Central Bank of Russia


Central Bank of Russia

Infobox Central bank
bank_name_in_local = Центральный банк Российской Федерации
"Tsentral'nyj bank Rossijskoi Federatsii"
image_1 = CBRF.png image_title_1 =
image_width_1 =
image_2 =
image_title_2 =
established = 1860 (historic), 1990 (modern)
headquarters = Moscow, Russia
president = Sergei Ignatiev
leader_title = Chairman
bank_of = flagicon|Russia Russian Federation
currency = Russian ruble
currency_iso = RUB
reserves = Collapsible list |title=$560.3bn in total|$425.088bn in foreign currency
• 45% in Euro
• 45% in US Dollar
• 10% in Pound Sterling|$13.089bn in gold|$122.123bn in other asstes

borrowing_rate = 11% (since July 2008)
website = [http://www.cbr.ru/eng/ Official website]
footnotes =

The Bank of Russia ( _ru. Банк России) or the Central Bank of the Russian Federation ( _ru. Центральный банк Российской Федерации) is the central bank of Russia. Its functions are described in the Russian constitution (Article 75) and in the special Federal law. Bank of Russia was founded on July 13, 1990, but traced its history to the State Bank of the Russian Empire.

According to the constitution, the Bank of Russia is an independent entity, with the primary responsibility of protecting the stability of the national currency, the ruble. It also holds exclusive right to issue ruble banknotes and coins. Its headquarters are on Neglinnaya Street in Moscow.

History

The Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia) was founded on July 13, 1990, on the basis of the Russian Republic Bank of the State Bank of the USSR. Accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, it was originally called the State Bank of the RSFSR.

On December 2, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR passed the Law on the Central Bank of the RSFSR (Bank of Russia), which declared the Bank of Russia a legal entity and the main bank of the RSFSR, accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. The law specified the functions of the bank in organising money circulation, monetary regulation, foreign economic activity and regulation of the activities of joint-stock and co-operative banks.

In June 1991, the Statute of the Central Bank of the RSFSR (Bank of Russia), accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, was approved.

In November 1991, when the Commonwealth of Independent States was founded and Union structures dissolved, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR declared the Central Bank of the RSFSR to be the only body of state monetary and foreign exchange regulation in the RSFSR. The functions of the State Bank of the USSR in issuing money and setting the ruble exchange rate were transferred to it. The Central Bank of the RSFSR was instructed to assume before January 1, 1992, full control of the assets, technical facilities and other resources of the State Bank of the USSR and all its institutions, enterprises and organisations.

On December 20, 1991, the State Bank of the USSR was disbanded and all its assets, liabilities and property in the RSFSR were transferred to the Central Bank of the RSFSR (Bank of Russia), which several months later was renamed the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia).

In 1991-1992 an extensive network of commercial banks was created in the Russian Federation under Bank of Russia guidance through commercialisation of the specialised banks’ branches. The disbandment of the State Bank of the USSR was followed by changes in the chart of accounts, the establishment of a network of Central Bank cash settlement centres and their provision with computer technology. The Central Bank began to buy and sell foreign exchange in the currency market it established and to set and publish the official exchange rates of foreign currencies against the ruble.

In December 1992, as a result of the establishment of a single centralised federal treasury system, the Bank of Russia was no longer required to provide cash services for the federal budget.

The Bank of Russia carries out its functions, which were established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Article 75) and the Law "On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)" (Article 22), independently from the federal, regional and local government structures.

In 1992-1995, to maintain stability of the banking system, the Bank of Russia set up a system of supervision and inspection of commercial banks and a system of foreign exchange regulation and foreign exchange control. As the agent of the Ministry of Finance, it organised the government securities market, known as the GKO market, and began to participate in its operations.

In 1995, the Bank of Russia stopped extending loans to finance the federal budget deficit and centralized loans to individual sectors of the economy.

Regulator

The Bank of Russia is the main regulator of the banking industry. It is responsible for issuing banking licences and setting rules of banking operations and accounting standards. The bank serves as a lender of last resort for credit organisations.

Monetary policy

It is responsible for the country's monetary policy, including the level of the shortest interbank interest rate. By influencing the ruble interest rate, it also influences the price of the ruble in terms of foreign currencies.

Chairmen of the State Bank of Russia

See also

* Andrey Kozlov
* Economy of Russia
* Goznak
* Russian ruble

External links

* en icon [http://www.cbr.ru/eng/main.asp Bank of Russia]
* [http://www.cbr.ru/eng/today/status_functions/print.asp?file=law_e.htm Federal law "On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)"]


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