
]

Quasi-religious armed groups included the "pulajanes" (so called because of their red garments), "colorum" (from a corruption of the Latin "in saecula saeculorum", part of the Glory Be to the Father prayer), and "Dios-Dios" (literally "God-God") groups of assorted provinces. These groups were mostly composed of farmers and other poor people led by messianic leaders, and they subscribed to a blend of Roman Catholicism and folk beliefs. For example, they used amulets (called "agimat" or "anting-anting"), believing they would become bulletproof. One of these leaders was Dionisio Seguela, better known as Papa Isio ("Pope Isio"). The last of these groups were wiped out or had surrendered by 1913.

These resistance movements were all dismissed by the American government as banditry, fanaticism or cattle rustling.

American opposition to the war

Some Americans, notably William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Ernest Crosby, and other members of the American Anti-Imperialist League, strongly objected to the annexation of the Philippines. Other Americans mistakenly thought that the Philippines wanted to become part of the United States. Anti-imperialist movements claimed that the United States had betrayed its lofty goals of the Spanish–American War by becoming a colonial power, merely replacing Spain in the Philippines. Other anti-imperialists opposed annexation on racist grounds. Among these was Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, who feared that annexation of the Philippines would lead to an influx of non-white immigrants. As news of atrocities committed in subduing the Philippines arrived in the United States, support for the war flagged.

Mark Twain famously opposed the war by using his influence in the press. He felt it betrayed the ideals of American democracy by not allowing the Filipino people to choose their own destiny.

In 1904 or 1905 Twain dictated the War Prayer in protest against the Philippine-American war. It was submitted to Harper's Bazaar for publication, but on March 22, 1905 the magazine rejected the story as "not quite suited to a woman's magazine." Because he had an exclusive contract with Harper & Brothers, Mark Twain could not publish The War Prayer elsewhere; it remained unpublished until 1923. According to one account, his illustrator Dan Beard asked him if he would publish it regardless, and Twain replied that "Only dead men can tell the truth in this world. It can be published after I am dead."Harvnb|Paine|1912] Mindful of public reaction, he considered that he had a family to support,Harvnb|Brooks|1920] and did not want to be seen as a lunatic or fanatic. In a letter to his confidant Joseph Twichell, he wrote that he had "suppressed" the book for seven years, even though his conscience told him to publish it, because he was not "equal" to the task. [cite journal
title=The War Prayer
url=http://www.populist.com/01.18.warprayer.html
journal=The Popululist
volume=7
issue=18
date=October 15, 2001
accessdate=2007-08-20
] The story was found in his manuscripts and published posthumously in 1923. [cite journal | last=Twain | first=Mark | title= The War Prayer | journal= alibris | date=1904–1905 | volume= | issue= | pages= | url=http://www.alibris.com/search/detail.cfm?chunk=25&mtype=&qwork=7120688&S=R&bid=8991933804&pbest=1%2E99&pqtynew=18&pbestnew=1%2E99&page=1&matches=69&qsort=r]

Some later historians, such as Howard Zinn and Daniel Boone Schirmer, cite the Philippine–American War as an example of American imperialism. [Harvnb|Zinn|1999; Harvnb|Schirmer|1972]

Filipino collaboration with America

Some of Aguinaldo's associates supported America, even before hostilities began. Pedro Paterno, Aguinaldo's prime minister and the author of the 1897 armistice treaty with Spain, advocated the incorporation of the Philippines into the United States in 1898. Other associates sympathetic to the U.S. were Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Benito Legarda, prominent members of Congress; Gregorio Araneta, Aguinaldo's Secretary of Justice; and Felipe Buencamino, Aguinaldo's Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Buencamino is recorded to have said in 1902: "I am an American and all the money in the Philippines, the air, the light, and the sun I consider American." Many such people subsequently held posts in the colonial government.

The American government organized the Philippine Scouts and Philippine Constabulary, which saw action against resistance groups.

