- Malacca Sultanate
Sultanate of Malacca
كسلطانن ملايو ملاك
← 1402–1511 →
Capital Malacca Language(s) Malay language Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan Parameswara Mahmud Shah of Malacca History - Established 1402 - Portuguese invasion 1511 Currency Native gold and silver coins
Established by the Malay ruler Parameswara, the Sultanate of Malacca was first a Hindu kingdom in 1402 and later became Muslim following the marriage of the princess of Pasai in 1409. Centered in the modern town of Malacca, the sultanate bordered the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) in the north to Sumatra in the southwest. The Portuguese invaded its capital in 1511 and in 1528. In the aftermath the Sultanate of Johor was established by the Malaccan prince Alauddin Riayat Shah II as a successor state.
- 1 Establishment of Malacca
- 2 Administration
- 3 Factors for growth
- 4 Portuguese invasion and its effects
- 5 Fei Xin's description of Malacca
- 6 Currency
- 7 Legacy
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
- 11 See also
Establishment of Malacca
In 1299, a Srivijayan prince, Sang Nila Utama removed himself from Bintan to Temasek where he founded Singapura. He maintained control over the island for 48 years and was recognized as a ruler by an envoy of the Chinese Emperor in 1366. He was officially styled Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara Batara Sri Tri Buana (meaning: "Lord Central King Batara of "Sri Tri Buana" or 'Three world Realm'"), signifying his lordship over Palembang, Bintan and Singapura. Three other rulers succeeded the throne later, Sri Tri Buana's son, Paduka Sri Pekerma Wira Diraja (1372–1386), his grandson Paduka Seri Rana Wira Kerma (1386–1399) and his great grandson Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara (1399–1413). In 1390s, Majapahit sent thousands of ships to attack the remaining Malay realm of Srivijaya including Singapura. In collusion with the Bendahara Sang Rajuna Tapa, Majapahit managed to conquer Singapura in 1401 and expelled Parameswara.
Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before founding Melaka in 1402. According to the Sejarah Melayu, legend has it that the king saw a mouse deer outwit a dog when he was resting under the Melaka tree. He took what he saw as a good omen and decided to establish a capital for his kingdom there. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms. The name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka) (Phyllanthus emblica).
At the foundation of Malacca, the native peoples were the peoples with Hinduism and Buddhism influence. According to the annals record, at the time Parameswara founded Malacca, the country was often attacked by the old enemies Majapahit and the rivals from northern area of Malacca, Ayutthaya Kingdom. Malacca able to hold position and fight back the enemies. Parameswara decided to send his ambassador to visit the Emperor of China, one of the superpower of the period, the Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, and both agreed to become allies. Ever since the agreement between Malacca Empire and China Empire, the Ayutthaya Kingdom and Majapahit Empire never intended to attack Malacca. Later some record suggested that during the trade activities and arrival of the Chinese-Muslim admiral "Cheng Ho" or Zheng He, Parameswara converted to Islam and adopted an Islamic name, Sultan Iskandar Shah. The new religion spread quickly throughout his conversion and the voyage of Zheng He.
After Parameswara, his successor to the Malacca sultanate was Sultan Ahmad Shah. He was responsible for building the empire with the help of the Malays, Orang Laut (Seaman) and Orang Asli (Natives). The territory of Malacca Empire were extended from South Thailand to most of Sumatran east coast area. The kingdom conveniently control the global trade vital choke point; the narrow strait that today bears its name, Strait of Malacca.
The port city had become the centre of regional trade; it attracted most of the traders from in the archipelago; traders from Sumatra, port of Sunda, Java and Bugis are reported to frequent the port. It is also due to geographic location of Malacca that gave the port city its strategic advantage. The monsoon wind that blow to northwest during dry season (March to October) conveniently brought trade vessels sailing from Southern Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Mollucas and eastern parts of the archipelago to Malacca; in wet season (October to March) the wind blow from mainland Asia to southeast, conveniently brought trade vessels sailing from ports in Northern Sumatra, India, Siam, Cambodia, Vietnam and China to converge in Malacca. The Malaccan Empire had turned from a maritime empire into an entrepôt empire. Other Eastern civilizations such as the Chinese Empire and the Siamese and Western civilizations such as Persian, Gujarat, Arabs and Europeans vastly traded with Malacca. One statement said that:
“ All traders from the West and the Orient came to Malacca. The whole city at that time, full of people. ”
During the reign of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah, the Portuguese came to Malacca for the following reasons;
- to collect spices and wealth
- to conquer the land of the Orient
- to manage the land of the Orient in the name of Columbus's voyage
The Portuguese who came were led by Vasco de Gama until India and then Diogo Lopes de Sequeira until they reached Malacca.
