Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania


Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania
Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Albania
Kisha Ortodokse Autoqefale e Shqipërisë
Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania logo.gif
Coat of arms
Founder Apostle Paul, Theofan Stilian Noli[1]
Independence 17 September 1922[2]
Recognition Autocephaly recognised in 1937 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Primate Archbishop of Tirana, Durrës and All Albania Anastasios Yannoulatos
Headquarters Tirana, Albania
Territory Albania
Possessions
Language Albanian, other languages can be used in liturgy[3]
Adherents 700,000[4]
Website http://www.orthodoxalbania.org/

The Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Albania (Albanian: Kisha Ortodokse Autoqefale e Shqipërisë) is one of the newest autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. It declared its autocephaly in 1922, and gained recognition from the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1937.

The church suffered during the Second World War, and in the communist period that followed, especially after 1967 when Albania was declared an atheist state, and no public or private expression of religion was allowed.

The church has, however, seen a revival since religious freedom was restored in 1991, with more than 250 churches rebuilt or restored, and more than 100 clergy being ordained.

Contents

Administration and Holy Synod

The Holy Synod of Bishops was established in 1998, and is currently consisted of:[5]

History

Christianity first arrived in Albania with Saint Paul during the 1st century. Saint Paul wrote that he preached in the Roman province of Illyricum,[6] and legend holds that he visited Durrës.[7] However it was with Constantine the Great, who issued the Edict of Milan and legalized Christianity, that the Christian religion became official in the lands of modern Albania.[8]

Before the Ottoman conquest in 1478, the Ghegs in the north of the country were mostly Catholics following the Latin liturgy[citation needed], while the Byzantine tradition was predominant among the Tosk people in the south. Following the Turkish conquest in the 15th century, a slow conversion of Albanians to Islam started. By mid-19th century because of the Tanzimat reforms that had started in 1839 the majority of Albanians had become Muslim. The Tanzimat reform that mostly decreased the number of Christians in Albania was the obligatory draft for non-Muslim soldiers.

Under Ottoman rule, the remaining Eastern Orthodox population of Albania south of the Drin river was integrated into the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and all local Eastern Orthodox religious services, instruction and cultural activities were conducted in Greek. The territory north of the Drin was a part of the Serbian Church and had had Slavic liturgy.

Autocephaly and statutes

On March 18, 1908, as a result of the Hudson Incident, when a young Albanian, Kristaq Dishnica, was excommunicated for his patriotic activities, Fan Noli was ordained as a priest by a Russian bishop in the United States.[9][10][11] In March 1908 Noli thus led the first time in Albanian the Orthodox lithurgy for the Albanian-American community.

Noli had prepared his own translation of the liturgy into Albanian, and used it also during a tour several major cities of Europe in 1911. Soon after Albanian independence in 1912, Noli (who in 1924 would also be a political figure and prime minister of Albania), traveled to Albania where he would be ordained a bishop and become the head of the church.

The Church declared its autocephaly in Berat on September 17, 1922 at its first congress. At the end of the congress the First Statute of the Church was approved.[2]

The Church had a Second Statute that amended the First Statute in a second congress gathered in Korçë on June 29, 1929.[12] Also on September 6, 1929 the first Regulation of General Administration of the Church was approved.[13]

On November 26, 1950 the Parliament of Albania approved the Third Statute that abrogated the 1929 Statute. Such new statute required Albanian citizenship for the primate of the church in its article #4. With the exception of the amendments made in 1993, this statute is still in force for the Church.[14]

On January 21, 1993 the 1950 statute was amended and 1996 it was approved by the President of the Republic Sali Berisha. In particular article #4 of the 1950 statute that required Albanian citizenship for primate of the church was no longer required.


Archbishop of Tirana

The Primate of the Church is also Archbishop of Tirana. The current Archbishop of Tirana is Archbishop Anastasios of Albania.

Persecution

The church greatly suffered during the dictatorship of Enver Hoxha as all churches were placed under government control, and land originally held by religious institutions were taken by the state. Religion in schools was banned. In 1952 Archbishop Kristofor was discovered dead; most believed he had been killed.

In 1967, inspired by China's Cultural Revolution, Hoxha closed down all churches and mosques in the country, and declared Albania the world's first (and only) atheist country. All expression of religion, public or private, was outlawed. Hundreds of priests and imams were killed or imprisoned.[15]

Revival of the Church

Seats of the Albanian Orthodox Bishops

At the end of the communist rule, when religious freedom was restored, only 22 orthodox priests remained alive. To deal with this situation, the Ecumenical Patriarch appointed Anastasios to be the Patriarchal Exarch for the Albanian Church. Bishop of Androusa Anastasios before his appointment was dividing his time between his teaching duties at the University of Athens and the Archbishopric of Irinoupolis in Kenya, which was then going through a difficult patch.

He was named Archbishop of Tirana on 24 June 1992 and enthroned on 2 August 1992. Albanian nationalists groups were opposed to the appointment of a Greek primate, calling Anastasios "the Trojan horse of Hellenism in Albania".[16] The Albanian government accepted him only on a provisional basis, until a suitable Albanian ethnic replacement could be found.[17] Over time Anastasios has gained respect for his charity work and now is recognized as a spiritual leader of the Albanian Orthodox Church.

While most parishes use Albanian language, Greek is also used in the ethnically mixed areas, where Greek is also spoken. The Albanian Orthodox liturgy is the only one in the world to use Modern Greek rather than Koine of the New Testament.

