Subdivisions of Malaysia
native_name=جوهر دارالتّعظيم Johor Darul Ta'zim
state_anthem="Lagu Bangsa Johor"
Abdul Ghani Othman
established_event4=Accession into Federation of Malaya
national_calling_code=07206 (Muar and Ledang)
national_postal_code=80xxx to 86xxx
footnotes=1 Town in the city of Johor Bahru2 Except
Johor (alt. English spelling: Johore,
Jawiscript:جوهر) is a state of Malaysiabetween 1°20"N and 2°35"N. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The capital city and royal seat of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly Tanjung Puteri (English: Princess' Cliff). The old state capital is Johor Lama. The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Ta'zim ("Abode of Dignity'). It is surrounded by Pahangto the north, Malaccaand Negeri Sembilanto the northwest, and the Straits of Johorto the south which is divided by the international border between Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore. Tanjung Piai, in the district of Pontian, is the most southerly point of mainland Asia.
Johoreans often use the word "JB" to refer to the city of
The name "Johor" originated from the Arabic word "Jauhar", 'gem/precious stone' . Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the
Muar Riverto Singaporeisland was known as "Ujung Tanah" or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southerly point of the Asian continental mainland.
Modern Johor history began in the early 16th century with the foundation of the
Sultanate of Johorby the son of Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca, who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca. Johor sultanate is one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca's defeat to the Portuguese in 1511, the son of the last Sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud Shah, had established a monarchy in Johor and had posed a constant threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perakwas the other successor state of Malacca and was established by the son of Sultan Mahmud Shah, Sultan Muzaffar Shah. Johor is the only state, apart from Melaka, that has grown into an empire. During its peak, the whole of Pahang and the present day Indonesian territories of Riauarchipelago and part of SumatraIsland was under Johor's rule.
The sultanate grew in economic and political importance due to its position as an East-West trading hub and eventually evolved into the Johor Empire, covering Johor, the
Riau Archipelagoand parts of eastern Sumatra. However, the Johor Empire failed to reconquer Malacca; in turn Johor harassed and attacked the Portuguese during the 130-year Portuguese rule in Malacca and was a constant thorn to Portuguese dominance in the Straits of Malacca.
Johor has three ports,
Pasir GudangPort, Port of Tanjung Pelepasand Tanjung Langsat Port.
Johor has one international airport (30 km away from the city centre), The Sultan Ismail International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on
6 June 1974and has been expanded several times ever since. Currently, it has a 5 million passenger capacity with parallel taxiway under construction.
The airport is also a regional hub of
AirAsia, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlinesalso operate flights from Senai airport to some local and international destinations.
Government structure of Johor
Johor is a
constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia which adopted the constitutional monarchy system via " Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor" (Johor State Establishment Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The State's Sultan since 1981 has been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj.
Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is considered a private army of the Sultan of Johor.
* See Also:Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2008"
The state government is headed by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, a former civil servant. The Chief Minister is assisted by an executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.
The legislative branch of Johor's government is the
Johor State Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the assembly are elected every five years in an election.
The state of Johor is divided into the districts of
* Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,370,738 (2005)
Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru(Abbreviation as MBJB or City Hall of Johor Bahru. It covers an area of Daerah Sentral JB, Tampoi, Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Rinting, Tasek Utara, Pandan, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Mount Austin, Kawasan Tebrau) (website: http://www.mbjb.gov.my)
Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah(MPJBT It covers an area of Masai, Plentong, Ulu Tiram, Gelang Patah, Skudai, Pulai, Nusajaya, Ulu Choh, Lima Kedai (http://www.johordt.gov.my/mpjbt/bm/utama/kaw_pentd.htm)
Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan Pasir Gudang(PBTPG covers an area of Pasir Gudang Industrial Estate, Kota Masai, Pasir Putih, Air Biru, Tanjung Langsat, Scientex, Nusa Damai, Kong Kong, Sg. Tiram)(http://www.pbtpasirgudang.gov.my/)
Kulaijaya----- km², population: --
Majlis Perbandaran Kulai(Majlis Perbandaran Kulai) (Covers an area of Senai, Kulai Town, Sedenak, Ayer Bemban)
Pontian919.5 km², population: 160,722 (2005)
# Majlis Daerah Pontian
Kota Tinggi3488.7 km², population: 212,558 (2005)
# Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi
Kluang2851.8 km², population: 295,373 (2005)
# Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)
# Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)
Segamat2851.26 km², population: 198,142 (2005)
# Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara)
# Majlis Daerah Labis (Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan)
Muar2346.12 km², population: 373,587 (2005)
# Majlis Perbandaran Muar (Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan)
Ledang----- km², population: --
# Majlis Daerah Tangkak (Majlis Daerah Tangkak)
Batu Pahat1878 km², population: 382,175 (2005)
# Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)
# Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)
Mersing2838.6 km², population: 73,920 (2005)
# Majlis Daerah Mersing
Iskandar Malaysia("formerly known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region"), encompassing Johor Bahruand Nusajayais a major development zone in Johor. It is named after the present sultan, Iskandar Al-haj. At 2215 km², it is two-and-a-half times bigger than Singapore and 48 times the size of Putrajaya. It is envisioned to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects undertaken in Malaysia. As part of the project, the state administrative capital will be moved to Nusajaya.
Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three universities, namely
Universiti Teknologi Malaysiasituated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysiain Parit Raja, Batu Pahat ( [http://www.uthm.edu.my UTHM] ), Universiti Teknologi MARAJohor ( [http://www.uitm.edu.my UiTM] ) in Segamatand several polytechnics. Johor also has a teaching college called Maktab Perguruan Temenggung Ibrahim. It has one non-profit community college called [http://www.sc.edu.my Southern College] situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races. [http://www.sc.edu.my/english/aboutsc/aschome.htm]
At the primary level,
MuslimJohorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script, the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters in the present.
Places of interest
Major tourist attractions
Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:
Desaru- beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
Johor Bahru- shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
Endau Rompin National Park- pristine jungle
Kota Tinggi34 meter waterfall.
Kukup- a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
Muar- picturesque riverside town
Seribuat Archipelago- islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
Tanjung Piai- the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
Danga Bay- The new waterfront city
Pekan Air Panas- hot springs,waterfall,local fruits available
Bandar Nusajaya- new admistration of Johor Government
Pulau Dayang- major diving attraction, snorkling, fishing
National parks and forest reserves
Johor is also noted for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).
Mausoleum of "Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang"
Cultural heritage of Johor
Culture in Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. The biggest influence would be the
Bugis- who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melakaand Selangor- Javanese and the Arabs. They had a powerful influence on the politics of Johor and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus. Other visible legacies in Johor Bahruare the Arabic names of places such as "Wadi Hana" and "Wadi Hassan" in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramautin the southeast of Yemen. Wadimeans valley in Arabic.
The Johorean dialect of the Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor,
Riau, Malaccaand Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malay and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within and without the Malay Archipelago, as well as the former economic might and influence of Malacca and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's " lingua franca" since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages.
*Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design of the male attire ' baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to reminisce the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine' and ended with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1-2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.
*Belah kebaya panjang
Zapin is a dance form which is popular in Malaysia especially in the state of Johor. It is believed to have been introduced by Muslim missionaries from the Middle East in the 14th century.
In the old days, only males were allowed to perform but nowadays, female dancers are included. It used to be performed exclusively for religious ceremonies but through the years it has become a form of traditional entertainment, hence the participation of female dancers are allowed.
The dancers usually perform in pairs and are accompanied by a traditional music ensemble normally consists of the
gambus, accordion, violin, marwas(bongos), rebana (drum) and dok.
Kuda kepang is a dance or game performed by Johoreans, especially of Javanese descent. Kuda kepang is a legless horse-shaped puppet that is straddled by the performers. Usually, a troupe of performers consists of 10 to 15 people. It is performed in wedding ceremonies and cultural celebrations. There are several possible origins of Kuda Kepang. It is said to be originated from the struggles of “Wali Songo”, a group of nine Islamic preachers in Java. Others said it originated from the movement of horses commanded by Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. There are several dance rhythms or patterns; the 'Sola', 'Selendang', 'Pak Tani', 'Pucuk Rebung', 'Perjuangan', and 'Mempertahankan Diri'. The bobbing movement of the performers and their horse puppet is called 'Lenggang Kiprah'.
The musical instruments used in kuda kepang performance are 'angklong', 'gendang', 'gong', 'kinong', 'jidor', 'soron kecil' and 'bonang'.