This article is part of the
History of Indonesia series
Timeline of Indonesian History Prehistory Early kingdoms Kutai (4th century) Tarumanagara (358–669) Kalingga (6th–7th century) Srivijaya (7th–13th centuries) Sailendra (8th–9th centuries) Sunda Kingdom (669–1579) Medang Kingdom (752–1045) Kediri (1045–1221) Singhasari (1222–1292) Majapahit (1293–1500) The rise of Muslim states Spread of Islam (1200–1600) Sultanate of Ternate (1257–present) Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511) Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548) Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903) Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813) Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s) European colonization The Portuguese (1512–1850) Dutch East India Co. (1602–1800) Dutch East Indies (1800–1942) The emergence of Indonesia National awakening (1908–1942) Japanese occupation (1942–45) National revolution (1945–50) Independent Indonesia Liberal democracy (1950–57) Guided Democracy (1957–65) Start of the New Order (1965–66) The New Order (1966–98) Reformasi era (1998–present) Sultan of Malacca Reign Parameswara
(aka Iskandar Shah)
1400–1414 Megat Iskandar Shah 1414–1424 Muhammad Shah 1424–1444 Abu Syahid 1444–1446 Muzaffar Shah 1445–1459 Mansur Shah 1459–1477 Alauddin Riayat Shah 1477–1488 Mahmud Shah 1488–1511
Ahmad Shah 1511–1513
Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws. On top of the sultanate's hierarchy sat the sultan and he was an absolute monarch. Below him was a bendahara, a position similar to that of a prime minister. Most of all, a bendahara was an adviser to the sultan. A bendahara is a common person appointed by the sultan and it was the highest ranking officer that could be held by any common people. After bendahara, a laksamana's authority is paramount. A laksamana is an admiral and was responsible for the state and the sultan's security. He commanded the army. Later comes the temenggung which more or less a chief of public police. At the bottom of this nobility structure are penghulu bendahari, who was the treasurer of the state and the shahbandars of whom were responsible to matters of trade and ports.
The sultanate was governed with several set of laws. The formal legal text of traditional Melaka consisted of the Undang-Undang Melaka (Laws of Malacca), variously called the Hukum Kanun Melaka and Risalat Hukum Kanun, and the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka (the Maritime Laws of Malacca). The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process. The legal rules that eventually evolved were shaped by three main influences, namely the early non-indigenous Hindu/Buddhist tradition, Islam and the indigenous "adat".
Factors for growth
The Sultanate thrived on entrepôt trade and became the most important port in Southeast Asia during the 15th and the early 16th century. Furthermore, Malacca was the only major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. This is reflected by the Portuguese Tomé Pires who claimed "Whoever is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".
One of the factors that contributed to the rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arab and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. At the height of its power, the Sultanate encompassed most of modern day Peninsular Malaysia, the site of modern day Singapore and a great portion of Sumatra Island and some part of Southern Thailand. It was also the center of Islam in the eastern sphere, where imams and ustazes came to discuss religion and the like. Muslim missionaries were also sent by the Sultan to spread Islam to other communities in the Malay Archipelago, such as in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines. Most of South East Asia at that time was Hindu.
The Sultanate's most important regional rivals were Siam in the north and the declining Majapahit Empire in the south. In earlier period, Majapahit was the previous regional hegemon that tried to hold its overseas possessions in Sumatra and most of the archipelago that led to naval expeditions against Palembang and Tumasik which led to the establishment of Malacca sultanate. However the internal conflicts has led Majapahit into incessant decline and find itself unable to contained the rising influence of Malacca. Majapahit was unable to compete with Malacca to control the trade within the archipelago, and came to an end during the later 15th century. Siam on the other hand attacked Malacca three times, but all attacks were repelled.
