President of the Philippines


President of the Philippines

Infobox Political post
post = President
body =
the Philippines
insignia = PhilippinePresidentialSeal.pnginsigniasize = 100px
insigniacaption = Official seal


incumbent = Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
formation = March 22, 1897 ("de facto")
January 20, 1899 ("de jure")
inaugural = June 30 (Every other 6 years)
website =
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as "Ang Pangulo" or "Pangulo" ("Presidente," informally). The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines.

The current incumbent President is Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

Qualifications

Under Article 7, Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution, In order to serve as President, an individual must be at least 40 years of age, a registered voter, able to read and write, a Filipino citizen by birth, and a resident of the Philippines for at least 10 years prior to election.cite web |title=1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines |publisher=Chan Robles Virtual Law Library |url=http://www.chanrobles.com/article7.htm |accessdate=2008-01-07]

Oath

Under Article 7, Section 5 of the Philippine Constitution, before the president enters on the execution of his/her office, the President shall take the following oath or affirmation :

["In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted"]

Powers

Under Article 7, Section 1 of the Philippine Constitution, the president heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments. The executive power, as such, is vested on the President alone.

Section 18 of the Philippine Constitution, the president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. As Commander-in-Chief, the President can call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it, he or she may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law.

Section 19 gives the president power to grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and forfeitures, after conviction by final judgment, except when the President is under impeachment.

Section 20 provides the president to contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

The president exercises general supervision over local government units.

The president appoints, with consent of the Commission on Appointments, members of the Constitutional Commission, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in the President in 1987 Constitution.

The members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president, based on a list prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. These appointments do not need the consent of the Commission on Appointments.

Official title

The official title of the president is the "President of the Philippines," as specified in the present Constitution of the Philippines (1987). The honorific for the President of the Philippines is "Your Excellency" or "His/Her Excellency", adopted from the title of the Governor-General of the Philippines during Spanish and American occupation. The term "President of the Republic of the Philippines" is commonly, but erroneously, used, dating back to when President José P. Laurel wanted to express the difference between his government and the previous Commonwealth government (then in exile) under President Manuel L. Quezon. The restoration of the Commonwealth in 1945 and the subsequent independence of the Philippines led to the restoration of the constitutionally-sanctioned title "President of the Philippines" until President Ferdinand E. Marcos proclaimed martial law and once more wanted to differentiate his government from those that came before. It was then that "President of the Republic of the Philippines" was adopted and indeed, specified in the 1973 Constitution of the Philippines. However, that Constitution was superseded by a new one in 1987 which restored the more traditional "President of the Philippines."

Official residence

Malacañang Palace, often known as Malacañang Palace, is the official residence of the President of the Philippines. The president is entitled to have an official residence as required under Article 7, Section 6 of the Philippine Constitution. The palace is located along the north bank of the Pasig River in Manila. It is called "Palasyo ng Malakanyang" in Filipino, and Malacañang Palace when referred to as the official residence of the President of the Philippines, and simply Malacañang when referred to as the office of the president, as well as in everyday parlance and in the media. Malacañang Palace is depicted on the verso (back) side of the present-day 20-peso bill.

tate of the Nation Address

The State of the Nation Address (abbreviated SONA) is an annual event in the Republic of the Philippines, in which the President of the Philippines reports on the status of the nation, normally to the resumption of a joint session of the Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). This is a duty of the President as stated in Article VII, Section 23 of the 1987 Constitution :

:cquote|"The President shall address Congress at the opening of its regular session. He/She may also appear anytime."

uccession

At the start of the term

Under Article 7, Section 7 of the Philippine Constitution, In case the president-elect fails to qualify, the Vice-President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified.

If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice President-elect shall become President.

Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been chosen and qualified.

During the term

Article 7, Sections 8 and 11 of the Philippine Constitution provide rules of succession to the presidency. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice-President will become the President to serve the unexpired term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of both the President and Vice-President; the President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified.

The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case of death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve until the President or the Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President.