Clergy

As of February 2008, there are 135 clergy members, all of them Albanian citizens who graduated from the Resurrection of Christ Theological Academy, while 9 other students are continuing their education in theological universities abroad.[18]

So far, 150 new churches have been built, 60 monasteries and more than 160 churches have been repaired.[19]

Theological education

Anastasios started a seminary in 1992 initially in a disused hotel, which was in 1996 relocated to its own buildings at Shën Vlash, 15 kilometres from the port of Durrës. The primary purpose of the seminary was training of the new clergy. Women, who will serve the Church as lay leaders, also receive theological training there.

Two Ecclesiastical High Schools for boys were opened - the "Holy Cross" in Gjirokastër in 1998, and the "Holy Cross" in Sukth of Durrës in 2007.

Media and publishing

The Orthodox Church of Albania has its own radio station, named "Ngjallja" (Resurrection) which 24 hours a day broadcasts spiritual, musical, informative and educational programmes and lectures, and has a special children's programme.[20]

A monthly newspaper with the same name "Ngjallja" is published, as well as a children's magazine "Gëzohu" (Rejoice), the magazine of the Orthodox Youth "Kambanat" (Bells), the student bulletin "Fjala" (Word), the news bulletin "News from Orthodoxy in Albania" (published in English) and "Tempulli" (Temple) magazine, that contains cultural, social and spiritual materials.

As of February 2008, more than 90 books with liturgical, spiritual, intellectual, academic topics have been published.[21]

Social activities

The Orthodox Church in Albania has taken various social initiatives. It started with health care, by organizing medical clinics, diagnostic centres, mobile dental clinic. Then programmes for people with disabilities, development in the mountain regions, orphanages, working with prisoners and homeless people, as well as free kitchens and help.[20]

Apart from the theological schools, it has established elementary schools, day-care centres and an institute for professional training (named "Spirit of Love", established in Tiranë in 2000) which is said to be the first of its kind in Albania and provides education in the fields of Team Management, IT Accounting, Computer Science, Medical Laboratory, Restoration and Conservation of Artwork and Byzantine Iconography.[20]

An environmental programme was started in 2001.[20]

Demographics

Although Islam is the dominant religion in Albania, in the southern regions, Orthodox Christianity was traditionally the prevailing religion before the declaration of Albanian independence (1913). However, their number decreased over the following years:[22]

Year Orthodox Christians Muslims
1908 128,000 95,000
1923 114,000 109,000
1927 112,000 114,000

Moreover there is a widespread belief that the Orthodox faith is linked with conspiracy theories in which the identification with Greek expansionist plans would classify them as potential enemies of the state.[23] Today, in parts of Albania, the term Greek is used as a pejorative for Orthodox Albanian speaking communities.[24]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ The Christianisation of Albania was apostolic, since Apostle Paul visited the territories of modern Albania. Theofan Noli is the founder of the autocephal church.
  2. ^ a b http://shqiptarortodoks.com/tekste/legjislacioni/statuti_1923.pdf
  3. ^ The statute of the Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Albania
  4. ^ CNEWA - Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Albania
  5. ^ The Holy Synod of Albania, Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania, accessed on 2008-06-16
  6. ^ "Paul, St" Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  7. ^ Raymond Zickel and Walter R. Iwaskiw, editors. (1994). ""The Ancient Illyrians," Albania: A Country Study". [1]. http://countrystudies.us/albania/14.htm. Retrieved 9 April 2008. 
  8. ^ http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_albaniaancient.htm
  9. ^ "The 90th Anniversary Historical Trilogy by Denise Lymperis". Saint George Cathedral. http://www.saintgeorgecathedral.com/history.html. 
  10. ^ "Orthodox Christians in North America 1794 - 1994". Orthodox Church of America. http://www.oca.org/MVorthchristiansnamerica.asp?SID=1&Chap=CH4. 
  11. ^ Tarasar, Constance J. (1975). Orthodox America, 1794-1976: development of the Orthodox Church in America. Bavarian State Library. p. 309. http://books.google.com/books?id=-ftCAAAAIAAJ&q=kristaq+dishnica+boston&dq=kristaq+dishnica+boston&hl=en&ei=T6oWTMjoNJGNnQez-uihCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6wEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-14. 
  12. ^ http://shqiptarortodoks.com/tekste/legjislacioni/statuti_1929.pdf
  13. ^ http://shqiptarortodoks.com/tekste/legjislacioni/Rregullorja_1929.pdf
  14. ^ http://shqiptarortodoks.com/tekste/legjislacioni/statuti_1950.pdf
  15. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_atheism#Albania
  16. ^ Albanien: Geographie - historische Anthropologie - Geschichte - Kultur ... By Peter Jordan, Karl Kaser, Walter Lukan, Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers, Holm Sundhaussen page 302 [2]
  17. ^ Political parties of Eastern Europe: a guide to politics in the post ... By Janusz Bugajski page 683 [3]
  18. ^ Official site, "Ordination of New Clergy"
  19. ^ Romfea news
  20. ^ a b c d Forest, Jim The Resurrection of the Church in Albania, World Council of Churches Publication, August 2002, ISBN 2-8254-1359-3
  21. ^ [ Official Site - Publication]
  22. ^ Nußberger Angelika, Wolfgang Stoppel (2001) (in German), Minderheitenschutz im östlichen Europa (Albanien), Universität Köln, pp. 75, http://www.uni-koeln.de/jur-fak/ostrecht/minderheitenschutz/Vortraege/Albanien/Albanien_Stoppel.pdf, "p. 14" 
  23. ^ Todorova Marii︠a︡ Nikolaeva. Balkan identities: nation and memory. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2004 ISBN 9781850657156, p. 107
  24. ^ Russell King, Nicola Mai, Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers (Ed.) (2005). The New Albanian Migration. Sussex Academic Press. p. 173. ISBN 9781903900789. http://books.google.com/books?id=05Mw4-b9oN0C&hl. 
  25. ^ > Official Site - Photos

External links


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