- Philosophical logic
"This article is about Philosophical logic not
philosophy of logic"
Philosophical logic is the study of the more specifically philosophical aspects of logic. The term contrasts with "
mathematical logic", and since the development of mathematical logic in the late nineteenth century, it has come to include most of those topics traditionally treated by logicin general.Fact|date=May 2008 It is concerned with characterising notions like inference, rational thought, truth, and contents of thoughts, in the most fundamental ways possible, and trying to model them using modern formal logic. Fact|date=May 2008 The notions in question include reference, predication, identity, truth, negation, quantification, existence, necessity, definitionand entailment. Fact|date=May 2008 Philosophical logic is "not" concerned with the psychological processes connected with thought, or with emotions, images and the like. It is concerned only with those entities — thoughts, sentences, or propositions — that are capable of being true and false. To this extent, though, it does intersect with philosophy of mindand philosophy of language. Gottlob Fregeis regarded by many as the founder of modern philosophical logic. Fact|date=May 2008
Not all philosophical logic, however, applies formal logical techniques. A good amount of it (including Grayling's and
Colin McGinn's books cited below) is written in natural language. One definition, popular in Britain, is that philosophical logic is the attempt to solve general philosophical problems that arise when we use or think about formal logicFact|date=May 2008: problems about existence, necessity, analyticity, a prioricity, propositions, identity, predication, truth. Philosophy of logic, on the other hand, would tackle metaphysical and epistemologicalproblems about entailment, validity, and proof. So it could be said that philosophy of logic is a branch of philosophy but philosophical logic belongs to the domain of logic. Fact|date=May 2008
* Goble, Lou, ed., 2001. "(The Blackwell Guide to) Philosophical Logic." Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20693-0.
* Grayling, A. C., 1997. "An Introduction to Philosophical Logic." 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19982-9.
* Jacquette, Dale, ed., 2002. " A Companion to Philosophical Logic." Oxford Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-4575-7.
* Sainsbury, Mark, 2001. "Logical Forms: An Introduction to Philosophical Logic." 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-21679-0.
* McGinn, Colin. 2000. "Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth". Oxford:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926263-2.
* Wolfram, Sybil, 1989. "Philosophical Logic: An Introduction." London:
* [http://www.springer.com/10992 Journal of Philosophical Logic] , Springer SBM
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