- Subarctic climate
The subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) is a climate characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers. It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50° to 70°N poleward of the humid continental climates. These climates represent Köppen climate classification Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, and Dwd. In very small areas at high altitudes around the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, Tajikistan, eastern Washington and Idaho there may be a Dsc with a dry summer climate, but there are no records for such areas.
This type of climate offers some of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations found on the planet: In winter, temperatures can drop to −40 °C (−40 °F) and in summer, the temperature may exceed 30 °C (86 °F). However, the summers are short; no more than three months of the year (but at least one month) must have a 24-hour average temperature of at least 10 °C (50 °F) to fall into this category of climate. The subarctic climate is a subset of the continental climate.
With 5–7 consecutive months where the average temperature is below freezing, all moisture in the soil and subsoil freezes solidly to depths of many feet. Summer warmth is insufficient to thaw more than a few surface feet, so permafrost prevails under large areas. Seasonal thaw penetrates from 2 to 14 ft (0.6 to 4 m), depending on latitude, aspect, and type of ground. Some northern areas with subarctic climates located near oceans (southern Alaska and the northern fringe of Europe), have milder winters and no permafrost, and are thus more suited for farming.The frost-free season is very short, varying from about 45 to 100 days at most, and a freeze can occur during any month in many areas
Most subarctic climates have very little precipitation, typically no more than 15 inches (38 cm) over an entire year. Away from the coasts, precipitation occurs mostly in the warmer months. Low precipitation, by the standards of more temperate regions with longer summers and warmer winters, is typically sufficient in view of the very low evapotranspiration to allow a water-logged terrain in many areas of subarctic climate and to permit snow cover during winter.
A notable exception to this pattern is that subarctic climates occurring at high altitudes in otherwise temperate regions have extremely high precipitation due to orographic lift. Mount Washington, with temperatures typical of a subarctic climate, receives an average rain-equivalent of 101.91 inches of precipitation per year. Coastal areas of Khabarovsk Krai also have much higher precipitation in summer due to orographic influences (up to 175 millimetres (6.9 in) in July in some areas), whilst the mountainous Kamchatka peninsula and Sakhalin island are even wetter since orographic moisture is not confined to the warmer months and creates large glaciers in Kamchatka. Labrador, in eastern Canada, is similarly wet throughout the year due to the semi-permanent Icelandic Low and can receive up to 1,300 millimetres (51 in) of rainfall equivalent per year, creating a snow cover of up to 1.5 metres (59 in) that does not melt until June.
Vegetation and land use
Vegetation in regions with subarctic climates is generally of low diversity, as only hardy species can survive the long winters and make use of the short summers. Trees are mostly limited to ferns and conifers, as few broadleaved trees are able to survive the very low temperatures in winter. This type of forest is also known as taiga, a term which is sometimes applied to the climate found therein as well. Even though the diversity may be low, numbers are high, and the taiga (boreal) forest is the largest forest biome on the planet, with most of the forests located in Russia and Canada. The process by which plants become acclimated to cold temperatures is called hardening
Agricultural potential is generally poor, due to the natural infertility of soils and the prevalence of swamps and lakes left by departing ice sheets, and short growing seasons prohibit all but the hardiest of crops. (Despite the short season, the long summer days at such latitudes do permit some agriculture.) In some areas, ice has scoured rock surfaces bare, entirely stripping off the overburden. Elsewhere rock basins have been formed and stream courses dammed, creating countless lakes.
- Much of Siberia
- The Kamchatka Peninsula
- The northern and central parts of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island
- The Western Alps between 1600 and 2100 meters (5,249 and 6,890 feet), and the Eastern Alps between 1450 and 1800 meters (4,757 and 5,905 feet) - France, Switzerland, Germany, Italy and Austria.
- The Pyrenees, between 1600 and 2100 meters (5,249 and 6,890 feet) - Andorra, France and Spain.
- The northern half of Scandinavia (milder winters in coastal areas)
- Most of Interior, Western and Southcentral Alaska
- The high Rocky Mountains in Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho and Montana and the White Mountains of New Hampshire
- Much of Canada from about 53-55°N to the tree line, including:
In parts of Asia, the Siberian High makes the winters so dry (typically with around 5 millimetres (0.20 in) of rainfall equivalent per month) that snow cover is very limited, creating a Dwc climate in:
- Much of northern Mongolia
- Tahe County and Mohe County in Heilongjiang
- Northern Hulunbuir in Inner Mongolia
- Gannan in Gansu (due to extreme altitude)
- Huangnan, eastern Hainan and eastern Guoluo (due to extreme altitude)
- Most of Garzê and Ngawa Autonomous Prefectures (due to extreme altitude)
- Most of Qamdo Prefecture (due to extreme altitude)
Further north in Siberia, continentality increases so much that winters can be exceptionally severe, averaging below −38 °C (−36 °F), even though the hottest month still averages more than 10 °C (50 °F). This creates Dfd and Dwd climates.
