Non-standard model


Non-standard model
See also Interpretation (logic)

In model theory, a discipline within mathematical logic, a non-standard model is a model of a theory that is not isomorphic to the intended model (or standard model). If the intended model is infinite and the language is first-order, then the Löwenheim-Skolem theorems guarantee the existence of non-standard models. The non-standard models can be chosen as elementary extensions or elementary substructures of the intended model.

Non-standard models are studied in set theory, non-standard analysis, and non-standard model of arithmetic.