Legend of Badang
It is a story of Badang, a slave who gained super human strength by eating the
sputumof a river spirit. He used this to win his release from his master. Contrary to popular belief, Badang was born in Sayong Pinang, Johor, not Singapore or Temasik as it was known then. Upon hearing his strength, he was summoned by the Seri Rama Wira Kerma of Temasik where he displayed his skills. Challengers were sent by foreign kingdoms to defeat him. Among them were King of Kalinga I from India who sent Nadi Bijaya Pikrama, a fierce wrestler and the noblemen of Perlak who sent Benderang. Badang emerged victorious from both fights and eventually stayed in Temasik until his death.
Legend of Malim Deman
Malim Deman is a king in
Segamatwho was in love with Princess Santan Bertapis. The princess was kidnapped by a spirit and Malim Deman swore that as long as the princess is not returned, the Segamat area shall experience floods for all eternity. However, with modern town planning and irrigation, flooding is now a rare occurrence in Segamat.
Legend of Gunung Ledang
"See main article"
Legend of Gunung Ledang
Awang's spear returned to Dayang
"Lembing Awang pulang ke Dayang" ("Awang's spear Returned to Dayang") is an incident that occurred in Parit Raja,
Muar. In Malay it is translated as 'Lembing Awang Pulang ke Dayang'.It occurred in 1776 when a man called Awang returned to Parit Raja after more than 3 years abroad to marry his fiancee Dayang. Upon his return, he found out that another man called Bachok had told Dayang of Awang's death and she was to be married to him the next day. Awang showed up at the wedding and using a spear given by Raja Bugis, he speared Bachok in the stomach. Bachok, fatally injured, grabbed the spear in his stomach and speared his best man. The man then speared the next man he saw and this was repeated until the 99th person was speared. It was Dayang's father who was protecting Dayang. He did not continue the repeated spearing and died. Awang ran away to Endauand Dayang did not marry another until she died.
Hamdolok originated from the exposure of Middle East culture introduced by Arabs in Johor. It is a traditional theatre performed during weddings and festivals. It is a blend of artistic characters of both the Middle-East and local Malay communities. Instruments used include the
gambus, tambourine, maracas and conga drums. It was also inspired by the Bedouin celebrating the birth of Islamic prophet Muhammad playing musical instruments and reciting poetry.
The history of Johor from the late 1500s to the late 1600s is characterised by a series of succession struggles interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers to maintain its political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the
Acehnese of northern Sumatraand the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay statesand in particular the Dutch. In 1641 Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.
In the 18th century, the
Bugisof Sulawesiand the Minangkabauof Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was broken into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. This is when the history of modern Johor began. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, the control over the State was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area ( Muar), which was finally handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1866, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor(1864 - 1895) was the one who gave Johor its own constitution and developed its efficient administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. Due to these achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor". He is immortalized at the Sultan Abu Bakar Monument. The monument is built in the seafront directly opposite the courthouse.
The increased demand for
black pepperand gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchusystem was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrauestablished in 1844. The decline of the Kangchueconomy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahruand the Federated Malay Statesin 1909 and the emergence of rubberplantations throughout the state. Under the British Residentsystem, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palmproducer in Malaysia.
During World War II,
Johor Bahrubecame the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall under the Japanese. General Yamashita Tomoyukihad his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.
Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the
Malayan Unionplan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation ( UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasionalcoalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.
In the official census of 2000, the population of Johor was 2.75 million people with 54% Malays, 35% Chinese, 7% Indians and 4% others. It is the fifth largest state (18,984 km²) of
Malaysia. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysiabeing South of Melaka, Negeri Sembilanand Pahangand North of Singaporefrom which it is separated by the Straits of Johor. The highest point in Johor is Gunung (mountain) Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor is the only state in Malaysia which has a 400 km beach stretching on both the East and the West coast.
Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones.
Johor experiences wet equatorial weather with monsoon rain from Nov until Feb blowing from the
South China Sea. Average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperature of between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.
Hundred Year Peak Rain Fall
19 December 2006, continuously heavy downpour occurred in Johor. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggiand Segamatwere seriously flooded with water levels as high as convert|10|ft|m above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions were destroyed and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.
Links to Singapore
Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the
Johor-Singapore Causewayand the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link.
Johor-Singapore Causeway(length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. It started in 1909 as a railway link by Johor State Railway to connect Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. Construction of the road section started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.
