Mary Baker Eddy


Mary Baker Eddy
Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910)

Mary Baker Eddy
Full name Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910)
Born July 16, 1821(1821-07-16)
Bow, New Hampshire
Died 3 December 1910(1910-12-03) (aged 89)
Newton, Massachusetts
Era 19th century
Region United States
School Christian Science
Notable ideas Spiritual Healing and the Rejection of Medical Drugs, Hygiene, and Procedures

Mary Baker Eddy (July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) was the founder of Christian Science (1879), a Protestant American system of religious thought and practice religion adopted by the Church of Christ, Scientist, and others. She is the author of the movement's text book, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, and founded the Christian Science Publishing Society (1898), which continues to publish a number periodicals including The Christian Science Monitor (1908).

Married three times, she took the name Mary Baker Glover from her first marriage. She was also known from her third marriage as Mary Baker Glover Eddy or Mary Baker G. Eddy.[1] She and others credit her with the ability to heal instantaneously.[2]

Contents

Life

Childhood

Mary Baker Eddy was born Mary Morse Baker in Bow, New Hampshire,[3][4] the youngest of six children of Abigail and Mark Baker. Although raised a Congregationalist, she came to reject teachings such as predestination and original sin. She suffered chronic illness and developed a strong interest in biblical accounts of early Christian healing.

At the age of eight, Eddy began to hear voices calling her name; she would go to her mother only to learn that her mother had not called her. In her autobiography, Eddy relates one of these later experiences:

"One day, when my cousin, Mehitable Huntoon, was visiting us, and I sat in a little chair by her side, in the same room with grandmother, – the call again came, so loud that Mehitable heard it, though I had ceased to notice it. Greatly surprised, my cousin turned to me and said, 'Your mother is calling you!' Finally, after speaking with her mother, the child Mary responded to the voice with the phrase from Samuel 'Speak, Lord; for Thy servant heareth.' When the call came again I did answer, in the words of Samuel, but never again to the material senses was that mysterious call repeated."[4][5]

According to Yvonne Cache von Fettweis, in her book Christian Healer, "Mary's religious upbringing had taught her that all men are God's servants."[2] In her discovery of Christian Science, Eddy found that healing the sick was an integral part of Christian service. From early childhood, Eddy’s life included incidents of healing others. Her family would bring sick farm animals to her to heal, for example. Some biographers[who?] have suggested Mary was high-strung or emotional; irrespective of such claims, reports from friends in the community where Eddy grew up corroborate reports of her ability to heal at a young age.

Congregational church – Tilton, NH

Eddy frequently expressed confidence in God's love, which placed her at odds with her father's theological outlook, leading to a religious crisis when she was twelve and first eligible to join the Congregational church. Mark Baker held to a hard and bitter doctrine of predestination, believing that a horrible decree of endless punishment awaited sinners on a final judgment day. Amid their clash of views Mary developed a life-threatening fever, which at last prompted her father, in his love for her, to set aside his stern beliefs. She was healed of the fever after prayer, as she wrote:[6]

"My mother, as she bathed my burning temples, bade me lean on God's love, which would give me rest if I went to Him in prayer, as I was wont to do, seeking His guidance. I prayed; and a soft glow of ineffable joy came over me. The fever was gone and I rose and dressed myself in a normal condition of health. Mother saw this and was glad. The physician marveled; and the "horrible decree" of Predestination – as John Calvin rightly called his own tenet – forever lost its power over me."[5]

Mary did not join the Congregational church until she was 17 at Sanbornton Bridge, New Hampshire (present-day Tilton).[6] While Eddy attended the Pembroke Academy, an event occurred, later related by long time Tilton residents. A mentally disturbed man had escaped from the local Concord asylum and, brandishing a club, entered the Pembroke schoolyard terrifying pupils who ran shrieking into the schoolhouse. Peering through the windows, the children watched in horror as Eddy approached him as he wielded his club above her head, expecting her to be struck down before their eyes. Instead, she simply took his free hand and walked him, as he lowered his club to his side, to the schoolyard gate, from which he departed. The following Sunday he reappeared. Quietly entering the church, he walked to the Baker pew and stood beside Eddy during the hymn singing, after which he yielded without resistance into legal custody.[6]

Early marriages

On December 10, 1843, she married George Washington Glover.[7] He died of yellow fever on June 27, 1844, a little over two months before the birth of their only child, George Washington Glover.[7] After her husband's death, Eddy freed her husband's slaves, unwilling to accept for herself the price of a human life.[7] As a single mother of poor health, Mrs. Glover wrote some political pieces for the New Hampshire Patriot. She also worked as a substitute teacher in the New Hampshire Conference Seminary.[7] Her success there led to her briefly opening an experimental school which was an early attempt to introduce kindergarten methods (love instead of harshness for discipline; interest instead of compulsion to impart knowledge), but this, like other similar attempts at this time was not accepted and soon closed.[7] The social climate of the times made it very difficult for a widowed woman to earn money.