At the same time, Malacca had a great relationship with Ming, resulting in Zheng He's visits. Parameswara had met the Ming emperor to receive a Letter of Friendship, hence making Malacca the first foreign kingdom to attain such treatment to be part against Siam. Moreover, one of the sultans, Mansur Shah even married a Ming princess named Hang Li Po. This Sino-Malacca relationship helped deter Siam from further threatening Malacca.(See Zheng He In Malacca.)
Portuguese invasion and its effects
Hearing of Malacca's great wealth coming from Asian traders, the Portuguese king sent Admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, to make a friendly compact with its ruler and to stay on Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was initially well-received by Sultan Mahmud Shah trouble however quickly ensued. The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca.
In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. The Viceroy made a number of demands - one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. All the demands were refused by the Sultan. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on August 24. Although Malacca seems to have been well supplied with artillery, but the combination of Portuguese firepower, determination and fanatical courage prevailed. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down the Malaccan side. The Portuguese was helped by Guy Arojo, Chinese Capitans who supplied small ships to enter the Port of Malacca and the southern Indian and Javanese group who were in dispute with the Sultanate of Malacca.
Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II.
Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Sultanate of Johor, the successor of Malacca.
It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was marred with difficulties: they could not become self-supporting and remained reliant on Asian suppliers (as had their Malay predecessors); they were short of both funds and manpower; and administration was hampered by organisational confusion and command overlap, corruption and inefficiency. Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Rather than a centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange, or a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic, trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.
Malacca was later conquered by the Dutch in a joint military campaign in January 1641. The Portuguese fortress, however, did not fall to the force of Dutch or Johorese arms as much as to famine and disease that had brutally decimated the surviving population. Through the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, Malacca became a colony of the United Kingdom. In 1957, Malacca joined other Malay states to form Malaya and in 1963, together with Sarawak, Sabah and Singapore formed Malaysia.
Chinese retaliation against Portuguese
In response to the Portuguese invasion of Malacca, the Chinese Imperial Government imprisoned and executed multiple Portuguese envoys after torturing them in Guangzhou. Since Malacca was a tributary state to China, the Chinese responded with violent force against the Portuguese. The Malaccans had informed the Chinese of the Portuguese seizure of Malacca, to which the Chinese responded with hostility toward the Portuguese. The Malaccans told the Chinese of the deception the Portuguese used, disguising plans for conquering territory as mere trading activities, and told of all the atrocities committed by the Portuguese. 
Due to the Malaccan Sultan lodging a complaint against the Portuguese invasion to the Chinese Emperor, the Portuguese were greeted with hostility from the Chinese when they arrived in China. The Malaccan Sultan, based in Bintan after fleeing Malacca, sent a message to the Chinese, which combined with Portuguese banditry and violent activity in China, led the Chinese authorities to execute 23 Portuguese and torture the rest of them in jails. After the Portuguese set up posts for trading in China and committed piratical activities and raids in China, the Chinese responded with the complete extermination of the Portuguese in Ningbo and Quanzhou Pires, a Portuguese trade envoy, was among those who died in the Chinese dungeons.
Fei Xin's description of Malacca
Fei Xin (Chinese: 费信) was a translator for the Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He during his expeditions abroad. In his Description of the Starry Raft (1436) there were descriptions of early 15th century Malacca.
He noted that Malacca people which was the Malays had "their skin resembled black lacquer, but there were some white-skinned people among them who are of ethnic Tang. Men and women appeared in mallet-like chignon hair style, simple and kind lifestyle, they fish at rivers and at sea. The coastal village was inhabited by very few peoples and was not ruled by any neighboring kingdoms. The only produce of Malacca was tin, from a river. Tins obtained from river were fired into tin block (known as Tin ingot) where each weigh 1.4 jin.
Tin ingots were a trading currency unique to Malacca. Cast in the shape of a peck, each block weighs just over one pound. Ten blocks made up one unit called a 'small bundle', and 40 blocks made up one 'large bundle'.