The Southern Hemisphere, which has no large landmasses in the upper-middle latitudes that can have both the short but well-defined summers and severe winters that characterize this climate, has no locations with this climate.
Should one go poleward or even toward a polar sea, one finds that the warmest month has an average temperature of less than 10°C (50°F), and the subarctic climate grades into a tundra climate even less suitable for trees. Equatorward or toward a lower altitude, this climate grades into the humid continental climates with longer summers (and usually less-severe winters); in a few locations close to a temperate sea (as in North Norway and southern Alaska), this climate can grade into a short-summer version of an oceanic climate, the subpolar oceanic climate, as the sea is approached. In China and Mongolia, as one moves southwestwards or towards lower altitudes, temperatures increase but precipitation is so low that the subarctic climate grades into a cold semi-arid climate.
Charts of Selected Cities
Anchorage Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D17−5−1319−3−11171−8137−2181342717843191174171073135534−228−2−927−5−11 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: NOAA Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D0.72290.726120.734180.544290.755391.162471.765512.963492.955412.140281.128161.12411 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Yellowknife Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D14−23−3113−19−2813−11−23110−11191112718935211241181033104351−424−10−1816−20−28 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: Environment Canada Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D0.6−9−240.5−1−190.512−100.433120.851331.165481.470541.665511.351391.434240.91400.6−3−18 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Samedan Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D30−2−18250−17313−12446−68112−1871628918399183721505911−4544−1131−2−16 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: MeteoSchweiz Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D1.228013211.237111.744223.253303.460353.565373.964372.859322.351242.138131.2293 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Luleå Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D32−7−1326−6−1323−1−9184−3231123217942201242181131126346031−2−627−6−11 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: World Weather Information Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D1.319912190.930160.739270.952361.363481.768541.764521.254431.343321.228211.12112 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Tromsø Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D95−2−787−2−7720−5643−2488259136771598214810294131511081−3106−1−5 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: World Weather Information Service Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D3.728203.428202.831232.537281.946362.35543360483.25746449405.240334.333274.23022 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Kiruna Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D30−11−2225−9−2026−5−1827−1−9348−24915586187741554910147−2−1142−7−1334−9−20 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: SMHI Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D1.212−7116−4123−11.130151.347291.959413.464452.959421.949331.928131.72081.316−4 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Verkhoyansk Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D6−43−496−37−465−20−396−3−221210−3232063323932184149−313−9−1910−32−408−40−47 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: Pogoda.ru.net Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D0.2−45−560.2−34−510.2−4−370.226−80.550270.968431.374481.365400.647270.516−30.4−26−400.3−40−52 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches Mohe Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D5−22−364.4−13−336.9−3−24248−8331806824899261210723950161165−1013−11−257.4−21−34 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: SMHI Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N D0.2−7−330.29−280.326−120.946191.364332.776463.978534.27449262350.641140.513−140.3−6−29 Average max. and min. temperatures in °F Precipitation totals in inches
- Boreal ecology
- Boreal forest
- Plants of continental subarctic climate
- Köppen climate classification
- ^ a b Subarctic Division
- ^ Mount Washington Observatory: Normals, Means, and Extremes, Retrieved Jul. 1, 2009.
- ^ Geography of climate
- ^ Updated Köppen-Geiger Climate Map of the World by Murray Peel
- ^ Name=&LatitudeDegrees=&LatitudeMinutes=&LongitudeDegrees=&LongitudeMinutes=&NormalsClass=A&SelNormals=&StnId=1706& "Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada. http://www.climate.weatheroffice.ec.gc.ca/climate_normals/results_e.html?Province=NWT%20&StationName=&SearchType=&LocateBy=Province&Proximity=25&ProximityFrom=City&StationNumber=&IDType=MSC&CityName=&Park Name=&LatitudeDegrees=&LatitudeMinutes=&LongitudeDegrees=&LongitudeMinutes=&NormalsClass=A&SelNormals=&StnId=1706&. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
- ^ "Normwert-Tabellen 1961-1990" (in German, French, Italian). MeteoSchweiz. http://www.meteoswiss.admin.ch/web/de/klima/klima_schweiz/tabellen.html. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- ^ "Luleå, SWE". World Weather Information Service. http://weather.msn.com/local.aspx?wealocations=wc:SWXX0019&q=Lule%C3%A5%2c+SWE. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
- ^ "Nederbörd, normalvärden 1961-90". SMHI. http://www.smhi.se/cmp/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=8046&a=22371&l=sv. Retrieved 2009-10-17. [dead link]
- ^ "Mohe County, 1971-200". Weather.com.cn. http://www.weather.com.cn/cityintro/101050703.shtml. Retrieved 2011-09-12.
Class A Class B Class C Class DHumid continental (Dfa, Dwa, Dfb, Dwb, Dsa, Dsb) · Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, Dwd,Dsc, Dsd) Class E
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