Her mother died in November 1849 and about a year later, her father remarried Elizabeth Patterson Duncan.[7] Eddy continued to have poor health and her son was put into the care of neighbors by her father and stepmother. Eddy married Dr. Daniel Patterson, a dentist, in 1853[8] hoping he would adopt the young boy, and Daniel Patterson signed papers to that effect on their wedding day.[citation needed] However, he never followed through on his promise. Eddy was often bed-ridden during this period.[8] Of her sisters who were able to help her in the care of her rambunctious child, sadly, none really did, beyond short periods. Her mother had passed on and her father had remarried a woman who did not welcome either Eddy or her child.[8] A neighbor couple with a small farm and no children took up the care of the boy for a fee, during times Eddy was confined to her bed.[citation needed] When this couple, who found the boy useful in the farm labor, intended to move out to the Prairie territories,[8] without her knowing,[8] some of Eddy's family arranged that the couple should take the child along with money given them by Eddy's father.[citation needed] Eddy's symptoms worsened and plunged her into a deep depression. The failure of Patterson to make good on his promises of reunification with her now far-distant son plunged Eddy into deep despair.[8] Her acute desire to recover her health led her to seek healing in the various systems fashionable of the period. Eddy was ready to try anything to bring relief to her sufferings.[citation needed]

Patterson chased after other women while married to Eddy.[8] He ran into financial difficulty and mortgaged Eddy's furniture, jewelry, and books, but was still unable to keep current on their property in Groton, New Hampshire, and was eventually forced to vacate.[8] Patterson intended to leave Groton and Eddy's sister, Abigail, removed her from her Groton home to Rumney, six miles distant, in a carriage with her blind servant following on foot.[8]

Persistent ill health

A fragile child, Mary Baker Eddy suffered from a number of physical complaints. The exact nature of these illnesses, and their possible psychosomatic or hysterical (as it was called at that time) nature, is still a subject of debate. Eddy's letters from this time, now at the Mary Baker Eddy Library for the Betterment of Humanity in Boston, Massachusetts, portray her sufferings and search for relief.

Study with Phineas Quimby and his influence

In October 1862 she became a patient of Phineas Quimby, a magnetic healer from Maine. She benefited temporarily by his treatment[9] and it is said by Quimby's supporters that his beliefs influenced her later thinking and writing, although to what extent has been frequently disputed. Originally, Eddy gave Quimby much credit for his hypnotic treatments of her nervous and physical conditions and initially thought his brand of mesmerism entirely benign, but later changed her mind. While Quimby had his own notions on the nature of these unseen forces, which Eddy accepted early on, she would later draw decidedly different opinions on the nature of thought on the body and reject any form of hypnotism. Quimby later said he learned more from Eddy than she did from him.

1866 injury, healing and study leads to Christian Science

After a fall in Lynn, Massachusetts caused a spinal injury in February 1866, Eddy turned to Matthew 9:2[10] in the Bible and recovered unexpectedly. Although she filed a claim for money from the city of Lynn for her injury on the grounds that she was "still suffering from the effects of that fall," she later withdrew the lawsuit.[11] Eddy's attending physician Alvin M. Cushing, a homeopath, testified under oath that he "did not at any time declare, or believe, that there was no hope for Mrs. Patterson's recovery, or that she was in critical condition."[12]

She devoted the next three years of her life to Biblical study and what she considered the discovery of Christian Science. In her autobiography, Retrospection and Introspection, Eddy writes "I then withdrew from society about three years,--to ponder my mission, to search the Scriptures, to find the Science of Mind that should take the things of God and show them to the creature, and reveal the great curative Principle, --Deity."[5]

Convinced by her own study of the Bible, especially Genesis 1, and through experimentation, Eddy claimed to have found healing power through a higher sense of God as Spirit and man as God's spiritual "image and likeness." She became convinced that illness could be healed through an awakened thought brought about by a clearer perception of God and the explicit rejection of drugs, hygiene and medicine based upon the observation that Jesus did not use these methods for healing:

It is plain that God does not employ drugs or hygiene, nor provide them for human use; else Jesus would have recommended and employed them in his healing. … The tender word and Christian encouragement of an invalid, pitiful patience with his fears and the removal of them, are better than hecatombs of gushing theories, stereotyped borrowed speeches, and the doling of arguments, which are but so many parodies on legitimate Christian Science, aflame with divine Love. (Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, 143:5, 367:3)

She eventually called this spiritual perception the operation of the Christ Truth on human consciousness.