Although the empire only lasted about a hundred years — compared to its predecessor Srivijaya that lasted for about seven centuries — Malacca sultanate have lasting and important legacy, especially within Malay culture and the History of Malaysia. Malacca was important because it was the first Malay Muslim state that is also a real regional maritime power. Of course there was two well-established entrepots Samudra Pasai and Aru already existed across the straits on Sumatra, as well as at Kedah on the Peninsula. Samudra Pasai was known as the earliest Muslim state in the archipelago, but Pasai did not embarked on regional maritime expansion as Malacca did. Malacca did contribute to the evolution of Malay culture, from influenced by native and Hindu-Buddhist ideas to become an Islamic culture by incorporating Islamic ideas. The new religion that today became closely identified with Malay society. Through its traditions, laws, and royal rituals and customs, Malaccan court did set the example for later Muslim sultanates in the region to follows.
Next to its role on promoting Islamic faith, for Malaysia Malacca was important because it was the only empire centered within the territory of modern Malaysia. There was older kingdoms established on Malay peninsula such as Kedah and Langkasuka, but they never become the center of a maritime empire, and rather become the subject and overshadowed by Srivijaya centered in Sumatra. Because of these roles, Malacca is considered by many to be the spiritual birthplace of Malaysia. The historical importance of Malacca for Malaysian national identity is exhibited in National Museum of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- ^ a b Buyers, Christopher. "The Ruling House of Malacca - Johor". http://www.royalark.net/Malaysia/malacca.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-13.
- ^ Windstedt (KBE, CMG, D.Litt (ed).), Sir R.O (1938). "The Malay Annals or Sejarah Melayu". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (The Branch) XVI: 32.
- ^ Origin of Malacca
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- ^ a b Mohd. Fawzi bin Mohd. Basri; Mohd Fo'ad bin Sakdan; Azami bin Man (2002). Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah Sejarah Tingkatan 1. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. pp. 95. ISBN 983-62-7410-3.
- ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- ^ Borschberg, P. (2010). The Singapore and Melaka Straits. Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the 17th Century. Singapore: NUS Press. pp. 157-158. ISBN 978-9971-69-464-7.
- ^ Nigel Cameron (1976). Barbarians and mandarins: thirteen centuries of Western travelers in China. Volume 681 of A phoenix book (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 143. ISBN 0226092291. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZOc-AQAAIAAJ&q=envoy,+had+most+effectively+poured+out+his+tale+of+woe,+of+deprivation+at+the+hands+of+the+Portuguese+in+Malacca;+and+he+had+backed+up+the+tale+with+others+concerning+the+reprehensible+Portuguese+methods+in+the+Moluccas,+making+the+case+(quite+truthfully)&dq=envoy,+had+most+effectively+poured+out+his+tale+of+woe,+of+deprivation+at+the+hands+of+the+Portuguese+in+Malacca;+and+he+had+backed+up+the+tale+with+others+concerning+the+reprehensible+Portuguese+methods+in+the+Moluccas,+making+the+case+(quite+truthfully)&hl=en&ei=BHafTvGvLILo0QHDuNXeBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "envoy, had most effectively poured out his tale of woe, of deprivation at the hands of the Portuguese in Malacca; and he had backed up the tale with others concerning the reprehensible Portuguese methods in the Moluccas, making the case (quite truthfully) that European trading visits were no more than the prelude to annexation of territory. With the tiny sea power at this time available to the Chinese" )
- ^ Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, ed (1985). Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 11. ISBN 9971988089. http://books.google.com/books?id=BeDKqPTeHnUC&pg=PA11&dq=China+was+far+from+friendly;+this,+it+seems,+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca,+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511,+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor,+his+suzerain.+There+are+hints+that+Pires&hl=en&ei=WUifTuucEMfs0gHy07GaCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=China%20was%20far%20from%20friendly%3B%20this%2C%20it%20seems%2C%20had%20something%20to%20do%20with%20the%20complaint%20which%20the%20ruler%20of%20Malacca%2C%20conquered%20by%20the%20Portuguese%20in%201511%2C%20had%20lodged%20with%20the%20Chinese%20emperor%2C%20his%20suzerain.%20There%20are%20hints%20that%20Pires&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." )
