Infobox Ethnic group
poptime= est. 80,000
rels=Byzantine Catholic, Latin-rite Catholic minority
langs="Arbëresh", Italian, Calabrian, Sicilian
Arbëreshë are an ethnic community living in
Italy, especially the regions of Calabriaand Sicily. The Arbëreshë have their own distinct culture, villages and even language, they have been able to have keep their own identity over the centuries. The Arbëreshë are descendants of the original Albanians from Morea.Today they are mostly Byzantine Catholics belonging to the Italo-Greek Catholic Churchin full communion with the Pope, with a Roman Catholicminority. [www.comunesantacristinagela.pa.it/]
During the 15th and 16th centuries,
Albaniawas being rapidy changed by Ottoman invaders who were forcing the Christian natives to convert to Islamor pay tollage. The people struggled against this with Skanderbegas their hero and the support of the fellow Christian Europeans, but eventually lost their homeland Albania. Some managed to escape and were offered refuge from the repression by the Kingdom of Naplesand Kingdom of Sicily(both under Aragonese rule), where the Arbëreshë were given their own villages and protected.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, their language has been influenced more by the Italian than have other Albanian dialects. The emigrations from Albania to Italy and Sicily have continued since the 15th century. Because of the language similarities, the Italian Government has housed significant numbers of Albanians from
Kosovoin the Arbëresh settlements, most notably in Piana degli Albanesiin Sicily.
Prior to the Ottoman invasion of
Albania, the native people in the area of Albaniawere all called Arbëreshë. After some were forced out of their homeland to Italy, these Italian-born Albanians continued to use the term Arbëresh whilst those in Albania called themselves Shqiptarë (compare the Albanian word "Shqip", present in the local name for the country and the language).
The Arbëreshë originally lived in
Moreaand in the Pindus mountains. They are descended from the proto-Albanian population dispersed throughout the western Balkans(see Arvanites). Between the 11th and 14th Centuries, the Arbëresh tribes moved in small groups towards the South of Greece ( Thessaly, Corinth, Peloponnesus, Attica) where they founded colonies. Their military skill made them favourite mercenaries of the Serbs, Franks, Catalans, Italiansand Byzantines.
The invasion of Greece by the Ottoman Turks in the 15th Century forced many Arbëreshë to emigrate to the south of Italy. Indeed, in 1448, King
Alfonso V of Aragon, known as Magnanime (1396-1458), King of Naples, wanting to repress a rebellion of Italian lords, called on his ally, Gjergj Kastrioti i Krujës, known as " Skanderbeg", head of the Albanian Alliance. Several clans of Arbëreshë and Albanians were deployed to subdue the rebellion. Alfonso of Aragon rewarded them by giving them land in the province of Catanzaro. (see Stradioti)
In 1450, another force of Arbëresh intervened in
Sicilyand was established close to Palermo. Thus, the Arbëreshë contributed to the creation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
At the time of the War of succession of Naples, Ferdinand of Aragon again called on Arbëresh forces against the Franco-Italian armies, and Skanderbeg disembarked in 1461 in
Brindisi. After having achieved success, the Arbëresh accepted land in Puglia, while Skanderbeg returned to organize Albanian resistance to the Turks, who had invaded Albania between 1468 and 1492. Part of the Arbëresh population emigrated to southern Italy, where the Kingdom of Naples granted other villages to them (Puglia, Molise, Calabriaand Sicily).
A further wave of emigration, between 1500 and 1534, relates to Arbëreshë from central Greece. Employed as mercenaries by
Venice, they had to evacuate the colonies of the Peloponnese with the assistance of the troops of Charles V, as the Turks had invaded that region.Fact|date=June 2007 Charles V established these troops in Italy of the South to reinforce defense again the threat of Turkish invasion. Established in insular villages (which enabled them to maintain their culture until the 20th Century), Arbëreshë were, traditionally, soldiers for the Kingdom of Naples and the Republic of Venice, from the Wars of Religion to the Napoleonic invasion.
The final wave of Arbëreshë was in the 18th century with a group of Himariots (from the village of
Himarënear Sarandëin southern Albania. These Himariots were fleeing a massacre instigated by Ali Pasha Tepelenë, who slaughtered 6000 Christian Albanians for refusing to convert to Islam. These refugees settled in Hora e Arbëreshëvet Piana degli Albanesiand subsequently founded the village of Sëndahstina Santa Cristina Gela.
The wave of migration from southern Italy to the
Americasin 1900-10 depopulated approximately half of the Arbëreshë villages, and subjected the population to the risk of cultural disappearance, despite the beginning of a cultural and artistic revival in the 19th Century.