Claiming to have first healed herself and then others, and having learned from these experiences, Eddy felt anyone could perceive what she called "the Kingdom of Heaven" or spiritual reality on earth. For her, this healing method was based on scientific principles and could be taught to others. This positive rule of healing, she taught, resulted from a new understanding of God as infinite Spirit beyond the limitations of the material senses.

Publishing her discovery

In 1875, after several years of testing the effectiveness of her healing method, Eddy published her discovery in a book entitled Science and Health (years later retitled Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures), which she called the textbook of Christian Science. The first publication run was one thousand copies, which she self-published. In the final edition, she wrote "In the year 1866, I discovered the Christ Science or divine laws of Life, Truth, and Love, and named my discovery Christian Science" (p. 107). During these years she taught what she considered the science of "primitive Christianity" to hundreds of people. Many of her students became healers themselves. The last 100 pages of Science and Health (chapter entitled "Fruitage") contains testimonies of people who claimed to have been healed by reading her book.

Distinguishing between Eddy and Quimby and other criticisms

Gillian Gill, writes

I am now firmly convinced, having weighed all the evidence I could find in published and archival sources, that Mrs. Eddy's most famous biographer-critics – Peabody, Milmine, Dakin, Bates and Dittemore and Gardner – have flouted the evidence and shown willful bias in accusing Mrs. Eddy of owing her theory of healing to Quimby and of plagiarizing his unpublished work.[13]

Although Eddy used terms such as "Science", "Health", "error", "shadow", "belief", "Christ" and others used by Quimby, these terms are also to be found in the Bible.[citation needed] In the end, her conclusions from scriptural study and continued healing practice were diametrically opposed to the Quimby teachings. Eddy also eventually rejected many of Quimby's conclusions on the dynamics of human disease, suffering, healing, redemption, God and Christ.

Through her study of the Bible, Eddy rejected Quimby's notion of a dualism between matter and spirit. She wrote in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, "All is infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. Spirit is immortal Truth; matter is mortal error." (S&H 468: 10–12)

Eddy found that while at first hypnotism seemed to benefit the patient, it later created more problems than the original sickness. Ultimately she rejected any form of hypnotism or mesmerism, stating

The hypnotizer employs one error to destroy another. If he heals sickness through a belief, and a belief originally caused the sickness, it is a case of the greater error overcoming the lesser. This greater error thereafter occupies the ground, leaving the case worse than before it was grasped by the stronger error. (S&H 104:22–28)

Eddy's use of these terms and her teaching are considered by both her defenders and Quimby's family to be distinct from Quimbyism. Quimby's son, George, wrote, "Don’t confuse his method of healing with Mrs. Eddy’s Christian Science, so far as her religious teachings go.... The religion which she teaches certainly is hers, for which I cannot be too thankful." (Gottschalk, Rolling Away the Stone, p. 72).

Phineas Quimby died in January 1866. In 1873, Eddy divorced Patterson for adultery to which he readily admitted. In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy, who died in 1882.

In 1903 Mark Twain published a satirical diatribe attacking Eddy and her church entitled Christian Science. Twain wrote

We cannot peacefully agree as to her motives, therefore her character must remain crooked to some of us and straight to the others. No matter, she is interesting enough without an amicable agreement. In several ways she is the most interesting woman that ever lived and the most extraordinary. The same may be said of her career, and the same may be said of its chief result...Whether she took it or invented it, it was—materially—a sawdust mine when she got it, and she has turned it into a Klondike; its spiritual dock had next to no custom, if any at all: from it she has launched a world-religion which has now six hundred and sixty-three churches, and she charters a new one every four days. When we do not know a person—and also when we do—we have to judge the size and nature of his achievements as compared with the achievements of others in his special line of business—there is no other way. Measured by this standard, it is thirteen hundred years since the world has produced anyone who could reach up to Mrs. Eddy's waistbelt.[14]

