Malacca


Malacca
Malacca
Melaka
—  State  —
Melaka Negeri Hang Tuah/Melaka Negeri Bersejarah

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Bersatu Teguh
Anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya
   Malacca in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.2°N 102.25°E / 2.2; 102.25Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.2°N 102.25°E / 2.2; 102.25
Capital Malacca City
Government
 - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob
 - Chief Minister Mohd Ali Rustam (BN)
Area[1]
 - Total 1,664 km2 (642.5 sq mi)
Population (2010)[2]
 - Total 788,706
 - Density 474/km2 (1,227.6/sq mi)
Human Development Index
 - HDI (2010) 0.742 (high) (4th)
Postal code 75xxx to 78xxx
Calling code 06
Vehicle registration M
Malacca Sultanate 15th century
Portuguese control 24 August 1511
Dutch control 14 January 1641
British control 17 March 1824
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948
Website http://www.melaka.gov.my

Malacca (Malay: Melaka), dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 km south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 km north west to Johor's largest city Johor Bahru and 95 km north west to Johor's second largest city Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan, acts as the head of state now.

Contents

History

Incorporated into Date
Malacca Sultanate ≈1400
Portuguese Empire 1511
Dutch Empire 1641
British Empire 1824
Straits Settlements 1826
Crown Colony 1867
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Malayan Union 1 April 1946
Federation of Malaya 31 January 1948
Malaysia 16 September 1963

Sultanate of Malacca

Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also called Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.[3]

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on that very spot. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter, the Melaka tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka) (Phyllanthus emblica).[4] Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration.

In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as a major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[3] Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara in the vicinity of Bukit China ("Chinese Hill"), which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui (geomancy). Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424. The prosperity of Malacca attracted the attention of the Siamese. Attempts at invasion made in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks. pore) and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.

Palace of Malacca's Malay Sultanate

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina). (See Zheng He in Malacca). Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po's status, as the Ming Chronicles in China do not mention her as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynasty. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan's envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor. Since records of his reign were expunged following Tianshun'a ascension to the throne in 1457, it is likely that records of Hang Li Po's status might no longer exist. Other historical texts do mention that she was a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor(1402–1424).[citation needed]

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.[citation needed]

During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca rose. Malacca was also pivotal in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.

After Vietnam destroyed Champa in the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, they proceeded to engage in hostilities with Malacca with the intent of conquest. The Chinese government sent a censor, Ch'en Chun, to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China.[5] Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was not in control of Champa but sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back due to lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked.[6][7]

European colonisation

1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[8] They conquered the city on 24 August 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca, took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime, the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). "In order to appease the King of Ayudhya (Siam), the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi." in 1511. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died five years later.[citation needed]

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[9] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.[9]

Ruins of Fort A Famosa

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johore.[10] The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) on Java as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.

Geography

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi).[1] The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Malacca (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital, Malacca Town, is strategically located between the two national capitals of Malaysia and Singapore, and connected with excellent roads and highways.

The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and the exclave Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.

State government

Malacca is administered by its local State Legislative Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.

The Chief Minister's Department is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:

  • Malacca Central District & Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District & Land Office
  • Jasin District & Land Office

.

District and Local Authority

Malacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities.

Rank District Area (kmsq) Population (2008) District Seat Local Government
!000001 Central Malacca 279.85 473,700 Malacca City Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
!000002 Alor Gajah 660.00 167,600 Alor Gajah Majlis Perbandaran Alor Gajah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
!000003 Jasin District 676.07 128,000 Jasin Majlis Perbandaran Jasin
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya

Economy

The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Tourism contributes almost 3/4 of Malacca GDP per annum[citation needed]. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.

Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes, hypermarts and department stores.

Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts. Industrial areas are centred along the edges of the city proper in suburbs which include Batu Berendam, Cheng, Ayer Keroh and Tasik Utama, while outside Malacca city industrial areas include Alor Gajah.

Demographics

City of Malacca
Canals in Malacca

Malacca has a population of 788,706 as of 2010.[2] In 2007, the racial composition of the area was:

  • Malays: 57%;
  • Chinese: 32%, including the Peranakan community;
  • Indians, including the Chitty people: a sizeable minority;
  • Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community;
  • Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.

Besides Malacca City, other major Malacca townships include Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Batu Berendam and Ayer Keroh.