Casualties

In the official war years, there were 4,196 American soldiers dead, 1,020 of which were from actual combat; the remainder died of disease, and 2,930 were wounded. There were also 2,000 casualties that the Philippine Constabulary suffered during the war, over one thousand of which were fatalities. It should be noted that total Filipino casualties was at the time and still is a highly-debated, argued, and politicized number. It is estimated that some 34,000 Filipino soldiers lost their lives and as many as 200,000 civilians may have died directly or indirectly as a result of the war, most due to a major cholera epidemic that broke out near its end. [ [http://www.wooster.edu/History/jgates/book-ch3.html John M. Gates, “War-Related Deaths in the Philippines”, "Pacific Historical Review" , v. 53, No. 3 (August, 1984), 367-378.] ] [ [http://www.jstor.org/pss/3639234 John M. Gates, War-Related Deaths in the Philippines, 1898-1902 The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 53, No. 3 (Aug., 1984), pp. 367-378] ] Philippine military deaths are estimated at 20,000 with 16,000 actually counted, while civilian deaths numbered between 250,000 and 1,000,000 Filipinos. These numbers take into account those killed by war, malnutrition, and a cholera epidemic that raged during the war. [Harvnb|Smallman-Raynor|1998] The Philippine-American War Centennial Initiative gives an estimate of 510,000 civilian deaths, and 20,000 military deaths, excluding 100,000 deaths from the Moro Rebellion.Fact|date=April 2007 The American military and Philippine Constabulary still suffered periodic losses combating small bands of Moro guerrillas in the far south until 1913.

The high Filipino casualty figures were a combination of the superior arms and even more superior numbers of the Americans, who were equipped with the most modern, up-to-date weapons in the world, including superb Krag-Jørgensen bolt-action rifles and machine guns, and who were also well-led. Furthermore, U.S. warships stood ready to destroy Philippine positions when needed. In contrast, the Filipinos were armed with a motley collection of rifles such as Mausers and Remingtons, many which had been taken from dead enemy soldiers (including Spanish troops from the previous conflict) or smuggled into the country by their fellow Filipinos. Their artillery was not much better, consisting mostly of worn-out artillery pieces captured from the Spanish. Although they did have a few Maxim and Gatling machine guns, along with a few modern Krupp artillery pieces, these were highly prized and taken to the rear for fear of capture before they could play any decisive role. Ammunition and rifles became more scarce as the war dragged on, and Filipinos were forced to manufacture their own, like the homemade "paltik". Still most did not even have firearms. Many used bolos, spears, and lances in fighting, which also contributed to high casualty figures when such obsolete weapons were used against the Americans' superior arms. However, the Filipinos did have the advantage of knowing their own country and rough terrain well, in contrast to the Americans who were fighting on foreign terrain.

In recognition of United States military service during the Philippine-American War, the United States military created two service decorations which were known as the Philippine Campaign Medal and the Philippine Congressional Medal.

In 1916 the United States granted the Philippines self-government and promised eventual independence, which came in 1946.

War crimes

American atrocities

[
right|thumb|200px|General_Jacob H. Smith's infamous order "KILL EVERY ONE OVER TEN" was the caption in the "New York Journal" cartoon on May 5, 1902. The Old Glory draped an American shield on which a vulture replaced the bald eagle. The bottom caption exclaimed, "Criminals Because They Were Born Ten Years Before We Took the Philippines". Published in the "New York Journal-American", May 5, 1902.] In 1908 Manuel Arellano Remondo, in "General Geography of the Philippine Islands", wrote:“The population decreased due to the wars, in the five-year periodfrom 1895 to 1900, since, at the start of the first insurrection, the population was estimated at 9,000,000, and at present (1908), the inhabitants of the Archipelago do not exceed 8,000,000 in number.” [Harvnb|Boot|2003|p=125]

U.S. attacks into the countryside often included scorched earth campaigns where entire villages were burned and destroyed, torture ("water cure") and the concentration of civilians into “protected zones” ("concentration camps"). Many of the civilian casualties resulted from disease and famine.

In an article, "We Charge Genocide: A Brief History of US in the Philippines", appearing in the December, 2005 issue of "Political Affairs" (an online magazine which bills itself "Marxist Thought Online"), E. San Juan, Jr., director of the Philippines Cultural Studies Center, Connecticut, argued that during the Philippine-American War (1899-1902) and pacification campaign (1902-1913), the operations launched by the U.S. against the Filipinos, an integral part of its pacification program, which claimed the lives of over a million Filipinos, constituted genocide. [cite web |url=http://www.politicalaffairs.net/article/articleview/2274/1/134/ |title=We Charge Genocide: A Brief History of US in the Philippines|author=E. San Juan, Jr. |date=2005 |accessdate=2008-07-26]

