- Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn CemeteryMount Auburn Cemetery
Location: Cambridge and Watertown, Massachusetts Coordinates: Coordinates: Built: 1831 Architect: Alexander Wadsworth; Dr. Jacob Bigelow Architectural style: Exotic Revival, Other, Gothic Revival Governing body: Private NRHP Reference#: 75000254 Significant dates Added to NRHP: April 21, 1975 Designated NHLD: May 27, 2003
Mount Auburn Cemetery was founded in 1831 as "America's first garden cemetery", or the first "rural cemetery", with classical monuments set in a rolling landscaped terrain. The appearance of this type of landscape coincides with the rising popularity of the term "cemetery," which etymologically traces its roots back to the Greek for "a sleeping place." This language and outlook eclipsed the previous harsh view of death and the afterlife, pictorialized in old graveyards and church burial plots. The 174-acre (70 ha) cemetery is important both for its historical aspects and for its role as an arboretum. Most of the cemetery is located in Watertown, Massachusetts, though the 1843 granite Egyptian revival entrance lies in neighboring Cambridge, adjacent to the Cambridge City and Sand Banks Cemeteries.
The land that would eventually become Mount Auburn Cemetery was originally named Stone's Farm, though locals referred to it as "Sweet Auburn" after the 1770 poem "The Deserted Village" by Oliver Goldsmith. Mount Auburn Cemetery was inspired by Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris and was itself an inspiration to cemetery designers, most notably at Abney Park in London. Mount Auburn Cemetery was designed largely by Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn with assistance from Dr. Jacob Bigelow and Alexander Wadsworth.
Bigelow came up with the idea for Mount Auburn as early as 1825, though a site was not acquired until five years later. Bigelow, a medical doctor, was concerned about the unhealthiness of burials under churches as well as the possibility of running out of space. With help from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Mount Auburn Cemetery was founded on 70 acres (280,000 m2) of land authorized by the Massachusetts Legislature for use as a garden or rural cemetery. The purchase of the original land cost $6,000; it later extended to 170 acres (0.69 km2). The main gate was built in the Egyptian Revival style and cost $10,000. The first president of the Mount Auburn Association, Joseph Story, dedicated the cemetery in 1831.
The cemetery is credited as the beginning of the American public parks and gardens movement. It set the style for other suburban American cemeteries such as Laurel Hill Cemetery (Philadelphia, 1836), Mt. Hope Cemetery, America's first municipal rural cemetery (Rochester, New York, 1838), Green-Wood Cemetery (Brooklyn, 1838), The Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore, Maryland 1838, Albany Rural Cemetery (Menands, New York, 1844) and Forest Hills Cemetery (Jamaica Plain, 1848) as well as Oakwood Cemetery in Syracuse, New York. It can be considered the link between Capability Brown's English landscape gardens and Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park in New York (1850s).
Mount Auburn was established at a time when Americans had a sentimental interest in rural cemeteries. It is still well known for its tranquil atmosphere and accepting attitude toward death. Many of the more traditional monuments feature poppy flowers, symbols of blissful sleep. In the late 1830s, its first unofficial guide, Picturesque Pocket Companion and Visitor's Guide Through Mt. Auburn, was published and featured descriptions of some of the more interesting monuments as well as a collection of prose and poetry about death by writers including Nathaniel Hawthorne and Willis Gaylord Clark. Because of the number of visitors, the cemetery's developers carefully regulated the grounds: They had a policy to remove "offensive and improper" monuments and only "proprietors" (i.e., plot owners) could have vehicles on the grounds and were allowed within the gates on Sundays and holidays.
More than 93,000 people are buried in the cemetery as of 2003. A number of historically significant people have been interred there since its inception, particularly members of the Boston Brahmins and the Boston elite associated with Harvard University as well as a number of prominent Unitarians.
The cemetery is nondenominational and continues to make space available for new plots. The area is well known for its beautiful environs and is a favorite location for Cambridge bird-watchers. Guided tours of the cemetery's historic, artistic, and horticultural points of interest are available.
Mount Auburn's collection of over 5,500 trees includes nearly 700 species and varieties. Thousands of very well-kept shrubs and herbaceous plants weave through the cemetery's hills, ponds, woodlands, and clearings. The cemetery contains more than 10 miles (17 km) of roads and many paths. Landscaping styles range from Victorian-era plantings to contemporary gardens, from natural woodlands to formal ornamental gardens, and from sweeping vistas through majestic trees to small enclosed spaces. Many trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are tagged with botanic labels containing their scientific and common names.
The cemetery was among those profiled in the 2005 PBS documentary A Cemetery Special.