Education

The establishment of the Malacca Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru provided quality medical education. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.

The state has a number of reputable colleges, universities and other higher learning institutions.

Malacca has a boarding school, Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia enrols students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).

A center for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is also situated in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed School of Henry Gurney at 15 May 1950. This center runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile criminals in which they are exposed to living skills such as sewing and cooking and vocational skills such as mechanical repairing.

Malacca also has one international school called Melaka International School, which caters to the expatriate community in Malacca.

Health care

Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:

  • Private Hospitals
    • Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
    • Pantai Ayer Keroh
    • Mahkota Medical Centre

Culture

Kampung Kling Mosque built in 1748
Baba Nyonya house in Malacca

The historic centre of Malacca was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town, the capital of Penang.

The Malays, settled in Malacca since 1400, form the largest community and have a distinctive culture.

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food; Malay dishes include ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. .

Malacca is also famous for satay[citation needed]. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce; this is often sold in individual sticks.

Nyonya-Baba cuisine is a fusion of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Peranakan dishes include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.[citation needed]

Heavily decorated bicycle rickshaw in Malacca

Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).

The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.

There is also a sizeable amount of Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May, to commemorate the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away. Visitors are welcome but are advised to follow rules and common practices within the premises. Typical vegetarian punjabi cuisine will be served to everyone visiting the gurdwara.

Transport

Pulau Sebang in Alor Gajah district, 30 km north of Malacca, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.

Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has inter and intracity bus lines. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy.

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits.

Popular historical attractions

St. John's Fort in Malacca
Christ Church, Malacca
Example of a gravestone from St. Francis Xavier Church.
  • Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
  • St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
  • St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
  • St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
  • Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of "The Last Supper".
  • Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
  • Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artefacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
  • Cheng Hoon Teng Temple: Located along Jalan Tokong (formerly Temple Street) in the core zone of the Malacca Unesco World Heritage Site. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia and grandest temple in Malacca.
  • Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is known for its antique goods.
  • Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
  • Sri Poyyatha Vinayagar Moorthi Temple: This is the oldest Hindu Temple in Malaysia. It was built in 1781 on land given by the Dutch to the Chitty community.
  • Tranquerah Mosque: The oldest mosque in Malacca.
  • Kampung Kling Mosque: Kampung Kling Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia. It was built around 1784 with the influence of Sumatran architecture. Firstly, there’s no Byzantium dome around. It was replaced by a tiered pyramidal roof. Secondly, just look at the minaret which is structured like a pagoda. There's even Chinese Character carved on the side roof of the mosque.

Notable people

Image gallery

See also

References

Notations

  • De Witt, Dennis (2010). Melaka from the Top. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 9789834351922. 
  • De Witt, Dennis (2007). History of the Dutch in Malaysia. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 9789834351908. 
  • "Popular History of Thailand" by M.L. Manich Jumsai, C.B.E., M.A.

Notes

  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost, a publication from 1887 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. http://www.statistics.gov.my/ccount12/click.php?id=2127. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. iv. http://www.statistics.gov.my/ccount12/click.php?id=2127. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 19. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  4. ^ Origin of Malacca
  5. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co.. p. 251. http://books.google.com/books?id=TgkYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA251&dq=in+the+year+1474+the+censor+went+to+champa+with+imperial+commission+to+invest+the+king+there+he+found+the+country+occupied+by+annamese#v=onepage&q=in%20the%20year%201474%20the%20censor%20went%20to%20champa%20with%20imperial%20commission%20to%20invest%20the%20king%20there%20he%20found%20the%20country%20occupied%20by%20annamese&f=false. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  6. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. LONDON: Trübner & Co.. p. 252. http://books.google.com/books?id=TgkYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA251&dq=in+the+year+1474+the+censor+went+to+champa+with+imperial+commission+to+invest+the+king+there+he+found+the+country+occupied+by+annamese#v=snippet&q=annamese%20occupied%20champa%20wanted&f=false. Retrieved 9 January 2011. 
  7. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 0791426874. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ka6jNJcX_ygC&q=envoys#v=snippet&q=envoys%20killed%20southeast%20asian&f=false. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 23. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  9. ^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  10. ^ Borschberg, P. (2010). The Singapore and Melaka Straits. Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the 17th century. Singapore: NUS Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-9971-69-464-7. 

External links



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