The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a
bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25 m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway will have a swing bridge. The project is part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. [http://www.mca.org.my/story.asp?file=/articles/news/2003/8/4/17183.html&sec=In+The+News] It had been previously announced that the bridge project will go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge will become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepts the project. Construction work on the bridge has stopped, however, on the orders of the Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge's construction.
Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders,
Abdullah Badawias Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamadand Lee Hsien Loongin Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.
Some analysts have concluded that replacing the causeway with a bridge would allow a creation of a comprehensive port system linking Johor Port and Tanjung Pelepas Port in Johor; some go on to suggest that this presents a threat to Singapore's port activity, thus explaining the initial reluctance of Singapore to agree to the causeway replacement.
The second road connection, the
Malaysia-Singapore Second Link, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahimin Tuas, Singapore.
Geography and climate of Singapore.
ongs of Johor
The most famous song about Johor and Johor Bahru
Tambak Johor Tanjung Puteri
Selat Tebrau airnya biru
Di Pantai Lido tepian mandi
Sepanjang masa di hari minggu
Atas bukit Tanjung Puteri
Taman hiburan indah berseri
Pemandangan menawan hati
Jalan tambak hubungan negeri
Tanjung Sekijang nun di kuala
Tempat nelayan mengail gelama
Istana Hinggap di Kuala Danga
Pantai berkelah keluarga diRaja
Dari Tebrau orang berakit
Singgah Stulang membeli kopi
Pusara si Bongkok di lereng bukit
Di tepi pantai Tanjung Puteri
Dishes and cuisine in Johor are influenced by
Arabsand the surrounding Malay archipelago. Some of the dishes are a unique blend of ingredients not found anywhere in Malaysia. Sadly, due to their difficult and sometimes complicated recipes, some are rare delights that can only be sampled in celebrations and state banquets.
LaksaJohor" is a cuisine originated from Johor. It differs from Laksa Penang by having coconutmilk added during cooking. It also differs from other laksas by using spaghettiinstead of rice-based noodles.
*"Mee Bandung Muar" is also a dish originated from Johor, specifically from
Muar. The term 'bandung' is not derived from Bandung, Indonesiabut as a term for anything that is mixed from many ingredients.
*"Penganan Kacau keledek" is a dessert normally reserved for the Johor monarch and elites. It is made from sweet potatoes, a lot of eggs (at least 40), fresh coconut milk (not instant ones) and huge amounts of sugar. It is mixed together and stirred on a simmering heat for at least 4 hours.
*"Mee rebus" is the famous noodle dish which consists of "Mee" (a spaghetti like mixture of flour, salt and egg) and is served with a tangy, spicy brown sauce. Usually crumbs and boiled eggs are added.
*"Arisa" - A unique chicken dish that is very rare nowadays, and is normally served to the royalties and social elites of Johor at formal functions and celebrations.
Sate" - A favourite Malay food in Johor, mostly found in Johor Bahruand Muar.
*"Telur pindang" - Eggs boiled together with herbs and spices, popular during wedding feasts in Johor.
*"Roti Jala" or "Roti Kirai" - The name is derived from the Malay word 'roti' (bread) and 'jala' (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation is used to make the bread looks like a fish net (picture in the works). It is usually eaten spicy with
curryor sweet with 'serawa'. Serawa is made from a mixture of boiled coconut milk, brown sugar and pandan leaf.
*"Nasi Beriani Gam" - A
biryanirice dish originating from India with a cooking method very similar to Hyderabad biryani but with spicesadjusted to suit the Malay palate.
*"Ikan masak asam pedas" - A sour
stewof fish(usually mackerel), tamarind, chili, tomatoes, okraand Vietnamese coriander( _ms. daun kesum)
*"Pisang Salai" or "Gimpi"
*"Otak-otak" - The more famous is Otak-otak Gelang Patah.
*"Burasak" - It is a type of Buginese food.
*"Kerutup ikan "
There are a few Johorean dishes with Javanese influences. These include "
lontong", "nasi ambeng" and "bontrot" or "berkat" - both traditionally served after feasts like wedding ceremonies, Yasinan and others; and ungkep.
* [http://www.pmbj.gov.my Johor Chief Minister Office Official Website]
* [http://www.johordt.gov.my/medkom/ Johor Chief Minister Office Official Website, Media and Communication Unit(MedKom)]
* [http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/johor.htm History of the Johor Empire]
* [http://www.johorbahru.com.my Johor Bahru Community Online]
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