- ^ Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1968). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Part 124. M. Nijhoff. p. 446. http://books.google.com/books?ei=WUifTuucEMfs0gHy07GaCQ&ct=result&id=Mz4iAQAAMAAJ&dq=China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.+There+are+hints+that+Pires&q=1511+lodged+chinese+emperor+suzerain. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (University of Minnesota)
- ^ Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Volume 124. 1968. p. 446. http://books.google.com/books?ei=WUifTuucEMfs0gHy07GaCQ&ct=result&id=KS8KAQAAIAAJ&dq=China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.+There+are+hints+that+Pires&q=1511+suzerain. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of California)
- ^ The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay archipelago. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute,. 2001. p. 136. ISBN 9839986627. http://books.google.com/books?ei=onqfTsyGMIHw0gHjx8jUBA&ct=result&id=4tHXAAAAMAAJ&dq=His+reception+in+China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Melaka%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.&q=1511+suzerain. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "His reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Melaka, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of Michigan)
- ^ Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië, Hague (1968). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Volume 124. M. Nijhoff. p. 446. http://books.google.com/books?ei=-XqfTo7oH-rz0gHgpY34BA&ct=result&id=8FPjAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+reception+in+China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.&q=far+friendly. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of Michigan)
- ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0816608539. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=The+inexusable+behavior+of+the+Portuguese,+combined+with+the+ill-chosen+language+of+the+letters+which+Pires+presented+to+the+celestial+emperor,+supplemented+by+a+warning+from+the+Malay+sultan+of+Bintan,+persuaded+the+Chinese+that+Pires+was+indeed+up+to+no+good&hl=en&ei=0nefTsPpB-n20gHF1NTWBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20inexusable%20behavior%20of%20the%20Portuguese%2C%20combined%20with%20the%20ill-chosen%20language%20of%20the%20letters%20which%20Pires%20presented%20to%20the%20celestial%20emperor%2C%20supplemented%20by%20a%20warning%20from%20the%20Malay%20sultan%20of%20Bintan%2C%20persuaded%20the%20Chinese%20that%20Pires%20was%20indeed%20up%20to%20no%20good&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The inexusable behavior of the Portuguese, combined with the ill-chosen language of the letters which Pires presented to the celestial emperor, supplemented by a warning from the Malay sultan of Bintan, persuaded the Chinese that Pires was indeed up to no good" )
- ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. http://books.google.com/books?ei=wUifTpLqF8r50gHE45GFCQ&ct=result&id=MkBwAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Moslem+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+whom+they+had+dispossessed%2C+complained+of+them+to+the+Chinese+authorities.+A+Portuguese+envoy%2C+Pires%2C+who+reached+Peking+in+1520+was+treated+as+a+spy%2C+was+conveyed+by+imperial+order+to+Canton&q=moslem+pires+1520. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton" (the University of Michigan)
- ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=EUmfTtD_MoXf0QG1qdjJCQ&ct=result&id=ixAhAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Moslem+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+whom+they+had+dispossessed%2C+complained+of+them+to+the+Chinese+authorities.+A+Portuguese+envoy%2C+Pires%2C+who+reached+Peking+in+1520+was+treated+as+a+spy%2C+was+conveyed+by+imperial+order+to+Canton&q=moslem+ruler+complained+pires. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton" (the University of Michigan)
- ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co.. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=llo-AQAAIAAJ&q=Fernao+Pires+de+Andrade+reached+Peking,+China,+in+1520,+but+unfortunately+for+that+Portuguese+envoy,+he+was+treated+as+a+spy+and+died+in+a+Cantonese+prison.&dq=Fernao+Pires+de+Andrade+reached+Peking,+China,+in+1520,+but+unfortunately+for+that+Portuguese+envoy,+he+was+treated+as+a+spy+and+died+in+a+Cantonese+prison.&hl=en&ei=bEmfTvfCD8f50gGC7Yi1BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Fernao Pires de Andrade reached Peking, China, in 1520, but unfortunately for that Portuguese envoy, he was treated as a spy and died in a Cantonese prison. establishing a" (the University of California)
- ^ Malaysia History
- ^ Malaysia.com
- Sultanate of Johor
- Sultanate of Kedah
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