However, later he seemed to reverse his stance as Paine wrote:[15]

I was at this period interested a good deal in mental healing, and had been treated for neurasthenia (psychosomatic fatigue) with gratifying results. Like most of the world, I had assumed, from his published articles, that he condemned Christian Science and its related practices out of hand. When I confessed, rather reluctantly, one day, the benefit I had received, he surprised me by answering:

"Of course you have been benefited. Christian Science is humanity's boon. Mother Eddy deserves a place in the Trinity as much as any member of it. She has organized and made available a healing principle that for two thousand years has never been employed, except as the merest kind of guesswork. She is the benefactor of the age."

It seemed strange, at the time, to hear him speak in this way concerning a practice of which he was generally regarded as the chief public antagonist. It was another angle of his many-sided character.

In view of Mark Twain's extended and caustic attack in his book "Christian Science" on both Christian Science and its founder, Mary Baker Eddy (whom he once described as the "queen of frauds and hypocrites"), it is widely assumed that his reference to "Mother Eddy" as "the benefactor of the age" was purely sarcastic.[original research?] When Harper's refused to publish "Christian Science" in 1903, Twain interpreted the rejection as suppression caused by pressure from Christian Science and wrote, "The situation is not barren of humour. I had been doing my best to show in print that the Xn Scientist cult has become a power in the land – well, here is the proof: it has scared the biggest publisher in the Union."[citation needed]

Building a church

Eddy devoted the rest of her life to the establishment of the church, writing its bylaws, The Manual of The Mother Church, and revising Science and Health. While Eddy was a highly controversial religious leader, author, and lecturer, thousands of people flocked to her teachings.

By the 1870’s Eddy was telling her students “Some day I will have a church of my own.”[16] In 1879 she and her students established the Church of Christ, Scientist, “to commemorate the word and works of our Master [Jesus], which should reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing.”[17] In 1892 at Eddy’s direction, the church reorganized as The First Church of Christ, Scientist, “designed to be built on the Rock, Christ....”[18] Some years later in 1881, she founded the Massachusetts Metaphysical College,[19] where she taught approximately 800 students in Boston, Massachusetts between the years 1882 and 1889.[20] These students spread across the country practicing healing, and instructing others, in accordance with Eddy's teachings. Eddy authorized these students to list themselves as Christian Science Practitioners in the church's periodical, the Christian Science Journal. She also founded the Christian Science Sentinel, a weekly magazine with articles about how to heal and testimonies of healing.

As teacher, author, and preacher, Eddy was leader of the burgeoning Christian Science movement. In 1888, a reading room selling Bibles, her writings and other publications opened in Boston.[21] This model would soon be replicated, and branch churches worldwide maintain more than 1,200 Christian Science Reading Rooms today.[22]

In 1889, she closed the Massachusetts Metaphysical College to focus on a major revision of Science and Health.[23] Throughout her lifetime, Science and Health would appear in over 400 separate printings, and undergo six major revisions.[24] Science and Health is currently published in 17 languages including Braille.[25]

In 1894, an edifice for The First Church of Christ, Scientist edifice was completed in Boston (The Mother Church).[26] In the early years, Eddy served as pastor, and she was succeeded by several other individuals. In 1895, however, Eddy ordained the Bible and Science and Health as the pastor of The Church of Christ, Scientist, and the Sunday sermon consists of readings from these two books.[27] Wednesday meetings also include readings from the Bible and Science and Health, and attendees participate by sharing accounts of healing and spiritual insight.[28] Also in 1895 she published the first edition of a church manual, establishing guidelines that are followed to this day. It is also in this slim volume that she made provisions for democratically run local churches around the world.[29]

Eddy founded The Christian Science Publishing Society in 1898, which became the publishing home for numerous publications launched by her and her followers.[30] In 1908, at the age of 87, Eddy founded The Christian Science Monitor, a daily newspaper.[31] She also founded the Christian Science Journal in 1883,[32] a monthly magazine aimed at the church's members and, in 1898,[33] the Christian Science Sentinel, a weekly religious periodical written for a more general audience, and the Herald of Christian Science, a religious magazine with editions in many languages.[34] All of these publications continue to be published today.