In November 1901, the Manila correspondent of the "Philadelphia Ledger" reported:"The present war is no bloodless, opera bouffe engagement; our men have been relentless, have killed to exterminate men, women, children, prisoners and captives, active insurgents and suspected people from lads of ten up, the idea prevailing that the Filipino as such was little better than a dog...." [quoted in "A People's History of the United States" (1980), Howard Zinn, Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014803-9]

American soldiers' letters and response

From almost the beginning of the war, soldiers wrote home describing the atrocities committed against Filipinos, soldiers and civilians alike. Increasingly, such personal letters, or portions of them, reached a national audience as anti-imperialist editors across the nation reproduced them. [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=88;
* For a small sampling of some of the letters and statements see: Wikiquote: [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Philippine-American_War#American_Torture_and_Attrocities_against_Filipinos American Torture and Attrocities against Filipinos] , Wikisource: , Wikipedia: Lodge Committee, particularly the testiony of: Charles S. Riley, Private William L Smith, Sergeant Edward J. Davis, and ex-Corporal Richard Thomas O'Brien
]

Once these accounts were widely reproduced, the War Department was forced to demand that General Otis investigate their authenticity. For each press clipping, he forwarded it to the writer’s commanding officer, who would then convince the soldier to write a retraction.

Private Charles Brenner of the Kansas regiment resisted such pressure. He insisted that Colonel Funston [New York Sun March 10, 1902; p. 234–235. In 1902 Funston toured the United States speaking to increase public support for the war in the Philippines. He said: “I personally strung up thirty-five Filipinos without trial, so what was all the fuss over Waller's ‘dispatching’ a few ‘treacherous savages’? If there had been more Smiths and Wallers, the war would have been over long ago. Impromptu domestic hanging might also hasten the end of the war. For starters, all Americans who had recently petitioned Congress to sue for peace in the Philippines should be dragged out of their homes and lynched."— Colonel Frederick Funston at a banquet in Chicago.] had ordered that all prisoners be shot and that Major Metcalf and Captain Bishop enforced these orders. Otis was obliged to order the Northern Luzon sector commander, General MacArthur, to look into the charge. Brenner confronted MacArthur’s aide with a corroborating witness, Private Putman, who confessed to shooting two prisoners after Bishop or Metcalf ordered, “Kill them! Damn it, Kill them!” MacArthur sent his aide’s report on to Otis with no comment. Otis ordered Brenner court-martialed “for writing and conniving at the publication of an article which... contains willful falsehoods concerning himself and a false charge against Captain Bishop.” The judge advocate in Manila convinced Otis that such a trial could open a Pandora’s box because “facts would develop implicating many others.”

General Otis sent the Brenner case to Washington writing: “After mature deliberation, I doubt the wisdom of court-martial in this case, as it would give the insurgent authorities a knowledge of what was taking place and they would assert positively that our troops had practiced inhumanities, whether the charge should be proven or not, as they would use it as an excuse to defend their own barbarities;” and Otis went on, justifying the war crimes, “and it is not thought that his charge is very grievous under the circumstances then existing, as it was very early in the war, and the patience of our men was under great strain.” [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=89;* cite journal | author=Storey, Moorfield and Codman, Julian | title= Secretary Root's Record: “Marked Severities” in Philippine Warfare| journal=Philippine Investigating Committee | year= | volume= | issue= | pages= 12–15| url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Secretary_Root%27s_Record:%22Marked_Severities%22_in_Philippine_Warfare#How_Charges_Were_Investigated ]

Towards the end of 1899 General Otis attempted to repair his battered image. He began to work to win new friends among the journalists in Manila and bestowed favors on any journalist who gave him favorable press. [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=91]

Concentration camps

As one historian wrote about Marinduque, the first island with concentration camps:: “The triple press of concentration (camps), devastation, and harassment led Abad (the Marinduque commander) ...to request a truce to negotiate surrender terms... The Army pacified Marinduque not by winning the allegiance of the people, but by imposing coercive measures to control their behavior and separate them from the insurgents in the field. Ultimately, military and security measures proved to be the (essential element) of Philippine pacification.” [cite journal | author= Birtle, Andrew J. | title=The U.S. Army's Pacification of Marinduque, Philippine Islands, April 1900 – April 1901 | journal= The Journal of Military History | month= April | year= 1997| volume=61 | issue= | pages=255–282 | url=http://www.livejournal.com/users/bailey83221/49712.html | doi=10.2307/2953967 copyvio link|date=March 2008]

This assessment could probably be applied to all of the Philippines.