Since the end of communism in Albania there has been a wave of immigration into Arbëreshë villages by
Kosovars and ShqiptarAlbanians. Many differences are apparent between the new immigrants and the old diaspora in these villages, but there is still a sense of familiarity between them, who refer to each other as "Jemi të gjithë Kushërinj edhe Gjaku jin i shprishur, ma na jemi arbëreshët e ata janë shkjiptarët". (we are all cousins and our blood is scattered, but we are the arbëreshë and they are the shqiptarë)Fact|date=June 2007
The main streets of many Arbëresh villages are named "Via Giorgio Castriota" after
The Arbëresh villages have two or three names, an Italian one as well as one or two native Arbëresh names by which villagers know the place. The Arbëresh villages are divided into small "islands" in the areas of the south of Italy:
Province of Pescara
Villa Badessa( frazioneof Rosciano): "Badhesa"
Province of Potenza
Barile: "Barilli" or "Barili"
Maschito: "Mashqiti" or "Mashkjiti"
San Costantino Albanese: "Shën Kostandini" or "Shen Kostandini"
San Paolo Albanese: "Shën Pali" or "Shen Pali"
Province of Catanzaro
Caraffa di Catanzaro: "Garrafa" or "Garafa"
Vena di Maida(frazione of Maida): "Vina"
Zangarona(frazione of Lamezia Terme): "Xingarona"
Province of Cosenza
Farneta(frazione of Castroregio): "Farneta"
Cavallerizzo(in the commune of Cerzeto): "Kejverici" or "Kajverici"
San Giacomo di Cerzeto(in the commune of Cerzeto): "Sënd Japku" or "Shën Japku"
Falconara Albanese: "Fullkunara"
Eianina(frazione of Frascineto): "Ejanina"
Lungro: "Ungra" or "Ungir"
Plataci: "Pllatëni" or "Pllatani"
San Basile: "Shën Vasili"
San Benedetto Ullano: "Shën Benedhiti"
****Marri (frazione of San Benedetto Ullano): "Allimarri"
San Cosmo Albanese"Strigari"
San Demetrio Corone: "Shën Mitri"
Macchia Albanese(frazione of San Demetrio Corone): "Maqi"
San Giorgio Albanese: "Mbuzati"
San Martino di Finita: "Shën Mërtiri" or "Shën Murtiri"
Santa Caterina Albanese: "Picilia"
Santa Sofia d'Epiro: "Shën Sofia"
Spezzano Albanese: "Spixana"
Vaccarizzo Albanese: "Vakarici"
Province of Crotone
San Nicola dell'Alto(formerly San Nicola dell' Viola): "Shën Kolli"
Pallagorio: "Puheriu" or "Puhëriu"
Carfizzi: "Karfici" or "Karfici"
Province of Avellino
Province of Campobasso
Campomarino: "Këmarini" or "Kemarini"
Montecilfone: "Munxhufuni" or "Munçifuni"
Portocannone: "Porkanuni" or "Portkanùn"
Ururi: "Ruri" or "Rùri"
Province of Foggia
Casalvecchio di Puglia: "Kazallveqi"
Chieuti: "Qefti" or "Kjéuti"
Province of Taranto
San Marzano di San Giuseppe: "San Marcani" or "Shen Marzani"
Province of Palermo
Contessa Entellina: "Kundisa"
Piana degli Albanesi: "Hora e Arbëreshëvet" or "Hora Sheshi Oána"
Mezzojuso(also, Mezzoiuso): "Munxhifsi"
Palazzo Adriano: "Pallaci"
Santa Cristina Gela: "Sëndastina" or "Shendestina"
"Albanese" or "Albanesi" which occurs in several of the Italian names above is the Italian language word for "Albanian" or "Albanians", respectively. ("Albanese" is also a common surname among the Arbëresh and their overseas descendants.)
The language of the Arbëreshë is called Arbëresh. There is no official political, administrative or cultural structure which represents the Arbëresh community. Arbërësh is not one of the group of minority languages that enjoy the special protection of the State under Article 6 of the Italian Constitution. At the regional level, however, Albanian is accorded some degree of official recognition in the autonomy statutes of Calabria, Basilicata, and Molise. In the case of Calabria, the region is to provide for recognition of the historical culture and artistic heritage of the populations of Albanian origin and to promote the teaching of the two languages in the places where they are spoken. Article 5 of the autonomy statute of Basilicata lays down that the regional authorities "shall promote renewed appreciation of the originality of the linguistic and cultural heritage of the local communities". Finally, the autonomy statute of the Molise region stipulates that the region "shall be the guardian of the linguistic and historical heritage and of the popular traditions of the ethnic communities existing in its territory and, by agreement with the interested municipalities, shall promote renewed appreciation of them". In certain communes the local authorities support cultural and linguistic activities promoted by the ethnic Albanian communities and have agreed to the erection of bilingual road signs [http://www.uoc.es/euromosaic/web/document/albanes/an/i1/i1.html] . There are associations that try to protect the culture, particularly in the Province of Cosenza. The Arbëresh language is used in some private radios and publications. The fundamental laws of the areas of Molise, Basilicata and Calabria make reference to the Arbëresh language and culture, but the Arbëresh people still feel that their culture is threatened. Nevertheless, the increase in training in the use of the written language has given some hope for the continuity of this culture. It is important to note that the Arbëresh dialect is not a regional "dialect" of Italian, it is a "dialect" of Albanian ("shqip") with Italian and Greek influences.