- Hannah Adams (1755–1831), author
- Louis Agassiz (1807–1873), scientist
- Elizabeth Cary Agassiz (1822–1907), scientist, author
- Thomas Bailey Aldrich (1836–1907), author
- Nathan Appleton (1779–1861), congressman
- William Appleton (1786–1862), congressman
- Benjamin E. Bates (1808–1878), industrialist, founder of Bates College
- Jacob Bigelow (1787–1879), designer of Mt. Auburn Cemetery
- J.W. Black (1825–1896), photographer
- Edwin Booth (1833–1893), actor
- Nathaniel Bowditch (1773–1838), mathematician, seaman, author; his monument was the first life size bronze to be cast in America
- Peter Bent Brigham (1807-1877), Boston businessman and philanthropist
- Phillips Brooks (1835–1893), American Episcopal bishop
- William Brewster (1851–1919), ornithologist
- Charles Bulfinch (1763–1844), architect
- McGeorge Bundy (1919–1996), presidential cabinet official
- George Cabot (1752–1823), statesman
- James Henry Carleton (1814–1873), United States Army officer
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- John Ciardi (1916–1986), poet, translator
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- Robert Creeley (1926–2005), poet
- Benjamin Williams Crowninshield (1772–1851), statesman, U.S. Secretary of the Navy
- Frank Crowninshield (1872–1947), creator and editor of Vanity Fair magazine
- Benjamin Robbins Curtis (1809–1874), Supreme Court justice
- Charlotte Cushman (1816–1876), actress
- Felix Octavius Carr Darley (1821–1888), artist
- Samuel Dexter (1761–1816), congressman
- Dorothea Dix (1802–1887), nurse, hospital reformer
- Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910), religious leader
- Harold "Doc" Edgerton (1903–1990), engineer, scientist
- Charles William Eliot (1834–1926), Harvard University president
- Edward Everett (1794–1865), Governor of Massachusetts, President of Harvard University, United States Secretary of State, speaker at the Gettysburg Address
- William Everett (1839–1910), congressman
- Achilles Fang (1910–1995), sinologist, comparatist, and friend of Ezra Pound
- Fannie Farmer (1857–1915), cookbook author
- Fanny Fern (1811–1872), feminist author
- Annie Adams Fields, author and hostess; wife of James
- James Thomas Fields, writer and publisher
- Felix Frankfurter (1882–1965), United States Supreme Court Justice
- Buckminster Fuller (1895–1983), architect
- Isabella Stewart Gardner (1840–1924), art collector, museum founder
- Charles Dana Gibson (1867–1944), illustrator
- Augustus Addison Gould (1805–1866), conchologist and malacologist
- Curt Gowdy (1919–2006), sportscaster
- Asa Gray (1810–1888), 19th century American botanist
- Horace Gray (1828–1902), Supreme Court justice
- Horatio Greenough (1805–1852), sculptor
- Charles Hale (1831–1882), journalist, statesman
- Charles Hayden (1870–1937), financier and philanthropist
- Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809–1894), physician/author
- Winslow Homer (1836–1910), artist
- Albion P. Howe (1818–1897), Union army general
- Julia Ward Howe (1819–1910), activist, poet
- Dr. Harriot Kezia Hunt (1805–1875) early female physician; her monument, a statue of Hygieia, was carved by Edmonia Lewis
- Harriet Jacobs (1813–1897), escaped slave and author of ..Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl..