Filipino atrocities

To counter the bad press back in America, General Otis stated that insurgents tortured American prisoners in “fiendish fashion”, some of whom were buried alive, or worse, up to their necks in anthills to be slowly devoured. Others were castrated, had the removed parts stuffed into their mouths, and were then left to suffocate or bleed to death. It was also stated that some prisoners were deliberately infected with leprosy before being released to spread the disease among their comrades. Spanish priests were horribly mutilated before their congregations, and natives who refused to support Emilio Aguinaldo were slaughtered by the thousands. American newspaper headlines announced the “Murder and Rapine” by the “Fiendish Filipinos.” General “Fighting Joe” Wheeler insisted that it was the Filipinos who had mutilated their own dead, murdered women and children, and burned down villages, solely to discredit American soldiers. [Harvnb|Miller|1982|pp=92–93]

Other events dubbed atrocities included those attributed by the Americans to General Vicente Lukban, allegedly the Filipino commander who masterminded the Balangiga massacre in Samar province, a surprise attack that killed almost fifty American soldiers. Media reports stated that many of the bodies were mutilated. [Harvnb|Boot|2003|p=102] The attack itself triggered American reprisals in Samar, ordered by General Jacob Hurd Smith, who said, "I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn, the more you kill and burn the better it will please me. I want all persons killed who are capable of bearing arms in actual hostilities against the United States", and defined this as everyone over ten years old. To his credit, Major Littleton Waller countermanded it to his own men. Nevertheless, some of his men "undoubtedly" carried out atrocities. [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=91]

Sergeant Hallock testified in the Lodge Committee that natives were given the water cure, “...in order to secure information of the murder of Private O'Herne of Company I, who had been not only killed, but roasted and otherwise tortured before death ensued.” [Cite news
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9F07E3D61130E132A25757C0A9639C946397D6CF&oref=slogin
title=THE WATER CURE DESCRIBED.; Discharged Soldier Tells Senate Committee How and Why the Torture Was Inflicted
date=May 4, 1902
publisher=The New York Times
page=13
accessdate=2008-03-29
]

On the Filipino side, information regarding atrocities comes from the eyewitnesses and the participants themselves. In his "History of the Filipino People" Teodoro Agoncillo writes that the Filipino troops could match and even exceed the Americans' penchant for brutality regarding prisoners of war. Kicking, slapping, and spitting at faces were common. In some cases, ears and noses were cut off and salt applied to the wounds. In other cases, captives were buried alive. These atrocities occurred regardless of Aguinaldo's orders and circulars concerning the good treatment of prisoners.Harvnb|Agoncillo|1990|pp=227-231]

Worcester recounts two specific Filipino atrocities as follows:quote|"A detachment, marching through Leyte, found an American who haddisappeared a short time before crucified, head down. His abdominalwall had been carefully opened so that his intestines might hang downin his face.

Another American prisoner, found on the same trip, had been buried inthe ground with only his head projecting. His mouth had been proppedopen with a stick, a trail of sugar laid to it through the forest,and a handful thrown into it.

Millions of ants had done the rest."Harvnb|Worcester|1914|p= [http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=237 237] |Ref=worcester1914ch14 Ch.14]

Reporters and Red Cross accounts contradict Otis

During the closing months of 1899 Emilio Aguinaldo attempted to counter General Otis’s account by suggesting that neutral parties — foreign journalists or representatives of the International Red Cross — inspect his military operations. Otis refused, but Emilio Aguinaldo managed to smuggle in four reporters — two English, one Canadian, and a Japanese — into the Philippines. The correspondents returned to Manila to report that American captives were “treated more like guests than prisoners,” were “fed the best that the country affords, and everything is done to gain their favor.” The story went on to say that American prisoners were offered commissions in the Filipino army and that three had accepted. The four reporters were expelled from the Philippines as soon as their stories were printed. [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=93;
*cite journal | author= | title= Ferocity Of The Filipinos. Massacre and Rapine Marked the Course of Their Biggest Warship Until It Fell Foul of a Typhoon | journal=New York Times| date=August 7, 1899 | volume= | issue= | pages= | url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Ferocity_Of_The_Filipinos#Filipino_atrocities p. 4; Failed verification|date=May 2008
* Citation
url=http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9C06E0DD133DE633A2575BC2A96F9C94689ED7CF&oref=slogin
title=AGUINALDO TO DELIVER PRISONERS
date=September 28, 1899
publisher=The New York Times
ccessdate=2008-05-01

* Public Opinion volume 27 (1899), p. 291;
* San Francisco Call February 14, 21, 23, March 30, 31, May 29, June 9, July 17, 1899
]

Emilio Aguinaldo also released some American prisoners so they could tell their own stories. In a Boston Globe article entitled “With the Goo Goo’s” Paul Spillane described his fair treatment as a prisoner. Emilio Aguinaldo had even invited American captives to the christening of his baby and had given each a present of four dollars, Spillane recounted.