Death

Mary Baker Eddy's burial Memorial

Mary Baker Eddy died on December 3, 1910 at her home at 400 Beacon Street, in the Chestnut Hill section of Newton, Massachusetts. Her death was not announced until the next morning when a city medical examiner was called in.[35] She was buried December 8, 1910 at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Legacy

In 1921, on the 100th anniversary of Eddy's birth, a 100-ton (in rough) and 60–70 tons (hewn), eleven-foot square granite pyramid was dedicated on the site of her birthplace in Bow, New Hampshire.[36][37] A gift from James F. Lord, it was later dynamited in 1962 by order of the church's board of directors.[37][38] Also demolished was Eddy's former home in Pleasant View, as the board feared that it was becoming a place of pilgrimage.[37] Although Eddy allowed personal praise in her lifetime for various reasons, including for publicity and fundraising, the church shuns both the cult of personality and religious reliquaries.

Residences

A number of the homes Eddy lived in are now maintained as historic sites. The following list contains these houses arranged by dates of her occupancy: .

All of these houses are currently owned by the Longyear Museum, and all may be visited.[39]

Eddy biographies, pro and con and in between

  • A well footnoted (scholarly) biography which eventually became a church-authorized biography of Eddy is Robert Peel's trilogy Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery (ISBN 0030575559), Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Trial (ISBN 0875101186), and Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Authority (ISBN 003021081X). (1966–1971)
  • A more recent single volume is another originally independent, but now church-authorized and still controversial, 1999 work by a non-Christian Scientist, Gillian Gill (ISBN 0-7382-0227-4). Gill's work included a review of numerous other Eddy biographies over the years. She also uncovered evidence that Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, from whom critics have long-claimed Eddy stole all her ideas, could not possibly have been the "author" of the so-called "Quimby Manuscripts" as Horatio Dresser, the son of two of Quimby's students, claimed. Gill wrote that Quimby's actual manuscripts, in his own almost illegible handwriting, indicated that for all intents and purposes Quimby was functionally illiterate and could not write a single cogent English paragraph let alone the manuscripts. She also uncovered materials that demonstrated that Dresser intentionally left out all manuscripts that would have demonstrated the independence of Eddy's ideas from Quimby's.
  • See also Stephen Gottschalk, Rolling Away the Stone, Mary Baker Eddy's Challenge to Materialism, (ISBN 0-253-34673-8) for a new account of her founding the church and relations to critics such as Mark Twain. (Indiana University Press: 2006)
  • A more recent book which focuses on the healings of Mary Baker Eddy and her letters to students is Mary Baker Eddy: Christian Healer
  • Mary Baker Eddy, Speaking for Herself (ISBN 0-87952-275-5)
  • Willa Cather and Georgine Milmine The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science (1993) began as a famous magazine series 1907–08 and critical book in 1909.
  • Doris and Moris Grekel also wrote three-part non church-authorized biography on Eddy, The Discovery of the Science of Man: (1821–1888), (ISBN 1-893107-23-X), The Founding of Christian Science: The Life of Mary Baker Eddy 1888–1900, (ISBN 1-893107-24-8), and The Forever Leader: (1901–1910) (ISBN 0-9645803-8-1). This biography was aimed at serious students of Christian Science as opposed to the general public.
  • Former Church treasurer and clerk, John V. Dittemore teamed up with Ernest Sutherland Bates, in 1932, to write a biography, Mary Baker Eddy – The Truth and the Tradition. Most of the prose was written by Bates and Dittemore would later distance himself from the book. It has some genuinely distinct information including a list of Eddy's students taught at the Massachusetts Metaphysical College.
  • The famous Viennese novelist Stefan Zweig wrote a biography "The Mental Healers: Mesmer, Freud, Mary Baker Eddy." Original in German: "Die Heilung durch den Geist: Mesmer, Freud, Mary Baker Eddy." Zweig based his book solely on the Milmine biography (above) and after consultation with Sigmund Freud, concluded that Eddy was a madwoman.
  • Dakin, Edwin Franden (1929), Mrs. Eddy: The Biography of a Virginal Mind, London: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 558, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3772032 
  • Martin Gardner, The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy, Prometheus Books, 1993.