The Arbëresh language is of particular interest to students of the modern Albanian language as it represents the sounds, grammar, and vocabulary of pre-Ottoman Albania. In fact, Arbërisht was the name of the Albanian language used "in" Albania prior to the Turkish invasion in the 16th century; as was the region itself called Arbëria.
Shqiptar(Albanian) listening to or reading Arbërisht is similar to a modern English speaker listening to or reading ShakespeareanEnglish.
The Italian linguist
Mario Peireported in " The Story of Language" that while a young man in Italy he had once boasted to a stranger that he knew and understood every Italian dialect. The stranger challenged Pei to understand the dialect of his own Italian village; Pei accepted, and understood absolutely nothing of what was said. The speaker proved to be an Arbëresh speaker, and enlightened Pei on the existence of Arbëresh.
* StrangujëtA form of
Gnocchicalled Strangujtë made with flour by hand, flavoured with tomato sauce (lënk) and Basil. Traditionally this dish was consumed by families seated around a floor level table of wood (zbrilla) on the 14th September, the 'Festa e Kryqit Shejt' (exaltation of the Cross).
* GrurëtBoiled wheat dish flavored with olive oil, known as
cuccìain the Sicilian language. The tradition is to eat it on Festa e Shën Luçiës. Variations are the use of sweetened milk or ricottawith flakes of chocolate, orange peel and almonds.
Cannoli, the universally famous Pianotto sweet dish. Its culinary secret is waffle (shkorça) of flour, wine, lard and salt and filled with sweetened ricotta, and lastly sprinkled with sieved chocolate.
* BukëArbëresh bread (bukë) is prepared with local hard grain flour and manufactured to a round and mostly leavened shape with natural methods. It is cooked in antique firewood furnaces (
Tandoor). It is eaten warm flavored with olive oil (vaj i ullirit) and dusted with cheese or with fresh ricotta.
* Panarët Arbëresh Easter bread shaped either into a circle or into two large braids and sprinkled with sesame seeds. It is adorned with red Easter eggs. The Easter eggs are dyed deep red to represent the blood of Christ, the eggs also represent new life and springtime. It is traditionally eaten during the Resurrection Meal. After 40 days of fasting - as per the
Byzantine Catholictradition- the Easter feast has to begin slowly, with a light meal after the midnight liturgy on Saturday night. The fast is generally broken with Panarët.
* Loshkat and Petullat Sweetened spherical or crushed shaped fried leavened dough. Eaten on the eve of E Mart e Madh Carnival.
* Të plotitA sweet cake in various shaped with
figmarmellade filling, one of the oldest Arbëresh dishes.
* Milanisë Traditionally eaten on the Festa e Shën Zefit and Good Friday, is a pasta dish made with a sauce (lënk) of wild
Fennelpaste, Sardines and pine nuts.
* Udhose and GjizëHomemade cheese and ricotta normally dried outdoors.
LikëngëPork sausages flavored with salt, pepper and seed of Fennel (farë mbrai).
* Llapsana Forest Brussel sprout (llapsana) fried with garlic and oil.
* DorëzëtVery thin home-made semolina spaghetti, cooked in milk and eaten on Ascension Day.
* GroshëtSoup made of
Favabeans, chickpeas and Haricotbeans.
* Verdhët During Easter a kind of pie is prepared with eggs, lamb, ricotta, sheep cheese and(previously boiled) leaf stalks of
Scolymus hispanicus; in some villages, the young aerial parts of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare spp . pipentum) are used instead.
*Documentary in Italian on Epiphany in the village of Piana degli Albanesi: [http://www.youtube.com/v/yHN968bPseA Part 1] , [http://www.youtube.com/v/oxlrjUGxqOY Part 2] , [http://www.youtube.com/v/CrJwx8Zd_go Part 3]
Despotate of Epirus
Despotate of Morea
* [http://www.jemi.it/ www.jemi.it] : Jemi - which in Arbëresh means "we are" - is the biggest Arbëresh community on the web. Jemi contains video, audio and photo documents. Jemi is managed by the
Eparchy of Lungro. ites (English)
* http://www.eparchiapiana.it/ the official site of the Arbëresh Byzantine Church, based in Piana degli Albanesi, has 3 short videos about the Epiphany festival in the village.
* [http://www.arbereshe.it/ Centro Studi Genealogia Arbëreshe] — a genealogical site focused on the Arbëreshë in
* [http://www.mondoarberesco.it Mondo Arberesco]
* [http://www.pianalbanesi.it Piana degli Albanesi]
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