Naval Lieutenant J.C. Gilmore, whose release was forced by American cavalry pursuing Aguinaldo into the mountains, insisted that he had received “considerable treatment” and that he was no more starved than were his captors. Otis responded to these two articles by ordering the “capture” of the two authors, and that they be “investigated”, therefore questioning their loyalty. [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=93;

* Literary Digest Volume 18 (1899), p. 499]

When F.A. Blake of the International Red Cross arrived at Emilio Aguinaldo’s request, Otis kept him confined to Manila, where Otis’s staff explained all of the Filipinos' violations of civilized warfare. Blake managed to slip away from an escort and venture into the field. Blake never made it past American lines, but even within American lines he saw burned out villages and “horribly mutilated bodies, with stomachs slit open and occasionally decapitated.” Blake waited to return to San Francisco, where he told one reporter that “American soldiers are determined to kill every Filipino in sight.” [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=94;

* Boston Globe June 27, 1900;
* Literary Digest Volume 20 (1900), p. 25;
* San Francisco Call December 8, 1899, February 16, 1900
]

Ratio of Filipinos wounded

The most conclusive evidence that the enemy wounded were being killed, came from the official reports of Otis and his successor, General Arthur MacArthur, Jr., which claimed fifteen Filipinos killed for every one wounded. In the American Civil War, the ratio had been five wounded for every soldier killed, which is close to historical norm. Otis attempted to explain this anomaly by the superior marksmanship of rural southerners and westerners in the U.S. military, who had hunted all their lives. MacArthur added a racial twist, asserting that Anglo-Saxons do not succumb to wounds as easily as do men of “inferior races.” [Harvnb|Miller|1982|p=189
* Citation
chapter-last=Nebrida
chapter-first=Victor
chapter=The Balangiga Massacre: Getting Even
chapter-url=http://www.bibingka.com/phg/balangiga/
editor=Hector Santos
title=Philippine History and Culture Series
url=http://www.bibingka.com/phg/menu.htm
publisher=The Philippine History Group of Los Angeles
date=15 June 1997
accessdate = 2007-12-21
]

Consequences

Muslims

In the south Muslim Filipinos resisted until 1913— known as the Moro rebellion. They were not part of Aguinaldo's movement but independently fought the Americans.

The Catholic Church, Language, and Education

The Roman Catholic Church was disestablished and a considerable amount of church land was purchased and redistributed. The bulk of the land, however, was quickly bought up by American companies with little going to Filipino peasants.

U.S. President McKinley, in his instructions to the First Philippine Commission in 1898, ordered the use of the Philippine languages as well as English for instructional purposes. The American administrators, finding the local languages to be too numerous and too difficult to learn and to write teaching materials in, ended up with a monolingual system in English with no attention paid to the other Philippine languages except for the token statement concerning the necessity of using them eventually for the system. [Citation
url=http://www.multilingual-matters.net/jmmd/019/0487/jmmd0190487.pdf
title=The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines
author=Andrew Gonzalez
journal=Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
volume=19
issue=5&6
year=1998
publisher=De La Salle University, via multilingual-matters.net
page=513
accessdate=2008-04-09
]

In 1901 some five hundred teachers (365 males and 165 females) arrived from the U.S. aboard the "USS Thomas". The name "Thomasite" was adopted for these teachers, who firmly established education as one of America's major contributions to the Philippines. Among the assignments given were Albay, Catanduanes, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Sorsogon, and Masbate. Twenty-seven of the original Thomasites either died of tropical diseases or were murdered by outlaws during their first 20 months of residence. Despite the hardships, the Thomasites persisted, teaching and building learning institutions that prepared students for their chosen professions or trades. They opened the Philippine Normal School and the Philippine School of Arts and Trades (PSAT) in 1901, and reopened the Philippine Nautical School, established in 1839 by the Board of Commerce of Manila under Spain. By the end of 1904, primary courses were mostly taught by Filipinos under American supervision. [Citation
url=http://www.gov.ph/news/default.asp?i=3748
title=Thomasites: An army like no other
date=October 12, 2003
publisher=Government of the Philippines
accessdate=2008-04-09
]