Works

  • Science And Health, With Key To The Scriptures – 1875, revised through 1910
  • Miscellaneous Writings
  • Retrospection and Introspection
  • Unity of Good
  • Pulpit and Press
  • Rudimental Divine Science
  • No and Yes
  • Christian Science versus Pantheism
  • Message to The Mother Church, 1900
  • Message to The Mother Church, 1901
  • Message to The Mother Church, 1902
  • Christian Healing
  • The People's Idea of God
  • The First Church of Christ, Scientist, and Miscellany
  • The Manual of The Mother Church

Notes

  1. ^ Eddy, Mary Baker G., Miscellaneous Writings, 1883–1896, pp. x–xi.
  2. ^ a b von Fettweis, Yvonne Caché; Warneck, Robert Townsend (1998), Mary Baker Eddy: Christian healer, Twentieth-century biographers series, Christian Science Pub. Society, ISBN 9780875103747, http://books.google.com/?id=vGjZAAAAMAAJ 
  3. ^ Longyear Historical Foundation – Short Biographical Sketch on Mary Baker Eddy, http://www.longyear.org/mbe.html, retrieved May 30, 2006 
  4. ^ a b Wilbur, Sibyl (1907), "Childhood Days", The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Boston: The Christian science publishing society (published 1913), pp. 9–20, ISBN 054818450X, http://books.google.com/?id=LMwAAAAAYAAJ, retrieved October 23, 2008 
  5. ^ a b c Eddy, Mary Baker G. (1891—1892), Retrospection and Introspection, Cambridge: University Press (published 1915), pp. 8–9, 22, 24–5, ISBN 0879520442, http://books.google.com/?id=9IYuAAAAYAAJ, retrieved October 24, 2008 
  6. ^ a b c Wilbur, Sibyl (1907), "Education and Development", The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Boston: The Christian science publishing society (published 1913), pp. 21–37, ISBN 054818450X, http://books.google.com/?id=LMwAAAAAYAAJ, retrieved October 23, 2008 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Wilbur, Sibyl (1907), "Change and Bereavement", The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Boston: The Christian science publishing society (published 1913), pp. 38–48, ISBN 054818450X, http://books.google.com/?id=LMwAAAAAYAAJ, retrieved October 23, 2008 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wilbur, Sibyl (1907), "Formative Processes", The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Boston: The Christian science publishing society (published 1913), pp. 49–66, ISBN 054818450X, http://books.google.com/?id=LMwAAAAAYAAJ, retrieved October 23, 2008 
  9. ^ http://www.christianscience.com/mary-baker-eddy-faq.html
  10. ^ Hammond, Edward H. (October 1899), Christian Science: What it is and what it does, "The Christian science journal", The Christian Science Journal (The Christian Science Publishing Society) 17 (7): 464, http://books.google.com/?id=ygkrAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA464 
  11. ^ Richard A. Nenneman (1997), Persistent Pilgrim: The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Nebbadoon Press, ISBN 1891331027 
  12. ^ Martin Gardner (1993), The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy, Prometheus Books, ISBN 0879758384 
  13. ^ Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Radcliffe Biography Series, Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, pp. xi, ISBN 0738202274 
  14. ^ Twain, Mark (1903), "Chapter 1", CHRISTIAN SCIENCE: with notes containing corrections to date, Book II, New York and London: Harper & Brothers Publishers (published February 1907), pp. 102–103, http://books.google.com/?id=g9xLR1DakZEC&pg=PA102 
  15. ^ Paine, Albert Bigelow (1912) (Scholar search), Mark Twain: A Biography; the Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, 3, Philadelphia, Pa.: Chelsea House Publishers, p. 1271, ISBN 0791045390, http://ia331404.us.archive.org/2/items/marktwainabiogra02988gut/2988.txt 
  16. ^ NOTES: Peel (1971, p. 62) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1971), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Trial, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-118-16
  17. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, pp. 17-18) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  18. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, pp. 18-19) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  19. ^ NOTES: Peel (1971, pp. 81-82) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1971), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Trial, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-118-16
  20. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 483, n. 104) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9
  21. ^ A New Home,” The Christian Science Journal (September 1888), p. 317.
  22. ^ See Christian Science Reading Room listings in current edition of the Christian Science Journal.
  23. ^ NOTES: Eddy (first copyrighted in 1875, p. xii) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (first copyrighted in 1875), Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87952-262-3.
  24. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 324) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  25. ^ See www.spirituality.com, online shop
  26. ^ Daily Inter-Ocean, Chicago, Dec. 31, 1884; NOTES: Eddy, (1895, p.23) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1895), Pulpit and Press, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  27. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, p. 58) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  28. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, p. 122) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  29. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, pp. 70, 74) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  30. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 372) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9.
  31. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. xv.) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  32. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 325) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  33. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 410) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  34. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 415, n. 121) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9.
  35. ^ Mrs. Eddy Dies Of Pneumonia; No Doctor Near, written at Boston, "New York Times", The New York Times (New York City) 60 (19,308): pp. 1–2, December 4, 1910, December 5, 1910, ISSN 1594051, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D01EFDD1638E333A25756C0A9649D946196D6CF, retrieved October 19, 2008, "Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist, died Saturday night at 10:45 o'clock. The death was kept a secret until this morning, when a city medical examiner was called in. It was first publicly announced at the Mother Church this morning. Mrs. Eddy was in her ninetieth year." 
  36. ^ Eddy Centenary Observed at Bow, written at Concord, NH, "New York Times", The New York Times (New York City) 70 (23,185): pp. 23, July 16, 1921, July 17, 1921, ISSN 1620732, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E04E4DC1731EF33A25754C1A9619C946095D6CF, retrieved October 19, 2008, "A little group of between 75 and 100 persons gathered in the village of Bow, three miles from here, this afternoon to take part in the simple, brief exercises which marked the centennial of Mary Baker Eddy founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist." 
  37. ^ a b c Hartsook, Andrew W. (1994) (PDF), Christian Science After 1910, Bookmark, pp. 25, 26, 27 and 28, ISBN 0930227247, http://mbeinstitute.org/Quotes/jul08a.pdf, "The Concord Evening Monitor of December 24, 1918, contained an interesting article regarding the project of a lone Christian Scientist." 
  38. ^ Mary Baker Eddy Memorial Defaced by Unknown Vandals, written at Concord, NH, "New York Times", The New York Times (New York City) 72 (23,669): pp. 1, November 12, 1922, November 13, 1922, ISSN 1620732, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E04E4DC1731EF33A25754C1A9619C946095D6CF, retrieved October 19, 2008, "Rewards aggregating $250 have been offered for the arrest of persons who mutilated the memorial to Mary Baker Eddy at her birthplace in Bow." 
  39. ^ Longyear Museum | Historic Houses | Chestnut Hill & Lynn, MA