- Edward F. Jones (1828–1913), New York lieutenant governor 1886-1891
- Edwin H. Land (1909–1991), scientist
- Christopher Columbus Langdell (1826-1906), legal educator
- Abbott Lawrence (1792–1855), politician, philanthropist
- Henry Cabot Lodge (1850–1924), politician
- Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (1902–1985) politician
- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–1882), poet
- A. Lawrence Lowell (1856–1943), Harvard University president
- Amy Lowell (1874–1925), poet
- Charles Russell Lowell (1835–1864), Civil War general and casualty of the Battle of Cedar Creek
- Francis Cabot Lowell (1855–1911), U.S. Congressman and Federal Judge
- James Russell Lowell (1819–1891), poet and foreign diplomat
- Josephine Shaw Lowell (1843–1905), Wife of Gen. Charles Russell Lowell, sister of Col. Robert Gould Shaw
- Maria White Lowell (1821–1853), poet and wife of James Russell
- Bernard Malamud (1914–1986), writer
- Jules Marcou (1824–1898), geologist
- William T.G. Morton (1819–1868), demonstrator of ether anesthesia
- Stephen P. Mugar (1901–1982), Armenian-American philanthropist and founder of the Star Market chain of supermarkets (also the father of David Mugar)
- Shahan Natalie (1884–1983), principal organizer of Operation Nemesis, Armenian national philosophy writer
- Charles Eliot Norton (1827–1908), scholar and author
- Robert Nozick (1938–2002), philosopher
- Richard Olney (1835–1917), statesman
- Harrison Gray Otis (1765–1848), U.S. Representative, mayor of Boston
- Maribel Vinson-Owen (1911–1961), nine-time U.S. skating champion and coach
- Maribel Y. Owen (1940–1961), U.S. pairs figure skating champion
- Laurence R. Owen (1944–1961), U.S. ladies skating champion
- Harvey D. Parker (1805–1884), hotelier
- Francis Parkman, historian
- Josiah Quincy III (1772–1864), statesman, educator
- John Rawls (1921–2002), philosopher
- Anne Revere (1903–1990), actress
- William Eustis Russell (1857–1896), governor of Massachusetts
- Julian Seymour Schwinger, theoretical physicist, Nobel Prize Winner*
- Lemuel Shaw (1781–1861), chief justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
- B.F. Skinner (1904–1990), psychologist
- Franklin W. Smith (1826–1911), promoter of historical architecture
- Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776–1832), phrenologist
- Daniel C. Stillson (1830–1899), Inventor of the Stillson pipe wrench
- Joseph Story (1779–1845), US Supreme Court Justice
- Charles Sumner (1811–1874), statesman
- Frank William Taussig (1859–1940), economist
- Randall Thompson (1899–1984), composer
- William S. Tilton, (1828–1889), Civil War brigade commander
- Charles Tufts (1781–1876), businessman who donated the land for Tufts University
- Benjamin Waterhouse (1754–1846), physician
- Nathaniel Parker Willis (1806–1867), publisher
- Robert Charles Winthrop (1809–1894), statesman
- Roger Wolcott (1847–1900), governor of Massachusetts
- Joseph Emerson Worcester, lexicographer
- List of United States cemeteries
- List of botanical gardens in the United States
- Massachusetts Horticultural Society
- Poets' Graves
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- Nathaniel Dearborn. A concise history of, and guide through Mount Auburn: with a catalogue of lots laid out in that cemetery; a map of the grounds, and terms of subscription, regulations concerning visitors, interments, &c., &c. Boston: N. Dearborn, 1843. 1857 ed.
- Moses King. Mount Auburn cemetery: including also a brief history and description of Cambridge, Harvard University, and the Union Railway Company. Cambridge, Mass.: Moses King, 1883.
- Mount Auburn Cemetery official site
- Mount Auburn Cemetery: A New American Landscape, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
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См. также в других словарях:
Mount Auburn Cemetery — bezeichnet mehrere gleichnamige, im NRHP gelistete, Objekte: Mount Auburn Cemetery (Baltimore, Maryland), ID Nr. 01000456 Mount Auburn Cemetery (Cambridge, Massachusetts), ID Nr. 75000254 Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur U … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mount Auburn Cemetery (Baltimore, Maryland) — Mount Auburn Cemetery U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. Historic district … Wikipedia
Mount Auburn Cemetery (disambiguation) — Mount Auburn Cemetery may refer to: in the United States (by state) Mount Auburn Cemetery (Harvard, Illinois) Mount Auburn Cemetery (Baltimore, Maryland), listed on the NRHP in Maryland Mount Auburn Cemetery, listed on the NRHP in Massachusetts… … Wikipedia
Mount Auburn Cemetery (Harvard, Illinois) — Mount Auburn Cemetery Details Country United States Location Harvard, Illinois Coordinates 42°24 49 N 88°35 36 W Mount Auburn Cemetery is a cemetery located in Harvard, Illinois … Wikipedia
Mount Auburn Cemetery Reception House — U.S. National Register of Historic Places … Wikipedia
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Mount Albion Cemetery — Terraced graves and tall trees, 2010 Details Year established 1842. … Wikipedia
Mount Auburn — ist der Name mehrerer Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Mount Auburn (Illinois) Mount Auburn (Indiana) Mount Auburn (Iowa) Mount Auburn (Kentucky) sowie mehrerer Friedhöfe: Mount Auburn Cemetery (Massachusetts) Mount Auburn Cemetery (Illinois)… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Mount Auburn — is the name of several places in the United States: Mount Auburn, Illinois Mount Auburn Township, Illinois Mount Auburn, Indiana Mount Auburn, Iowa Mount Auburn Cemetery in Massachusetts Mount Auburn Historic District in Cincinnati, Ohio … Wikipedia
Mount Pleasant Cemetery (Taunton, Massachusetts) — Mount Pleasant Cemetery U.S. National Register of Historic Places … Wikipedia