Quotations

In the fall of 1899 MacArthur, who was still loyal to General Otis, said to reporter H. Irving Hannock:

See also

* List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Philippine-American War
* Battles of the Philippine-American War
* Black Legend
* Benevolent assimilation
* Filipino American
* George Dewey
* History of the Philippines
* Katagalugan
* Lodge Committee
* Philippine Scouts
* Timeline of Philippine-American War
* Vicente Lukban
* Ladislao Diwa
* Paciano Rizal
* The White Man's Burden, written in regard to the U.S. conquest of the Philippines and other former Spanish colonies

Notes

References

* cite book
last=Agoncillo
first=Teodoro
authorlink=Teodoro Agoncillo
title= History of the Filipino People
year=1990
edition=Eighth edition
origyear=1960
publisher=R.P. Garcia Publishing Company
isbn=971-1024-15-2
ref=CITEREFAgoncillo1990

* Citation
last=Agoncillo
first=Teodoro
authorlink=Teodoro Agoncillo
title=Malolos: The crisis of the republic
publisher=University of the Philippines Press
year=1997
isbn=971-542-096-6
Kenton J. Clymer States “The book provides the best account to date of the inner dynamics of the Filipino side of the war.” — Review: Not so Benevolent Assimilation: The Philippine-American War, "Reviews in American History" Vol. 11, No. 4 (Dec., 1983), pp. 547–52
* Citation
last=Aguinaldo
first=Emilio
authorlink=Emilio Aguinaldo
url =http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-1.html
title =True Version of the Philippine Revolution
work =Authorama Public Domain Books
chapter-url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-3.html
chapter=Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató
year=1899
ref=Aguinaldo1899ch2
accessdate=2007-11-16

* Citation
last=Aguinaldo
first=Emilio
authorlink=Emilio Aguinaldo
url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-1.html
title=True Version of the Philippine Revolution
chapter-url=http://www.authorama.com/true-version-of-the-philippine-revolution-3.html
chapter=Chapter III. Negotiations
year=1899
ref=Aguinaldo1899ch3
publisher=Authorama: Public Domain Books
accessdate=2008-02-07

* Citation
last = Bautista
first = Veltisezar
title = The Filipino Americans from 1763 to the Present: Their History, Culture, and Traditions
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=F8wJAAAACAAJ
isbn = 978-0931613140
publisher = Bookhaus Publishers
month = May
year = 1998

* Citation
last=Bayor
first=Ronald H.
title=The Columbia Documentary History of Race and Ethnicity in America
publisher=Columbia University Press
date= June 23, 2004
year=2004
isbn=0-231-11994-1

* Citation
last=Blitz
first=Amy
title=The Contested State: American Foreign Policy and Regime Change in the Philippines
publisher=Rowman & Littlefield
isbn=0847699358
year=2000

* Citation
last = Boot
first = Max
author-link=Max Boot
title= The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power
publisher= Basic Books
year = 2003
isbn=0-465-00720-1

* Citation
last=Brands
first=H. W.
author-link =H. W. Brands
year=1992
title=Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines
publisher=Oxford University Press
isbn=0195071042

* Citation
last-Brooks
first=Van Wyck
url=http://ia331313.us.archive.org/0/items/ordealofmark00broorich/ordealofmark00broorich_djvu.txt
title=Ordeal of Mark Twain
year=1920
publisher=E.P. Dutton & Company

* Citation
last=Chambers
first=John W.
last2=Anderson
first2=Fred
title=The Oxford Companion to American Military History
publisher=Oxford University Press
year=1999
isbn=0-19-507198-0

* Citation
last=Constantino
first=Renato
authorlink=Renato Constantino
title=The Philippines: A Past Revisited
year=1975
isbn=971-8958-00-2

* Citation
last = Deady
first = Timothy K.
title = Lessons from a Successful Counterinsurgency: The Philippines, 1899–1902
url = http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/05spring/deady.pdf
journal = Parameters'
volume = 35
issue = 1
month = Spring
year = 2005
pages = 53-68

