Nuclear power in Russia


Nuclear power in Russia

In 2010 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 170.1 TWh, 16% of all power generation. The installed capacity of Russian nuclear reactors stood at 21,244 MW.

The Russian energy strategy of 2003 set a policy priority for reduction in natural gas based power supply, aiming to achieve this through a doubling of nuclear power generation by 2020. In 2006 the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) announced targets for future nuclear power generation; providing 23% of electricity needs by 2020 and 25% by 2030.[1]

Russia has made plans to increase the number of reactors in operation from 31 to 59. Old reactors will be maintained and upgraded, including RBMK units similar to the reactors at Chernobyl. China and Russia agreed on further cooperation in the construction of nuclear power stations in October 2005.

In accord with legislation passed in 2001, all Russian civil reactors are operated by Energoatom. More recently in 2007 Russian Parliament adopted the law "On the peculiarities of the management and disposition of the property and shares of organizations using nuclear energy and on relevant changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", which created Atomenergoprom - a holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.

Through membership in the ITER project, Russia is participating in the design of nuclear fusion reactors.

The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[1]

The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people.[2]

Contents

Nuclear power reactors

Reactors in operation

Nuclear power plants in Russia (view)
Red pog.svg Active plants
Purple pog.svg Closed plants

Eleven of Russia's reactors are of the RBMK 1000 type, similar to the one at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these RBMK reactors were originally to be shut down but have instead been given life extensions and uprated in output by about 5%. New safety systems have been added after the Chernobyl incident. The most dominant reactor line is the VVER.

Name Location Type Capacity, MWe Operational Notes
Obninskaya Obninsk AM-1 5 1954–2002 world's first nuclear power plant
Sibirskaya Seversk EI-2 100 1958–1990
ADE-3 1961–1992
ADE-4 1963–2008
ADE-5 1965–2008
Beloyarskaya Zarechny AMB-100 100 1964–1981
AMB-200 200 1967–1989
BN-600 600 1980–
BN-800 800 under construction
Novovoronezhskaya Novovoronezh VVER 210 1964–1984
VVER 365 1969–1990
VVER 417 1971–
VVER 417 1972–
VVER 1000 1980–
Novovoronezhskaya II Novovoronezh VVER 1170 under construction
Dimitrovgradskaya Dimitrovgrad BOR-60 12 1968–
Leningradskaya Sosnovy Bor RBMK 1000 1973–
RBMK 1000 1975–
RBMK 1000 1979–
RBMK 1000 1981–
Kolskaya Polyarnye Zori VVER 440 1973–
VVER 440 1974–
VVER 440 1981–
VVER 440 1984–
Bilibinskaya Bilibino EGP 12 1974– combined heat and power production
EGP 12 1974–
EGP 12 1975–
EGP 12 1976–
Kurskaya Kurchatov RBMK 1000 1976–
RBMK 1000 1979–
RBMK 1000 1983–
RBMK 1000 1985–
Smolenskaya Desnogorsk RBMK 1000 1982–
RBMK 1000 1985–
RBMK 1000 1990–
Kalininskaya Udomlya VVER 1000 1984–
VVER 1000 1986–
VVER 1000 2004–
VVER 1000 under construction
Balakovskaya Balakovo VVER 1000 1985–
VVER 1000 1987–
VVER 1000 1988–
VVER 1000 1993–
Volgodonskaya Volgodonsk VVER 1000 2001–
VVER 1000 2009-

Nuclear power reactors under construction

Reactor Type MWe net, each Will be commercially operational
Volgodonsk-3 VVER-1000 950 2014
Kalinin-4 VVER-1000 950 2011
Beloyarsk-4 FBR (BN-800) 750 2012
Novovoronezh II-1 VVER-1200/V491 (AES-2006) 1085 2012
Leningrad II-1 & II-2 VVER-1200 1100/1200 2012, 2013
Baltiiskaya 1 VVER-1200 1200 2015
Total: 6 5225 MWe

Proposed new reactors

Plans for proposed reactors may have been superseded, suspended or cancelled. This is particularly the case for new capacity.

Reactor Type MWe net, each Start-up
Replacement capacity
Novovoronezh NPP-II 2 VVER-1000 950 2016
Kursk NPP-2 1&2 VVER-1200 1150 2016, 2019
Balakovo 5&6 VVER-1200 950 ?
New capacity
Baltiiskaya 2 VVER-1200 1150 2020
Seversk NPP 1&2 VVER-1200 1150 2015, 2017
Central (Kostroma) 1&2 VVER-1200 1170  ?
South Ural 1, 2 VVER-1200 1170 2016, 2019
Bashkira 1 VVER-1200 950 2012
North-west 1 VK-300 300 2011
Smolensk 4 VVER-1000 950 2012
North-west 2 VK-300 300 2013
Kola 2 ? 440-640 2013
Bashkira 2 VVER-1000 950 2014
Volgodonsk 4 VVER-1000 950 2016
Tatar 1 VVER-1000 950 2016
Smolensk NPP-2 1&2 VVER-1000 950 2017, 2019
Tatar 2 VVER-1000 950 2018
Novovoronezh 7 VVER-1000 950 2016
Bashkira 3&4 VVER-1500 1500 2018, 2020
Leningrad NPP-2, 3-6 VVER-1500 1500 to 2021
Tatar 3 VVER-1500 1500 2020
Beloyarsk 5 BREST 300 2020
Kursk 6 VVER-1000? ? ?

Safety

Russia, responding to the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, will perform a 'stress test' on all its reactors "to judge their ability to withstand earthquakes more powerful than the original design anticipated".[3]

See also

References

External links


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