- Domain of a function
In mathematics, the domain of definition or simply the domain of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined. That is, the function provides an "output" or value for each member of the domain.
For instance, the domain of cosine is the set of all real numbers, while the domain of the square root consists only of numbers greater than or equal to 0 (ignoring complex numbers in both cases). For a function whose domain is a subset of the real numbers, when the function is represented in an xy Cartesian coordinate system, the domain is represented on the x-axis.
Given a function f:X→Y, the set X is the domain of f; the set Y is the codomain of f. In the expression f(x), x is the argument and f(x) is the value. One can think of an argument as an input to the function, and the value as the output.
The image (sometimes called the range) of f is the set of all values assumed by f for all possible x; this is the set . The image of f can be the same set as the codomain or it can be a proper subset of it. It is in general smaller than the codomain; it is the whole codomain if and only if f is a surjective function.
A well-defined function must carry every element of its domain to an element of its codomain. For example, the function f defined by
- f(x) = 1/x
has no value for f(0). Thus, the set of all real numbers, , cannot be its domain. In cases like this, the function is either defined on or the "gap is plugged" by explicitly defining f(0). If we extend the definition of f to
- f(x) = 1/x, for x ≠ 0,
- f(0) = 0,
then f is defined for all real numbers, and its domain is .
Any function can be restricted to a subset of its domain. The restriction of g : A → B to S, where S ⊆ A, is written g |S : S → B.
The natural domain of a formula is the set of values for which it is defined, typically within the reals but sometimes among the integers or complex numbers. For instance the natural domain of square root is the non-negative reals when considered as a real number function. When considering a natural domain the set of possible values of the function is typically called its range.
Domain of a partial function
There are two distinct meanings in current mathematical usage for the notion of the domain of a partial function. Most mathematicians, including recursion theorists, use the term "domain of f" for the set of all values x such that f(x) is defined. But some, particularly category theorists, consider the domain of a partial function f : X → Y to be X, irrespective of whether f(x) exists for every x in X.
In category theory one deals with morphisms instead of functions. Morphisms are arrows from one object to another. The domain of any morphism is the object from which an arrow starts. In this context, many set theoretic ideas about domains must be abandoned or at least formulated more abstractly. For example, the notion of restricting a morphism to a subset of its domain must be modified. See subobject for more.
Real and complex analysis
- Function is defined for all .
- Function , where is the set of all complex numbers, is defined for all x.
- Function is defined for all
- Range (mathematics)
- Surjective function
- Injective function
- Domain decomposition
- Lipschitz domain
- Effective domain
- ^ Paley, H. Abstract Algebra, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966 (p. 16).
- ^ Rosenbaum, Robert A.; Johnson, G. Philip (1984). Calculus: basic concepts and applications. Cambridge University Pressd. p. 60. ISBN 0521250129.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Domain of unknown function — A Domain of unknown function (DUF) is a protein domain that has no characterised function. These families have been collected together in the Pfam database using the prefix DUF followed by a number, with examples being DUF2992 and DUF1220. There… … Wikipedia
domain of a function — noun (mathematics) the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined • Syn: ↑domain • Topics: ↑mathematics, ↑math, ↑maths • Hypernyms: ↑set … Useful english dictionary
Domain — may refer to: General Territory (administrative division), a non sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government Public domain, a body of works and knowledge without proprietary interest Eminent domain, the… … Wikipedia
Function (mathematics) — f(x) redirects here. For the band, see f(x) (band). Graph of example function, In mathematics, a function associates one quantity, the a … Wikipedia
Domain Name System — The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the… … Wikipedia
function, logical — In logic and mathematics a function, also known as a map or mapping, is a relation that associates members of one class X with some unique member y of another class Y. The association is written as y = f(x ). The class X is called the domain of… … Philosophy dictionary
Domain (mathematical analysis) — In mathematical analysis, a domain is any connected open subset of a finite dimensional vector space. This is a different concept than the domain of a function, though it is often used for that purpose, for example in partial differential… … Wikipedia
Domain controller — On Windows Server Systems, a domain controller (DC) is a server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within the Windows Server domain. A domain is a concept introduced in Windows NT whereby … Wikipedia
Domain theory — is a branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets (posets) commonly called domains. Consequently, domain theory can be considered as a branch of order theory. The field has major applications in computer science,… … Wikipedia
Domain coloring — plot of the function ƒ(x) =(x2 − 1)(x − 2 − i)2/(x2 + 2 + 2i). The hue represents the function argument, while the saturation represents the magnitude. Domain coloring is a technique for… … Wikipedia