* Citation
last=Feuer
first=A. B.
title=America at War: The Philippines, 1898-1913
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pg-SZanwnuIC
year=2002
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group
isbn=0275968219

* Citation
last=Gates
first=John M.
title=Schoolbooks and Krags: The United States Army in the Philippines, 1898–1902
publisher=Greenwood Press
year=1973
isbn=0-8371-5818-4

* Citation
last=Gates
first=John M.
title=War-Related Deaths in the Philippines, 1898–1902
journal=Pacific Historical Review
volume=53
issue=367
year=1983

* Citation
last=Gates
first=John M.
url=http://www.wooster.edu/history/jgates/book-contents.html
title=The US Army and Irregular Warfare
chapter-url=http://www.wooster.edu/history/jgates/book-ch3.html
chapter=Chapter 3: The Pacification of the Philippines
year=2002
publisher=The College of Wooster

* Citation
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=lIQcwt7g2wkC
title=The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico
chapter=XII. The American Army in Manila
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=122
last=Halstead
first=Murat
year=1898
ref=Halstead1898ch12

* Citation
last=Halstead
first=Murat
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=lIQcwt7g2wkC
title=The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico
chapter=XXVIII. Battles with the Filipinos before Manila
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=58428&pageno=307
ref=Halstead1898ch28
year=1898

* Citation
last=Joaquin
first=Nicomedes
title=A Question of Heroes
year=1977
isbn=971-27-1545-0

* Citation
last=Kalaw
first=Maximo Manguiat
url=http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer&cc=philamer&idno=afj2233.0001.001&frm=frameset&view=image&seq=17
title=The Development of Philippine Politics
publisher=Oriental commercial
year=1926
accessdate=2008-02-07

* Citation
last = Karnow
first =Stanley
author-link =Stanley Karnow
title =In Our

url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pJqMAAAACAAJ
publisher =Ballantine Books
year=1990
isbn=0345328167

* Citation
last=Kumar
first=Amitava
title=Poetics/Politics: Radical Aesthetics for the Classroom
publisher=Palgrave
date= October 29, 1999
year=1999
isbn=0-312-21866-4

* Citation
last=Linn
first=Brian McAllister
title=The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899–1902
publisher=University of North Carolina Press
year=2000
isbn=0-8078-4948-0

* Citation
last=May
first=Glenn Anthony
title=Battle for Batangas: A Philippine Province at War
publisher=Yale University Press
year=1991
isbn=0-300-04850-5

* Citation
last=Miller
first=Stuart Creighton
title=Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Zj6g2ag47TwC
publisher=Yale University Press
year=1982
isbn=0-300-02697-8
Kenton J. Clymer States “The War Miller describes is a more believable one than the one Gates pictures.”
* Citation
last=Paine
first=Albert Bigelow
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/2/9/8/2988/2988.txt
title=Mark Twain: A Biography: The Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens
year=1912
publisher=Harper & Brothers

* Citation
last=Painter
first=Nell Irvin
title=Standing at Armageddon: The United States, 1877–1919
publisher=W. W. Norton & Company
date=May 1, 1989
year=1989
isbn=0-393-30588-0

* Citation
last=Shaw
first=Angel Velasco
title=Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream, 1899–1999
publisher=New York University Press
year=2002
isbn=0-8147-9791-1

* Citation
last=Schirmer
first=Daniel B.
title=Republic or Empire: American Resistance to the Philippine War
publisher=Schenkman
year=1972
isbn=0-87073-105-X

* Citation
last=Schirmer
first=Daniel B.
coauthors=Stephen Rosskamm Shalom
title =The Philippines Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship, and Resistance
publisher=South End Press
year=1987
isbn=0-89608-275-X

* Citation
last=Silbey
first=David J.
title=A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine-American War, 1899-1902
year=2007

* Citation
last =Smallman-Raynor
first =Matthew
coauthors =Andrew D Cliff
year =1998
month =January
title =The Philippines Insurrection and the 1902–4 cholera epidemic: Part I — Epidemiological diffusion processes in war
journal =Journal of Historical Geography
volume =24
issue =1
pages =69–89

* Citation
last=Steinberg
first=David Joel
year= 1972
month=Summer
title=An Ambiguous Legacy: Years at War in the Philippines
journal=Pacific Affairs
volume=45
issue=2