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  • Mary Baker Eddy — Mary Baker Eddy, fondatrice du mouvement de la Science chrétienne est née le 16 juillet 1821 à Bow dans le New Hampshire et décédée le 3 décembre 1910 à Chestnut Hill dans le Massachusetts). Elle a publié, en 1875 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mary Baker-Eddy — (* 16. Juli 1821 in Bow bei Concord, New Hampshire, USA als Mary Morse Baker; † 3. Dezember 1910 in Chestnut Hill bei Boston), entdeckte 1866 nach eigenen Worten die göttlichen Gesetze von Leben, Wahrheit und Liebe und nannte ihre Entdeckung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mary Baker Eddy — (* 16. Juli 1821 in Bow bei Concord, New Hampshire als Mary Morse Baker; † 3. Dezember 1910 in Chestnut Hill bei Boston), entdeckte 1866 nach eigenen Worten die göttlichen Gesetze von Leben, Wahrheit und Liebe und nannte ihre Entdeckung Christian …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mary Baker Eddy — Nacimiento 16 d …   Wikipedia Español

  • Mary Baker Eddy — noun founder of Christian Science in 1866 (1821 1910) • Syn: ↑Eddy, ↑Mary Morse Baker Eddy • Instance Hypernyms: ↑religious person * * * Mary Baker Eddy [Mary Baker Eddy] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mary Baker Eddy — ➡ Eddy * * * …   Universalium

  • Mary Baker Eddy Library — The Mary Baker Eddy Library is a lending library and museum as well as the repository for the papers of Mary Baker Eddy, an influential American author, teacher, and religious leader who founded Christian Science. It is located on Massachusetts… …   Wikipedia

  • Mary Baker Eddy Home — Mary Barker Eddy Home can refer to: Dupee Estate Mary Baker Eddy Home Mary Baker Eddy Historic House This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an internal link l …   Wikipedia

  • Mary Baker Eddy Historic House — The term Mary Baker Eddy Historic House (or Home) describes a number of historic houses with associations to Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist.The following list contains these houses arranged by dates of her occupancy …   Wikipedia

  • Dupee Estate-Mary Baker Eddy Home — Dupee Estate (Mary Baker Eddy Home) U.S. National Register of Historic Places …   Wikipedia


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