The line of presidential succession as specified by Article 7, Section 10 of the Philippine Constitution are the Vice-President, Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

The current Presidential line of succession is:

Contrary to popular belief, the Constitution doesn't name the Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court in the line of succession.

If the offices of both the President and the Vice President become vacant at the same time, Congress shall enact a law calling for special election. However, if the presidential election is 18 months away, no special election shall be called.

History

The Philippines has had a total of fourteen presidents. Despite the differences in constitutions and government, the line of presidents is considered to be continuous. For instance, the current president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, is considered the 14th president. While the Philippines consider Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first president, the First Republic fell under the United States following the Philippine-American War. Manuel L. Quezon is considered to be the first president by the United States and the first to win an election.

The Philippines had two presidents at one point during World War II heading two governments. One was Quezon heading the Commonwealth government-in-exile (considered de jure) and the other was J. P. Laurel heading the Japanese-sponsored republic (considered de facto). Laurel was instructed to remain in Manila by President Manuel Quezon. Laurel was not recognized as a Philippine president formally until the Macapagal administration. The recognition coincided with the movement of the Philippine Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. However, it must be borne in mind that in the roster of presidents, it is inaccurate to consider Laurel the successor of Osmeña or vice versa; Laurel's republic was formally rejected after World War II and none of its statutes or actions were considered legal or binding. The inclusion of Laurel causes some problems in determining the order of presidents. Quezon, Osmeña, and Roxas, for example, were three of a continuous constitutional line; Laurel was the first and only President of the Second Republic. Thus, Laurel has no predecessor and successor, while Osmeña was Quezon's successor and Roxas was Osmeña's successor.

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DateFormat = mm/dd/yyyyPeriod = from:01/01/1897 till:06/30/2010TimeAxis = orientation:horizontalScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1900

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PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:others from:03/22/1897 till:04/01/1901 text:"Emilio Aguinaldo" color:None from:08/14/1898 till:07/04/1901 text:"U.S. Military Governors" color:GG from:07/04/1901 till:11/15/1935 text:"U.S. Civil Governors/Governors-General" color:GG from:11/15/1935 till:08/01/1944 text:"Manuel L. Quezon" color:NP from:10/14/1943 till:08/14/1945 text:"Jose P. Laurel" color:Japan from:08/01/1944 till:05/28/1946 text:"Sergio Osmeña" color:NP from:05/28/1946 till:04/15/1948 text:"Manuel Roxas" color:LP from:04/17/1948 till:12/30/1953 text:"Elpidio Quirino" color:LP from:12/30/1953 till:03/17/1957 text:"Ramon Magsaysay" color:NP from:03/18/1957 till:12/30/1961 text:"Carlos P. Garcia" color:NP from:12/30/1961 till:12/30/1965 text:"Diosdado Macapagal" color:LP barset:Marcos from:12/30/1965 till:04/09/1978 color:NP barset:break from:04/09/1978 till:02/25/1986 text:"Ferdinand Marcos" color:KBL barset:others1 from:02/25/1986 till:06/30/1992 text:"Corazon Aquino" color:UNIDO from:06/30/1992 till:06/30/1998 text:"Fidel V. Ramos" color:Lakas from:06/30/1998 till:01/20/2001 text:"Joseph Estrada" color:LAMP from:01/20/2001 till:06/30/2010 text:"Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo" color:Lakas

Former Presidents

As of 2008 there are three living former Presidents:
* Corazon C. Aquino
* Fidel V. Ramos
* Joseph E. Estrada

Among other honors, former Presidents and their immediate family are entitled to no less than three soldiers as guard detail. entitled [ [http://www.manilatimes.net/national/2007/feb/26/yehey/top_stories/20070226top2.html The Manila Times Internet Edition | TOP STORIES > Pullout of Erap security a ‘mistake’ ] ] .

See also

* Seal of the President of the Philippines

External links

* [http://www.op.gov.ph Office of the President of the Philippines]
* [http://www.chanrobles.com/philsupremelaw1.htm 1987 Constitution of the Philippines]
* [http://www.pangulo.ph/ The Philippine Presidency Project]

References

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