* Citation
last=Wildman
first=E.
title=Aguinaldo: A Narrative of Filipino Ambitions
year=1901
publisher=Norwood Press
location=Norwood, Massachusetts

* Citation
last=Wolff
first=Leon
title=Little Brown Brother: How the United States Purchased and Pacified the Philippine Islands at the Century's Turn
publisher=Doubleday & Company, Inc
year=1960
id=Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 61-6528

* Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=IV. The Premeditated Insurgent Attack
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=83
pages=75-89
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch4
accessdate=2008-02-07

* Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=IX, The conduct of the war
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=168
pages=168-184
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch9
accessdate=2008-02-07

* Citation
last=Worcester
first=Dean Conant
title=The Philippines: Past and Present (vol. 1 of 2)
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Lq_6lk-yuy8C
chapter=XIV, The Philippine Constabulary and Public Order
chapter-url=http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=56151&pageno=233
pages=233-247
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12077
publisher=Macmillan
year=1914
isbn=141917715X
ref=worcester1914ch14
accessdate=2008-02-07

* Citation
last=Young
first=Kenneth Ray
title=The General's General: The Life and Times of Arthur Macarthur
publisher=Westview Press
year=1994

* Citation
last=Zinn
first=Howard
title=A People’s History of the United States
publisher=Harper Collins
year=1999

* Citation
last=Zwick
first=Jim
title=Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War
publisher=Syracuse University Press
year=1992
isbn=0-8156-0268-5

* Citation
last=Zwick
first=Jim
title=Friends of the Filipino People Bulletin

* Citation
last=Zwick
first=Jim
title=Militarism and Repression in the Philippines
publisher=Centre for Developing-Area Studies, McGill University
year=1982
isbn=0888190549

* Citation
last=Zwick
first=Jim
title=Prodigally Endowed with Sympathy for the Cause: Mark Twain's Involvement with the Anti-Imperialist League
publisher=Ephemera Society of America
date=January 1, 1992
year=1992)
id= ASIN B0006R8RJ8

Further reading

* The "Lodge Committee" (a.k.a. Philippine Investigating Committee) hearings and a great deal of documentation were published in three volumes (3000 pages) as S. Doc. 331, 57th Cong., 1st Session An abridged version of the oral testimony can be found in: "American Imperialism and the Philippine Insurrection: Testimony Taken from Hearings on Affairs in the Philippine Islands before the Senate Committee on the Philippines—1902"; edited by Henry F Graff; Publisher: Little, Brown; 1969. ASIN: B0006BYNI8
* Richard W. Stewart, General Editor, Ch. 16, [http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH-V1/ch16.htm Transition, Change, and the Road to war, 1902-1917"] , in [http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH-V1/ "American Military History, Volume I: The United States Army and the Forging of a Nation, 1775-1917"] , Center of Military History, United States Army, ISBN 0-16-072362-0
* Wilcox, Marrion. "Harper's History of the War". Harper, New York and London 1900, reprinted 1979. [Alternate title: "Harper's History of the War in the Philippines"] . Also reprinted in the Philippines by Vera-Reyes.
*
* Linn, Brian McAllister. "The Philippine War 1899-1902". University Press of Kansas 2000 ISBN 0-7006-0990-3

External links

* cite web
title =Images from the Philippine-United States War
work =historicaltextarchive.com
url =http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=479
accessdate=2006-05-20

* cite web
title =The Philippine Centennial Celebration
work =MSC Computer Training Center.
url =http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/
accessdate=2006-05-20

* [http://www.historyguy.com/PhilipineAmericanwar.html A brief description of the war between the United States and the Philippines which began in 1899.]
* [http://de.geocities.com/hispanofilipino/Articles/Estadisticas03.html A brief balance about the rate of casualties among Filipino rows.]
* [http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=524887 Philippine-American War] on Everything2.
* [http://pinoynewsmagazine.com/default.asp?sourceid=&smenu=66&twindow=Default&mad=No&sdetail=260&wpage=1&skeyword=&sidate=&ccat=&ccatm=&restate=&restatus=&reoption=&retype=&repmin=&repmax=&rebed=&rebath=&subname=&pform=&sc=1536&hn=pinoynewsmagazine&he=.com "August 13, 1898 and RP’s short-lived republic"] by Mariano "Anong" Santos, Pinoy Newsmagazine, August 2006
* [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54a/051.html "Imperial Amnesia"] by John B. Judis, Foreign Policy, July/August 2004


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